The Search for a Methodology of Social Science

Durkheim, Weber, and the Nineteenth-Century Problem of Cause, Probability, and Action

Author: S. Turner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401734615

Category: Philosophy

Page: 255

View: 8702

Stephen Turner has explored the ongms of social science in this pioneering study of two nineteenth century themes: the search for laws of human social behavior, and the accumulation and analysis of the facts of such behavior through statistical inquiry. The disputes were vigorously argued; they were over questions of method, criteria of explanation, interpretations of probability, understandings of causation as such and of historical causation in particular, and time and again over the ways of using a natural science model. From his careful elucidation of John Stuart Mill's proposals for the methodology of the social sciences on to his original analysis of the methodological claims and practices of Emile Durkheim and Max Weber, Turner has beautifully traced the conflict between statistical sociology and a science offactual description on the one side, and causal laws and a science of nomological explanation on the other. We see the works of Comte and Quetelet, the critical observations of Herschel, Buckle, Venn and Whewell, and the tough scepticism of Pearson, all of these as essential to the works of the classical founders of sociology. With Durkheim's essay on Suicide and Weber's monograph on The Protestant Ethic, Turner provides both philosophical analysis to demonstrate the continuing puzzles over cause and probability and also a perceptive and wry account of just how the puzzles of our late twentieth century are of a piece with theirs. The terms are still familiar: reasons vs.
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Issues and Images in the Philosophy of Science

Scientific and Philosophical Essays in Honour of Azarya Polikarov

Author: D. Ginev,Robert S. Cohen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940115788X

Category: Science

Page: 403

View: 5816

Azarya Polikarov was born in Sofia on October 9, 1921. Through the many stages of politics, economy, and culture in Bulgaria, he maintained his rational humanity and scientific curiosity. He has been a splendid teacher and an accomplished critical philosopher exploring the conceptual and historical vicis situdes of physics in modern times and also the science policies that favor or threaten human life in these decades. Equally and easily at home both within the Eastern and Central European countries and within the Western world. Polikarov is known as a collaborating genial colleague, a working scholar. not at all a visiting academic tourist. He understands the philosophy of science from within, in all its developments, from the classical beginnings through the great ages of Galilean, Newtonian. Maxwellian science. to the times of the stunning discoveries and imaginative theories of his beloved Einstein and Bohr of the twentieth century. Moreover, his understanding has come along with a deep knowledge of the scientific topics in themselves. Looking at our Appendix listing his principal publications, we see that Polikarov's public research career, after years of science teaching and popular science writing, began in the fifties in Bulgarian, Russian and German journals.
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Spanish Studies in the Philosophy of Science

Author: Gonzalo Munévar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400903057

Category: Science

Page: 363

View: 1094

An anthology of contemporary philosophy of science in Spain. Essays on 19th Century physics, the new cosmology, philosophy of biology, scientific rationality, philosophy of mathematics, phenomenology's account of scientific progress, science and ethics, philosophy of economics, methodology, and the philosophy of technology.
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Action, Decision, and Intention

Studies in the Foundation of Action Theory as an Approach to Understanding Rationality and Decision

Author: Robert Audi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400946961

Category: Philosophy

Page: 136

View: 4761

Most of the papers in this collection are contributions to action theory intended to be of some relevance to one or another concern of decision theory, particularly to its application to concrete human behavior. Some of the papers touch only indirectly on problems of interest to decision theorists, but taken together they should be of use to both decision theorists and philosophers of action. Robert Audi's paper indicates how a number of questions in action theory might bear on problems in decision theory, and it suggests how some action-theoretic results may help in the construction or interpretation of theories of decision, both normative and empirical. Carl Ginet's essay lays foundations for the conception of action. His volitional framework roots actions internally and conceives them as irreducibly connected with intentionality. Hugh McCann's essay is also foundational, but stresses intention more than volition and lays some of the groundwork for assessing the rationality of intention and intentional action. In William Alston's paper, the notion of a plan as underlying (intentional) action is central, and we are given both a con ception of the structure of intentional action and a set of implicit goals and beliefs - those whose content is represented in the plan - which form an indispensable part of the basis on which the rationality of the action is to be judged.
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Schrödinger’s Philosophy of Quantum Mechanics

Author: Michael Bitbol

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400917724

Category: History

Page: 292

View: 2073

This book is the final outcome of two projects. My first project was to publish a set of texts written by Schrodinger at the beginning of the 1950's for his seminars and lectures at the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. These almost completely forgotten texts contained important insights into the interpretation of quantum mechanics, and they provided several ideas which were missing or elusively expressed in SchrOdinger's published papers and books of the same period. However, they were likely to be misinterpreted out of their context. The problem was that current scholarship could not help very much the reader of these writings to figure out their significance. The few available studies about SchrOdinger's interpretation of quantum mechanics are generally excellent, but almost entirely restricted to the initial period 1925-1927. Very little work has been done on Schrodinger's late views on the theory he contributed to create and develop. The generally accepted view is that he never really recovered from his interpretative failure of 1926-1927, and that his late reflections (during the 1950's) are little more than an expression of his rising nostalgia for the lost ideal of picturing the world, not to say for some favourite traditional picture. But the content and style of Schrodinger's texts of the 1950's do not agree at all with this melancholic appraisal; they rather set the stage for a thorough renewal of accepted representations. In order to elucidate this paradox, I adopted several strategies.
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Methodological Variance

Essays in Epistemological Ontology and the Methodology of Science

Author: G.L. Pandit

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401131740

Category: Science

Page: 431

View: 8023

For a philosopher with an abiding interest in the nature of objective knowledge systems in science, what could be more important than trying to think in terms of those very subjects of such knowledge to which men like Galileo, Newton, Max Planck, Einstein and others devoted their entire lifetimes? In certain respects, these systems and their structures may not be beyond the grasp of a linguistic conception of science, and scientific change, which men of science and philosophy have advocated in various forms in recent times. But certainly it is wrong-headed to think that one's conception of science can be based on an identification of its theories with languages in which they may be, my own alternatively, framed. There may be more than one place in book (1983: 87) where they may seem to get confused with each other, quite against my original intentiens. The distinction between the objec tive knowledge systems in science and the dynamic frameworks of the languages of the special individual sciences, in which their growth can be embedded in significant ways, assumes here, therefore, much impor tance. It must be recognized that the problems concerning scientific change, which these systems undergo, are not just problems concerning language change.
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Metaarchaeology

Reflections by Archaeologists and Philosophers

Author: Lester Embree

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401118264

Category: Philosophy

Page: 343

View: 8092

An idea of the philosophy of archaeology can best be gained by showing what it is, what the issues are, who is working in the field, and how they proceed. Reading Lester Embree's Metaarchaeology provides the best possible introduction to the field, since in it several leading archaeologists show how accessible and interesting the current archeological literature is, and currently active philosophers of archaeology reveal something of the current state of discussion on the subject. Bibliographies have also been developed of the philosophy of archaeology as well as of selected parts of the component that can be called metaarchaeology. Finally, an historical introduction has been included to show the variety of metascientific as well as orientational standpoints that philosophers of archaeology have had recourse to for over two decades, followed by speculation about the future of the discipline within the philosophy of science.
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Nietzsche, Theories of Knowledge, and Critical Theory

Nietzsche and the Sciences I

Author: B.E. Babich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940172430X

Category: Science

Page: 348

View: 8889

Nietzsche, Theories of Knowledge, and Critical Theory, the first volume of a two-volume book collection on Nietzsche and the Sciences, ranges from reviews of Nietzsche and the wide variety of epistemic traditions - not only pre-Socratic, but Cartesian, Leibnizian, Kantian, and post-Kantian -through essays on Nietzsche's critique of knowledge via his critique of grammar and modern culture, and culminates in an extended section on the dynamic of Nietzsche's critical philosophy seen from the perspective of Habermas and critical theory. This volume features a first-time English translation of Habermas's afterword to his own German-language collection of Nietzsche's Epistemological Writings.
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Correspondence, Invariance and Heuristics

Essays in Honour of Heinz Post

Author: S. French,H. Kamminga

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401711852

Category: Science

Page: 364

View: 4575

This volume is presented in honour of Heinz Post, who founded a distinc tive and distinguished school of philosophy of science at Chelsea College, University of London. The 'Chelsea tradition' in philosophy of science takes the content of science seriously, as exemplified by the papers presented here. The unifying theme of this work is that of 'Correspondence, Invariance and Heuristics', after the title of a classic and seminal paper by Heinz Post, published in 1971, which is reproduced in this volume with the kind permission of the editors and publishers of Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. Described by Paul Feyerabend in Against Method as "brilliant" and " . . . a partial antidote against the view which I try to defend" (1975, p. 61, fn. 17), this paper, peppered with illustrative examples from the history of science, brings to the fore some of Heinz Post's central concerns: the heuristic criteria used by scientists in constructing their theories, the intertheoretic relationships which these criteria reflect and, in particular, the nature of the correspondence that holds between a theory and its predecessors (and its suc cessors). The appearance of this volume more than twenty years later is an indica tion of the fruitfulness of Post's contribution: philosophers of science continue to explore the issues raised in his 1971 paper.
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Historical Pragmatics

Philosophical Essays

Author: Robert E. Butts

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401581886

Category: Science

Page: 370

View: 5010

For 35 years, the critical and creative writings of Robert E. Butts have been a notable and welcome part of European and North American philosophy. A few years ago, James Robert Brown and Jiirgen Mittelstrass feted Professor Butts with a volume entitled An Intimate Relation (Boston Studies vol. 116, 1989), essays by twenty-six philosophers and historians of the sciences. And that joining of philosophers and historians was impressive evidence of the 'intimate relation' between historical illumination and philosophical understanding which is characteristic of Butts throughout his work. Not alone, Butts has been, and is, one of this generation's most incisive thinkers, devoted to responsible textual scholarship and equally responsible imaginative interpretation. Brown and Mittelstrass said that "throughout his writings, science, its philosophy, and its history have been treated as a seamless web", and I would add only that philosophy per se is a part of the web too. Here in this book before us are the results, a lovely collection from the work of Robert Butts, who is for so many of his colleagues, students and readers, Mr. HPS, the model philosophical historian and historical philosopher of the sciences. July 1993 Robert S. Cohen Center for Philosophy and History of Science, Boston University TABLE OF CONTENTS BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE IX INTRODUCTION Xl PART I EARLY MODERN PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE 1 1. Some tactics in Galileo's propaganda for the mathematization of scientific experience 3 2.
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The New Deal and Its Legacy

Critique and Reappraisal

Author: Robert Eden

Publisher: Praeger Pub Text

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 263

View: 7924

The New Deal remains at the center of the national debate concerning the role and function of government--a controversy that reflects increasingly deep divisions within the American body politic. Placing contemporary political issues in a broad, constructive framework, this book provides new perspectives on a pivotal episode in modern American history and gives us a deeper understanding of the political, economic, and constitutional challenges we currently face.
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Emotionen und soziale Strukturen

Die affektiven Grundlagen sozialer Ordnung

Author: Christian von Scheve

Publisher: Campus Verlag

ISBN: 3593389118

Category: Social Science

Page: 389

View: 3126

Die Angst vor dem sozialen Abstieg oder der Freudentaumel bei einem gewonnenen Fußballspiel: Emotionen sind nicht nur Ausdruck von Individualität und Persönlichkeit, sondern auch des sozialen Miteinanders und der gesellschaftlichen Verhältnisse. Im Rückgriff auf neurowissenschaftliche, psychologische und soziologische Emotionstheorien weist Christian von Scheve die tiefgreifende soziale Strukturierung von Affekten und Emotionen nach, zeigt den Einfluss von Gefühlen auf das soziale Handeln und analysiert die Regulation und soziale Kontrolle von Emotionen. Der Autor macht damit deutlich, wie wichtig Emotionen für die Entstehung und Reproduktion sozialer Ordnung sind.
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Warum es die Welt nicht gibt

Author: Markus Gabriel

Publisher: Ullstein eBooks

ISBN: 3843705100

Category: Philosophy

Page: 272

View: 6725

Die Welt gibt es nicht. Aber das bedeutet nicht, dass es überhaupt nichts gibt. Mit Freude an geistreichen Gedankenspielen, Sprachwitz und Mut zur Provokation legt der Philosoph Markus Gabriel dar, dass es zwar nichts gibt, was es nicht gibt – die Welt aber unvollständig ist. Wobei noch längst nicht alles gut ist, nur weil es alles gibt. Und Humor hilft durchaus dabei, sich mit den Abgründen des menschlichen Seins auseinanderzusetzen.
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Grounded theory

Strategien qualitativer Forschung

Author: Barney G. Glaser,Anselm L. Strauss,Axel T. Paul

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783456849065

Category:

Page: 278

View: 7188

Der Klassiker über den qualitativen Forschungsansatz der "Grounded Theory", geschrieben von den Entwicklern dieser Methode "Obwohl unser Buch sich in erster Linie an Soziologen richtet, glauben wir, dass es jedem nutzen kann, der daran interessiert ist, soziale Phänomene zu untersuchen politischer, pädagogischer, wirtschaftlicher, industrieller oder welcher Art auch immer." In der Tat ist "Grounded Theory" quer durch die wissenschaftlichen Disziplinen zum Standardbegriff der qualitativen Sozialforschung ge - worden. Die inzwischen zum Klassiker avancierte Arbeit von Glaser und Strauss eröffnet eine lehrbare und auch lernbare Forschungsstrategie. Das Konzept bietet eine Antwort auf das Problem, die oft schmerzlich empfundene Lücke zwischen empirischer Forschung und Theorie zu schliessen.
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Das Naturbild der heutigen Physik

Author: Werner Heisenberg

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3688116895

Category: Fiction

Page: 150

View: 7876

■ Das Naturbild der heutigen Physik ■ Atomphysik und Kausalgesetz ■ Über das Verhältnis von humanistischer Bildung, Naturwissenschaft und Abendland ■ Historische Quellen Die Ansätze der neuzeitlichen Naturwissenschaften / Die Entstehung des mechanistischen und materialistischen Weltbildes / Die Krisis der mechanistisch-materialistischen Auffassung ■ Enzyklopädisches Stichwort: Natur ■ Literaturhinweise ■ Namen- und Sachregister
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