The Scientific Merit of the Social Sciences

Implications for Research and Application

Author: Cho-Yee To,Zuyi Du

Publisher: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

ISBN: 9781858562322

Category: Social Science

Page: 104

View: 5134

The author contends that the manner in which one defines a problem determines what is done about it. To explain this he examines fundamental issues to gain an accurate definition of the problem, specifically challenging the ability of social sciences to make valid predictions. He aims to bring a deep understanding of the philosophy and history of science, the philosophy of education and a fingertip sensitivity to knowledge utilization issues as they pertain to contemporary problems in education at all levels, elementary, secondary as well as higher education.
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A Strategy for Assessing Science:

Behavioral and Social Research on Aging

Author: Committee on Assessing Behavioral and Social Science Research on Aging,Board on Behavioral, Cognitive, and Sensory Sciences,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309103975

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 8241

A Strategy for Assessing Science offers strategic advice on the perennial issue of assessing rates of progress in different scientific fields. It considers available knowledge about how science makes progress and examines a range of decision-making strategies for addressing key science policy concerns. These include avoiding undue conservatism that may arise from the influence of established disciplines; achieving rational, high-quality, accountable, and transparent decision processes; and establishing an appropriate balance of influence between scientific communities and agency science managers. A Strategy for Assessing Science identifies principles for setting priorities and specific recommendations for the context of behavioral and social research on aging.
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A Review of the Environmental Protection Agency's Science to Achieve Results Research Program

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology,Committee on the Review of Environmental Protection Agency's Science to Achieve Results Research Grants Program

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309458609

Category: Political Science

Page: 114

View: 6692

Environmental research has driven landmark improvements that led to the protection of human and ecosystem health. Recognizing the value of knowledge generated by environmental research and the ingenuity within academic and nonprofit institutions, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) created a program known as Science to Achieve Results, or STAR, in 1995. STAR is EPA’s primary competitive extramural grants program. A Review of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Science to Achieve Results Research Program assesses the program’s scientific merit, public benefits, and overall contributions in the context of other relevant research and recommends ways to enhance those aspects of the program. This report also considers the conclusions and recommendations of a prior National Research Council review of the STAR program (2003), the STAR program’s research priorities in light of the nation’s environmental challenges, and the effects of recent STAR funding trends on obtaining scientific information needed to protect public health and the environment.
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Scientific Research in Education

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Center for Education,Committee on Scientific Principles for Education Research

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309133098

Category: Education

Page: 204

View: 7640

Researchers, historians, and philosophers of science have debated the nature of scientific research in education for more than 100 years. Recent enthusiasm for "evidence-based" policy and practice in educationâ€"now codified in the federal law that authorizes the bulk of elementary and secondary education programsâ€"have brought a new sense of urgency to understanding the ways in which the basic tenets of science manifest in the study of teaching, learning, and schooling. Scientific Research in Education describes the similarities and differences between scientific inquiry in education and scientific inquiry in other fields and disciplines and provides a number of examples to illustrate these ideas. Its main argument is that all scientific endeavors share a common set of principles, and that each fieldâ€"including education researchâ€"develops a specialization that accounts for the particulars of what is being studied. The book also provides suggestions for how the federal government can best support high-quality scientific research in education.
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The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics

Author: Ezekiel J. Emanuel

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195168658

Category: Medical

Page: 827

View: 9388

The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics is the first systematic and comprehensive reference on clinical research ethics. Under the editorship of experts from the National Institutes of Health of the United States, the book offers a wide-ranging and systematic examination of all aspects of research with human beings. Considering historical triumphs of research as well as tragedies, the textbook provides a framework for analysing the ethical aspects of research studies with human beings. Through both conceptual analysis and systematic reviews of empirical data, the textbook examines issues ranging from scientific validity, fair subject selection, risk benefit ratio, independent review, and informed consent as well as focused consideration of international research ethics, conflicts of interests and other aspects of responsible conduct of research. The editors of The Oxford Textbook of Clinical Research Ethics offer a work that critically assesses and advances scholarship in the field of human subjects research with human beings.
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Social Research

Issues, Methods and Process

Author: Tim May

Publisher: Open University Press

ISBN: 9780335206124

Category: Social Science

Page: 258

View: 6965

"a welcome third edition of an already well-known and widely used text... truly 'user-friendly' " Network "The third edition of this tried and tested book works very well and should be extremely successful...its strength is that it covers all the principal areas of research in an accessible and lively style, treating each approach in relation to the philosophical and methodological debates that underpin them. It is logically organised and each chapter is well-structured...complex topics are clearly explained for the inexperienced reader, at the same time it contains enough of substance and food for thought for more advanced students." - John Scott, University of Essex Praise for the previous edition: "This is the finest introduction to social research I have ever read...Methods are meticulously worked through from official statistics to comparative research via surveys, interviews, observation and documentary analysis...The writing is clear, concise and scholarly with the bibliography a delightful A to Z compendium of the best in sociology." - British Sociological Association Network The fully revised and updated third edition of this hugely popular text incorporates the latest developments in the interdisciplinary field of social research, while retaining the style and structure that appealed to so many in the first two editions. Tim May successfully bridges the gap between theory and methods in social research, clearly illuminating these essential components for understanding the dynamics of social relations. The book is divided into two parts, with Part I examining the issues and perspectives in social research and Part II setting out the methods and processes. Revisions and additions have been made to Part I to take account of new ways of thinking about the relationship between theory and research, and values and ethics in the research process. These take on board advances in post-empiricist thinking, as well as the relations between values, objectivity and data collection. Where necessary, recommended readings and references to studies that form the bases of discussions throughout the book have been updated. In Part II, additions have been made to the chapter on questionnaires, and elsewhere new discussions have been introduced, for example, on research on the internet, narratives, case studies and new technologies. The reader will detect many other changes, the intention of which is to aid understanding by staying up-to-date with the latest innovations in social research. The chapters follow a common structure to enable a clear appreciation of the place, process and analysis of each method, and to allow the comparison of their strengths and weaknesses in the context of discussions in Part I. The clear writing style, chapter summaries, questions for reflection and signposts to further readings continue to make this book the ideal companion to social research for students across the social sciences. In addition, it will be recognised as an invaluable source of reference for those practising and teaching social research who wish to keep abreast of key developments in the field.
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Psychology: Themes and Variations

Author: Wayne Weiten

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1133712894

Category: Psychology

Page: 535

View: 1074

Weiten's PSYCHOLOGY: THEMES AND VARIATIONS, Ninth Edition, maintains this book's strengths while addressing market changes with new learning objectives, a complete updating, and a fresh new design. The text continues to provide a unique survey of psychology that meets three goals: to demonstrate the unity and diversity of psychology's subject matter, to illuminate the research process and its link to application, and to make the material challenging and thought-provoking yet easy to learn. Weiten accomplishes the successful balance of scientific rigor and a student-friendly approach through the integration of seven unifying themes, an unparalleled didactic art program, real-life examples, and a streamlined set of learning aids that help students see beyond research to big-picture concepts. Major topics typically covered in today's courses are included, such as evolutionary psychology, neuropsychology, biological psychology, positive psychology, applied psychology, careers, and multiculturalism and diversity. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.
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What Is This Thing Called Science?

Author: Alan Chalmers

Publisher: Univ. of Queensland Press

ISBN: 0702250872

Category: Philosophy

Page: 312

View: 8023

Every ten years, Alan Chalmers draws on his experience as a teacher and researcher to improve and update the text that strives to answer the philosophical question in it’s title: What is This Thing Called Science? Identifying the qualitative difference between knowledge of atoms as it figures in contemporary science and metaphysical speculations about atoms common in philosophy since the time of Democritus proves to be a highly revealing and instructive way to pinpoint key features of the answer to that question. The most significant feature of this fourth edition is the extensive postscript, in which Chalmers uses the results of his recent research on the history of atomism to illustrate and enliven key themes in the philosophy of science. This new edition ensures that the book holds its place as the leading introduction to the philosophy of science for the foreseeable future.
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The Social and Psychological Contexts of Language

Author: R. N. St. Clalr,H. Giles

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1134917147

Category: Psychology

Page: 352

View: 8948

Published in the year 1982, The Social and Psychological Contexts of Language is a valuable contribution to the field of Social Psychology.
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Source Book in Bioethics

A Documentary History

Author: Albert R. Jonsen,Robert M. Veatch,LeRoy Walters

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 9781589014145

Category: Medical

Page: 640

View: 7588

Government agencies and commissions, courts, and legislatures have during the past several decades produced reports, rendered decisions, and passed laws that have both defined the fundamental issues in the field of bioethics and established ways of managing them in our society. Providing a history of these key bioethical decisions, this Source Book in Bioethics is the first and only comprehensive collection of the critical public documents in biomedical ethics, including many hard-to-find or out-of-print materials. Covering the period from 1947 to 1995, this volume brings together core legislative documents, court briefs, and reports by professional organizations, public bodies, and governments around the world. Sections on human experimentation, care of the terminally ill, genetics, human reproduction, and emerging areas in bioethics include such pivotal works as "The Nuremberg Code," "The Tuskegee Report," and "In the Matter of Baby M," as well less readily available documents as "The Declaration of Inuyama," the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences statement on genetic engineering, and "The Warnock Committee Report" on reproductive technologies from the United Kingdom. Three eminent scholars in the field provide brief introductions to each document explaining the significance of these classic sources. This historical volume will be a standard text for courses in bioethics, health policy, and death and dying, and a primary reference for anyone interested in this increasingly relevant field.
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The Importance of Common Metrics for Advancing Social Science Theory and Research

A Workshop Summary

Author: National Research Council,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Committee on Social Science Evidence for Use,Committee on Advancing Social Science Theory: The Importance of Common Metrics

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 030921100X

Category: Social Science

Page: 108

View: 1666

In February 2010, the National Research Council convened a workshop to investigate the feasibility of developing well-grounded common metrics to advance behavioral and social science research, both in terms of advancing the development of theory and increasing the utility of research for policy and practice. The Workshop on Advancing Social Science Theory: The Importance of Common Metrics had three goals: To examine the benefits and costs involved in moving from metric diversity to greater standardization, both in terms of advancing the development of theory and increasing the utility of research for policy and practice. To consider whether a set of criteria can be developed for understanding when the measurement of a particular construct is ready to be standardized. To explore how the research community can foster a move toward standardization when it appears warranted. This book is a summary of the two days of presentations and discussions that took place during the workshop.
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Impact Assessment of Neuroimaging

Final Report

Author: Bärbel Hüsing,Lutz Jäncke,Brigitte Tag

Publisher: vdf Hochschulverlag AG

ISBN: 9783728130655

Category: Brain

Page: 341

View: 1468

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Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women

Global Women's Issues and Knowledge

Author: Cheris Kramarae,Dale Spender

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135963150

Category: Reference

Page: 2050

View: 8740

For a full list of entries and contributors, sample entries, and more, visit the Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women website. Featuring comprehensive global coverage of women's issues and concerns, from violence and sexuality to feminist theory, the Routledge International Encyclopedia of Women brings the field into the new millennium. In over 900 signed A-Z entries from US and Europe, Asia, the Americas, Oceania, and the Middle East, the women who pioneered the field from its inception collaborate with the new scholars who are shaping the future of women's studies to create the new standard work for anyone who needs information on women-related subjects.
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The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

50th Anniversary Edition

Author: Thomas S. Kuhn

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226458148

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 2579

A good book may have the power to change the way we see the world, but a great book actually becomes part of our daily consciousness, pervading our thinking to the point that we take it for granted, and we forget how provocative and challenging its ideas once were—and still are. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions is that kind of book. When it was first published in 1962, it was a landmark event in the history and philosophy of science. Fifty years later, it still has many lessons to teach. With The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Kuhn challenged long-standing linear notions of scientific progress, arguing that transformative ideas don’t arise from the day-to-day, gradual process of experimentation and data accumulation but that the revolutions in science, those breakthrough moments that disrupt accepted thinking and offer unanticipated ideas, occur outside of “normal science,” as he called it. Though Kuhn was writing when physics ruled the sciences, his ideas on how scientific revolutions bring order to the anomalies that amass over time in research experiments are still instructive in our biotech age. This new edition of Kuhn’s essential work in the history of science includes an insightful introduction by Ian Hacking, which clarifies terms popularized by Kuhn, including paradigm and incommensurability, and applies Kuhn’s ideas to the science of today. Usefully keyed to the separate sections of the book, Hacking’s introduction provides important background information as well as a contemporary context. Newly designed, with an expanded index, this edition will be eagerly welcomed by the next generation of readers seeking to understand the history of our perspectives on science.
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Research Training for Social Scientists

A Handbook for Postgraduate Researchers

Author: Dawn Burton

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446235513

Category: Social Science

Page: 528

View: 5655

With indispensable advice for students from all social science backgrounds, this handbook provides the core conceptual and practical skills to embark on succesful research. The organization of the book reflects the knowledge that is required in order to become a competent and effective researcher. It follows the life-cycle of the research project: it begins with a discussion of ethical and philosphical issues; presents guides to both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis; provides help on using computers in research; and includes advice on how to write up and present a research project. Based on the UK Economic and Social Research Council advice on the training which students should undertake in preparation for postgraduate research, this book will be invaluable for all beginning researchers.
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Applied Meta-analysis for Social Science Research

Author: Noel A. Card

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 1609184998

Category: Psychology

Page: 377

View: 6989

Offering pragmatic guidance for planning and conducting a meta-analytic review, this book is written in an engaging, nontechnical style that makes it ideal for graduate course use or self-study. The author shows how to identify questions that can be answered using meta-analysis, retrieve both published and unpublished studies, create a coding manual, use traditional and unique effect size indices, and write a meta-analytic review. An ongoing example illustrates meta-analytic techniques. In addition to the fundamentals, the book discusses more advanced topics, such as artifact correction, random- and mixed-effects models, structural equation representations, and multivariate procedures. User-friendly features include annotated equations; discussions of alternative approaches; and "Practical Matters" sections that give advice on topics not often discussed in other books, such as linking meta-analytic results with theory and the utility of meta-analysis software programs.
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