The Social Construction of Reality

A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge

Author: Peter L. Berger,Thomas Luckmann

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141931639

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 8367

A general and systematic account of the role of knowledge in society aimed to stimulate both critical discussion and empirical investigations. This book is concerned with the sociology of ‘everything that passes for knowledge in society’. It focuses particularly on that ‘common-sense knowledge’ which constitutes the reality of everyday life for the ordinary member of society. The authors are concerned to present an analysis of knowledge in everyday life in the context of a theory of society as a dialectical process between objective and subjective reality. Their development of a theory of institutions, legitimations and socializations has implications beyond the discipline of sociology, and their ‘humanistic’ approach has considerable relevance for other social scientists, historians, philosophers and anthropologists.
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Operational Research and the Social Sciences

Author: S.A. Cropper,Michael C. Jackson,Paul Keys

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461307899

Category: Psychology

Page: 723

View: 574

Twenty five years ago, in 1964, The Operational Research Society's first International Conference (held at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge) took as its theme "Operational Research and the Social Sciences". The Conference sessions were organised around topics such as: Organisations and Control; Social Effects of Policies; Conflict Resolution; The Systems Concept; Models, Decisions and Operational Research. An examination of the published proceedings (J.R.Lawrence ed., 1966, Operational Research and the Social Sciences, Tavistock, London) reveals a distinct contrast between the types of contribution made by the representatives of the two academic communities involved. Nevertheless, the Conference served to break down some barriers, largely of ignorance about the objects, methods and findings of each concern. In the ensuing twenty five years, although debate has continued about the relationship between OR and the social sciences, mutual understanding has proved more difficult to achieve than many must have hoped for in 1964.
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The Knowledge Society

The Growing Impact of Scientific Knowledge on Social Relations

Author: Gernot Böhme,Nico Stehr

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400947240

Category: History

Page: 209

View: 5189

The original essays collected here under the general title of The Knowledge Society were first commissioned for a conference held in the late fall of 1984 at the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, West Germany. The conference in Darmstadt saw a larger number of contribu tions presented than could be accommodated in this edition of the Sociol ogy of the Sciences Yearbook. However, all contributions were important and affected those published in this collection. We are therefore grateful to all participants of the Darmstadt conference for their presentations and for their intense, useful as well as thoughtful discussion of all papers. Those chosen for publication in the Yearbook and those undoubtedly to be published elsewhere have all benefitted considerably from our discussions in Darmstadt which also included a number of the members of the edito rial board of the Yearbook. In addition, we are pleased that the authors were able to read and comment further on each other's papers prior to publication. As is the case in every endeavor of this kind, we have incurred many debts and are only able to acknowledge these at this point publicly while expressing our sincere thanks and appreciation for all the intellectual sup port and the considerable labor invested by a number of persons in the realization of the collection.
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Sociology in Perspective

Author: Mark Kirby

Publisher: Heinemann

ISBN: 9780435331603

Category: Sociology

Page: 831

View: 2871

This text, specifically for AQA specifications, is designed to be easy and encouraging for students to use. The book contains updated material and activities together with a new chapter on study skills. It also indicates clearly where activities meet the new evidence requirements for key skills.
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Peter L. Berger

Author: Michaela Pfadenhauer

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783867642699

Category: Knowledge, Sociology of

Page: 136

View: 4536

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Self-Reinforcing Processes in and among Organizations

Author: J. Sydow,G. Schreyögg

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230392830

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 266

View: 2139

Management and organization research has rediscovered individual agency, innovation and entrepreneurship. As such, there is a risk of overlooking the power of self-reinforcing processes in and among organizations. This volume redirects attention to these processes, including: escalating commitment, organizational imprinting and path dependence.
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Mapping the Sociology of Health and Medicine

America, Britain and Australia Compared

Author: F. Collyer

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137009314

Category: Social Science

Page: 325

View: 9045

This book studies the sociology of health and medicine across three different countries, the USA, UK and Australia, examining the nature of disciplines and their specialties and posing sociological questions about the formation of intellectual fields and their social relations.
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Small Firms and Innovation Policy in Japan

Author: Cornelia Storz

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134207514

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 208

View: 8318

This new book discusses the extent to which the Japanese economy encourages entrepreneurship and innovation. Although Japan has a strong reputation as an innovator, some people argue that this reputation is misplaced. Contrary to earlier expectations, the USA rather than Japan emerged as the leader in the biotech industries in the 1990s, and also many small firms in Japan supply only a few – or just one – other company, thereby limiting their view of the marketplace and the commercial opportunities within it. Despite the increase of international patents, international scientific citations and a positive technology trade balance, the Japanese innovation system is weak in giving birth to radical innovations. The book explores fully these issues, making comparisons with other countries where appropriate. It concludes that the Japanese innovation system has both advantages and disadvantages and contributes to a better understanding of how policy changes take place.
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Mathematical Enculturation

A Cultural Perspective on Mathematics Education

Author: Alan Bishop

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940092657X

Category: Education

Page: 196

View: 7717

Mathematics is in the unenviable position of being simultaneously one of the most important school subjects for today's children to study and one of the least well understood. Its reputation is awe-inspiring. Everybody knows how important it is and everybody knows that they have to study it. But few people feel comfortable with it; so much so that it is socially quite acceptable in many countries to confess ignorance about it, to brag about one's incompe tence at doing it, and even to claim that one is mathophobic! So are teachers around the world being apparently legal sadists by inflicting mental pain on their charges? Or is it that their pupils are all masochists, enjoying the thrill of self-inflicted mental torture? More seriously, do we really know what the reasons are for the mathematical activity which goes on in schools? Do we really have confidence in our criteria for judging what's important and what isn't? Do we really know what we should be doing? These basic questions become even more important when considered in the context of two growing problem areas. The first is a concern felt in many countries about the direction which mathematics education should take in the face of the increasing presence of computers and calculator-related technol ogy in society.
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Evaluation in Planning

Facing the Challenge of Complexity

Author: Nathaniel Lichfield,Angela Barbanente,Dino Borri,Abdul Khakee,Anna Prat

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401714959

Category: Social Science

Page: 384

View: 9429

This book is the result of a three day workshop on "Evaluation in theory and practice in spatial planning" held in Ramsey Hall, University College London, in September 1996. Some 30 people from 8 different countries attended and 20 papers were presented. The majority of them now form the basis for this book. This occasion was the third on the topic, the two preceding having taken place in Umea in June 1992 and in Bari in 1994. Following these three meetings, we can now say that this small, industrious, international family really enjoy meeting up from time to time at each others places, in the presence of older members and new children, each one presenting his/her own recent experiences. It particularly enjoys exchanging views and arguing about the current state and the future of evaluation in spatial planning (all families have their vices ... ). It is also pleasing to see these experiences and discussions resulting in a book for those who could not attend and for the broader clan in the field. Not long time ago, but ages in the accelerated academic time scale, evaluation in planning established its own role and distinct features as an instrument for helping the decision-making process. Now this role and these features are exposed to major challenges. First, the evolution of planning theory has lead to the conception of new planning paradigms, based on theories of complexity and communicative rationality.
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Understanding Human Resource Development

A Research-based Approach

Author: Jim McGoldrick,Jim Stewart,Sandra Watson

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134589433

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 432

View: 4317

This edited volume contains original chapters by some of the leading researchers and writers in HRD. It provides a definitive work on the design and conduct of research in HRD and identifies and examines the possibilities and limitations of particular methods and techniques. Emerging debates on the purpose, nature and practice and theoretical base of HRD are examined. Each chapter is structured with: * Statement of aims * Description of theoretical and empirical context^ * Identification and examination of methodological issues * Description and evaluation of research design * Critical analysis and evaluation * Key learning points
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Occupational Therapies without Borders - Volume 2 E-Book

Towards an ecology of occupation-based practices

Author: Frank Kronenberg,Nick Pollard,Dikaios Sakellariou

Publisher: Elsevier Health Sciences

ISBN: 0702049115

Category: Medical

Page: 432

View: 8996

The companion text to Occupational Therapy without Borders - Volume 1: learning from the spirit of survivors! In this landmark text writers from around the world discuss a plurality of occupation-based approaches that explicitly acknowledge the full potential of the art and science of occupational therapy. The profession is presented as a political possibilities-based practice, concerned with what matters most to people in real life contexts, generating practice-based evidence to complement evidence-based practice. As these writers demonstrate, occupational therapies are far more than, as some critical views have suggested, a monoculture of practice rooted in Western modernity. Nobel Peace Laureate Desmond Tutu captures the ethos of this book, which essentially calls for engagements in the service of a purpose that is larger than the advancement of our profession's interests: "Your particular approach to advancing our wellbeing and health strikes me as both unique and easily taken for granted. Whilst you value and work with medical understandings, your main aim seems to go beyond these. You seem to enable people to appreciate more consciously how what we do to and with ourselves and others on a daily basis impacts on our individual and collective wellbeing. As occupational therapists you have a significant contribution to make [.] allowing people from all walks of life to contribute meaningfully to the wellbeing of others." Links philosophy with practical examples of engaging people in ordinary occupations of daily life as a means of enabling them to transform their own lives Includes contributions from worldwide leaders in occupational therapy research and practice Describes concrete initiatives in under-served and neglected populations Looks at social and political mechanisms that influence people’s access to useful and meaningful occupation Chapters increase diversity of contributions – geographically, culturally and politically Emphasis on practice, education and research maintains academic credibility A glossary and practical examples in nearly every chapter make text more accessible to students
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Boy Racer Culture

Youth, Masculinity and Deviance

Author: Karen Lumsden

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113618435X

Category: Social Science

Page: 198

View: 3263

On the public roads boy racers are a foreboding presence, viewed with suspicion and derision by the ‘respectable’ motorist. The problem of the young (male) driver is one which has plagued authorities and governments due to youths’ acclaimed propensity to engage in deviant and dangerous driving behaviours. Boy Racer Culture sheds light on the boy racer phenomenon through ethnographic research with the notorious ‘Bouley Basher’ culture in the city of Aberdeen, Scotland, and the moral panic on the part of outside groups including the local community, police, politicians and media. This book examines the creation of masculine and feminine identities in a traditionally male-dominated subculture through car-related rituals such as ‘modding’, subcultural media and events, and the quest for celebrity status via public performances. Boy Racer Culture challenges common misconceptions surrounding the boy racer, the ‘problematic’ young (male) motorist and the car modifier. It will be essential reading for an international audience including sociologists and criminologists, particularly those with an interest in youth culture, subcultures, moral panics, car culture, anti-social behaviour, and the governance and policing of the roads.
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Organized Worlds

Explorations in Technology and Organization with Robert Cooper

Author: Robert Chia

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134797680

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 5698

Organized Worlds locates the study of organization within the wider area of social theory. It explores in detail the intricate relationships that exist between technology, representation and organization. The collection includes a chapter from the leading expert in the field, Robert Cooper, as well as an interview with him. Other contributors build upon and extend the findings of Cooper. This is a companion volume to In the Realm of Organization.
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Islam Through Western Eyes

From the Crusades to the War on Terrorism

Author: Jonathan Lyons

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231528140

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 8209

Despite the West's growing involvement in Muslim societies, conflicts, and cultures, its inability to understand or analyze the Islamic world threatens any prospect for East–West rapprochement. Impelled by one thousand years of anti-Muslim ideas and images, the West has failed to engage in any meaningful or productive way with the world of Islam. Formulated in the medieval halls of the Roman Curia and courts of the European Crusaders and perfected in the newsrooms of Fox News and CNN, this anti-Islamic discourse determines what can and cannot be said about Muslims and their religion, trapping the West in a dangerous, dead-end politics that it cannot afford. In Islam Through Western Eyes, Jonathan Lyons unpacks Western habits of thinking and writing about Islam, conducting a careful analysis of the West's grand totalizing narrative across one thousand years of history. He observes the discourse's corrosive effects on the social sciences, including sociology, politics, philosophy, theology, international relations, security studies, and human rights scholarship. He follows its influence on research, speeches, political strategy, and government policy, preventing the West from responding effectively to its most significant twenty-first-century challenges: the rise of Islamic power, the emergence of religious violence, and the growing tension between established social values and multicultural rights among Muslim immigrant populations. Through the intellectual "archaeology" of Michel Foucault, Lyons reveals the workings of this discourse and its underlying impact on our social, intellectual, and political lives. He then addresses issues of deep concern to Western readers—Islam and modernity, Islam and violence, and Islam and women—and proposes new ways of thinking about the Western relationship to the Islamic world.
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Phänomenologie und Soziologie

Theoretische Positionen, aktuelle Problemfelder und empirische Umsetzungen

Author: Jürgen Raab,Michaela Pfadenhauer,Peter Stegmaier,Jochen Dreher,Bernt Schnettler

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 9783531154282

Category: Social Science

Page: 415

View: 6149

Der Band erörtert die Bedeutung der Phänomenologie für die Soziologie. Die 35 Autorinnen und Autoren erkunden und diskutieren die Anregungen, Chancen und Erträge phänomenologischen Denkens für die Sozialtheorie ebenso wie für die empirische Sozialforschung. Hierzu werden in dem Band Beiträge zu soziologischen Begriffs- und Theorieproblemen, zu methodisch-methodologischen Aspekten und zu aktuellen Gegenwartsfragen versammelt. Diese vermitteln nicht nur einen umfassenden Überblick über den augenblicklichen Stand einer in der Soziologie in jüngster Zeit wieder verstärkt geführten Auseinandersetzung mit der Phänomenologie, sondern sie beziehen auch pointiert Stellung innerhalb dieser Debatte. Denn bei aller Unterschiedlichkeit der Fragestellungen und Herangehensweisen eint die Autorinnen und Autoren die Einsicht in die konstitutive Bedeutung der Subjektivität für aktuelle soziologische Frage- und Problemstellungen
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McQuail's Reader in Mass Communication Theory

Author: Denis McQuail

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761972433

Category: Social Science

Page: 427

View: 5108

McQuail's Reader in Mass Communication Theory provides an invaluable resource of key statements drawn from communication studies, media sociology, and cultural studies, and includes an overview essay and section introductions which place the readings in their theoretical and methodological context. Designed as a companion to McQuail's Mass Communication Theory, it can also function independently of that text. provides an invaluable resource of key statements drawn from communication studies, media sociology, and cultural studies, and includes an overview essay and section introductions which place the readings in their theoretical and methodological context. Designed as a companion to , it can also function independently of that text.
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The Oxford Handbook of Political Leadership

Author: R. A. W. Rhodes,Paul 't Hart

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191645869

Category: Political Science

Page: 800

View: 9113

Political leadership has made a comeback. It was studied intensively not only by political scientists but also by political sociologists and psychologists, Sovietologists, political anthropologists, and by scholars in comparative and development studies from the 1940s to the 1970s. Thereafter, the field lost its way with the rise of structuralism, neo-institutionalism, and rational choice approaches to the study of politics, government, and governance. Recently, however, students of politics have returned to studying the role of individual leaders and the exercise of leadership to explain political outcomes. The list of topics is nigh endless: elections, conflict management, public policy, government popularity, development, governance networks, and regional integration. In the media age, leaders are presented and stage-managed—spun—as the solution to almost every social problem. Through the mass media and the Internet, citizens and professional observers follow the rise, impact, and fall of senior political officeholders at closer quarters than ever before. This Handbook encapsulates the resurgence by asking, where are we today? It orders the multidisciplinary field by identifying the distinct and distinctive contributions of the disciplines. It meets the urgent need to take stock. It brings together scholars from around the world, encouraging a comparative perspective, to provide a comprehensive coverage of all the major disciplines, methods, and regions. It showcases both the normative and empirical traditions in political leadership studies, and juxtaposes behavioural, institutional, and interpretive approaches. It covers formal, office-based as well as informal, emergent political leadership, and in both democratic and undemocratic polities.
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