The Science of Measurement

A Historical Survey

Author: Herbert Arthur Klein

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486144976

Category: Science

Page: 736

View: 2193

Witty, imaginative coverage of metrology—concepts of weight, length, volume, temperature, time, nuclear radiation, thermal power, light, pressure, much more. Nontechnical. "Solid and entertaining."—Los Angeles Times.
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World in the Balance: The Historic Quest for an Absolute System of Measurement

Author: Robert P. Crease

Publisher: W. W. Norton & Company

ISBN: 0393072983

Category: Science

Page: 317

View: 4721

The Meter of Archives, a simple, unadorned stick, has ruled an international network of measures for almost a century. How did such an unprepossessing object come to such importance? Crease follows the evolution of our system of measurement from countless disparate systems that arose from local resources and practices to their consolidation into a single network, the 'International System of Units' (SI). World in the Balance is organized chronologically: Crease begins with body measures (the practice of using parts of our own body to improvise measures) and moves through the creation of the metric system in the wake of the French Revolution and the codification of units inherited from the Romans into a second system, the Imperial System of Great Britain. Crease ends with the quest for ultimate precision and efforts to exchange the kilogram, currently a man-made simple metal cylinder slightly over 2 inches high, for an absolute standard in nature (e.g., atoms). Much as he did in The Great Equations, Crease centers each chapter on a dramatic, defining moment in this sweeping history and the colorful characters who took on the struggle to create an invisible but essential network to connect international commerce and scientific laboratories all over the world. We encounter a West African student whose research on the Akan ethnic group leads to the discovery that their currency system relies on weighing gold dust. We met Charles S. Peirce, an eccentric American scientist, who was the first to tie a unit, the meter, to an absolute standard (the wavelength of light). And we see how a piece of artwork by Marcel Duchamp attempts to sabotage the rationality of the meter. Along the way, readers are treated to 'interludes' on topics ranging from how the Great Pyramid of Egypt was a contender for a metrological standard to 'moctrology,' the practice of making fun of units and measures.
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A Measure of All Things

The Story of Man and Measurement

Author: Ian Whitelaw

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 9780312370268

Category: Reference

Page: 160

View: 5078

Discusses the origins of standard units of measurement and how they have changed from ancient times to modern day, and describes systems of measurement, including the metric and Imperial systems and the Systeme International.
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The Chronic Crisis in Psychological Measurement and Assessment

A Historical Survey

Author: Scott T. Meier

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 1483271595

Category: Psychology

Page: 306

View: 5122

The Chronic Crisis in Psychological Measurement and Assessment: A Historical Survey provides a historical survey of relevant concepts in psychological measurement and assessment. It does not delve into intimate details and complexities, but traces measurement and assessment controversies over time and across psychological domains. The main goal has been to approach the problems of measurement and assessment from the perspective of psychological theory. The book begins with an overview, a broad picture of how psychological measurement and assessment have evolved. Separate chapters present descriptions and interpretations of measurement issues that have been important over the lifespan of psychological science. Traditional approaches along with newer concepts and procedures are are discussed, along with an attempt to integrate the major themes that emerge from the historical survey with the ultimate purpose of reviewing and proposing new directions. This book is offered as a complement to existing texts in psychological measurement and assessment.
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Margins of Error

A Study of Reliability in Survey Measurement

Author: Duane F. Alwin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470146309

Category: Mathematics

Page: 416

View: 3492

Enhance the quality of survey results by recognizing and reducing measurement errors. Margins of Error: A Study of Reliability in Survey Measurement demonstrates how and hwy identifying the presence and extent of measurement errors in survey data is essential for improving the overall collection and analysis of the data. The author outlines the consequences of ignoring survey measurement errors and also discusses ways to detect and estimate the impact of these errors. This book also provides recommendations of improving the quality of survey data. Logically organized and clearly written, this book: Deconstructs the data gathering process into six main elements of the response process: question adequacy, comprehension, accessibility, retrieval, motivation, and communication Provides an exhaustive review of valuable reliability estimation techniques that can be applied to survey data Identifies the types of questions and interviewer practices that are essential to the collection of reliable data Addresses hypotheses regarding which survey questions, sources of information, and questionnaire formats produce the most reliable data In conjunction with research data gathered on nearly 500 survey measures and the application of an empirical approach grounded in classical measurement theory, this book discusses the sources of measurement error and provides the tools necessary for improving survey data collection methods. Margins of Error enables statisticians and researchers in the fields of public opinion and survey research to design studies that can detect, estimate, and reduce measurement errors that may have previously gone undetected. This book also serves as a supplemental textbook for both undergraduate and graduate survey methodology courses.
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Measure of the Earth

The Enlightenment Expedition That Reshaped Our World

Author: Larrie D. Ferreiro

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465017231

Category: History

Page: 376

View: 3211

Describes the early 18th-century expedition of scientists sent by France and Spain to colonial Peru to measure the degree of equatorial latitude, which could resolve the debate between whether the earth was spherical or flattened at the poles.
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The Mathematics of Measurement

A Critical History

Author: John J. Roche

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387915814

Category: Mathematics

Page: 330

View: 1200

The Mathematics of Measurement is a historical survey of the introduction of mathematics to physics and of the branches of mathematics that were developed specifically for handling measurements, including dimensional analysis, error analysis, and the calculus of quantities.
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Scientific Literacy and the Myth of the Scientific Method

Author: Henry H. Bauer

Publisher: University of Illinois Press

ISBN: 9780252064364

Category: Science

Page: 180

View: 8957

Concern has recently arisen over the quality of American education and our declining scientific and research orientation. Debates are emerging about what direction public universities should be taking as we head into the twenty-first century. Why and to what extent should society know about science? This book will help readers come to an informed understanding about the place of science and technology in today's world.
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Defining and Measuring Nature

The Make of All Things

Author: Jeffrey Huw Williams

Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers

ISBN: 1627052801

Category: Science

Page: 132

View: 3889

Weights and measures form an essential part of our ingrained view of the world. It is just about impossible to function effectively without some internalized system of measurement. In this volume, I outline a history of the science of measurement, and the
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Emotion Measurement

Author: Herbert L Meiselman

Publisher: Woodhead Publishing

ISBN: 0081005091

Category: Psychology

Page: 750

View: 3823

Emotion Measurement reviews academic and applied studies in order to highlight key elements of emotions which should be considered in the development and validation of newer commercial methods of emotion measurement. The goal of the book is practical, but the approach will be both academic and applied. It is aimed primarily at sensory scientists and the product developers they work alongside who require knowledge of measuring emotion to ensure high levels of consumer acceptability of their products. The book begins with a review of basic studies of emotion, including the theory, physiology, and psychology of emotions – these are the standard studies of which food and sensory scientists as well as product developers need to be aware. The next section highlights methods for studying emotions on a relatively basic level. The book then moves to practical applications, with chapters on emotion research in food and beverage, as well as in a range of product and clinical settings. Finally, there is a treatment of cross-cultural research on emotions. This is critical because much of the newer commercial research is aimed at markets around the world, requiring methods which work in many cultures. The book ends with an integrative summary of the material presented. Serves as the first book on the market on emotion measurement aimed at sensory scientists and production development practitioners working in commercial R and D Also useful for psychologists with an interest in emotion Brings together applied and academic strands of emotion measurement research for the first time Focuses on cross-cultural studies of emotions, which is currently lacking from most of the literature in the field
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Measurement Errors in Surveys

Author: Paul P. Biemer,Robert M. Groves,Lars E. Lyberg,Nancy A. Mathiowetz,Seymour Sudman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118150376

Category: Mathematics

Page: 760

View: 8478

WILEY-INTERSCIENCE PAPERBACK SERIES The Wiley-Interscience Paperback Series consists of selected books that have been made more accessible to consumers in an effort to increase global appeal and general circulation. With these new unabridged softcover volumes, Wiley hopes to extend the lives of these works by making them available to future generations of statisticians, mathematicians, and scientists. "This book will be an aid to survey statisticians and to research workers who must work with survey data." –Short Book Reviews, International Statistical Institute Measurement Errors in Surveys documents the current state of the field, reports new research findings, and promotes interdisciplinary exchanges in modeling, assessing, and reducing measurement errors in surveys. Providing a fundamental approach to measurement errors, the book features sections on the questionnaire, respondents and responses, interviewers and other means of data collection, the respondent-interviewer relationship, and the effects of measurement errors on estimation and data analysis.
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Against the Gods

The Remarkable Story of Risk

Author: Peter L. Bernstein

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470534532

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 400

View: 6459

A Business Week, New York Times Business, and USA Today Bestseller "Ambitious and readable . . . an engaging introduction to the oddsmakers, whom Bernstein regards as true humanists helping to release mankind from the choke holds of superstition and fatalism." -The New York Times "An extraordinarily entertaining and informative book." -The Wall Street Journal "A lively panoramic book . . . Against the Gods sets up an ambitious premise and then delivers on it." -Business Week "Deserves to be, and surely will be, widely read." -The Economist "[A] challenging book, one that may change forever the way people think about the world." -Worth "No one else could have written a book of such central importance with so much charm and excitement." -Robert Heilbroner author, The Worldly Philosophers "With his wonderful knowledge of the history and current manifestations of risk, Peter Bernstein brings us Against the Gods. Nothing like it will come out of the financial world this year or ever. I speak carefully: no one should miss it." -John Kenneth Galbraith Professor of Economics Emeritus, Harvard University In this unique exploration of the role of risk in our society, Peter Bernstein argues that the notion of bringing risk under control is one of the central ideas that distinguishes modern times from the distant past. Against the Gods chronicles the remarkable intellectual adventure that liberated humanity from oracles and soothsayers by means of the powerful tools of risk management that are available to us today. "An extremely readable history of risk." -Barron's "Fascinating . . . this challenging volume will help you understand the uncertainties that every investor must face." -Money "A singular achievement." -Times Literary Supplement "There's a growing market for savants who can render the recondite intelligibly-witness Stephen Jay Gould (natural history), Oliver Sacks (disease), Richard Dawkins (heredity), James Gleick (physics), Paul Krugman (economics)-and Bernstein would mingle well in their company." -The Australian
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IQ and Human Intelligence

Author: Nicholas John Mackintosh

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199585598

Category: Psychology

Page: 440

View: 8144

'What is intelligence?' may seem like a simple question to answer, but the study and measurement of human intelligence is one of the most controversial subjects in psychology. IQ and Human Intelligence provides an authoritative overview of the main issues surrounding this fascinating area.
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Cure

A Journey into the Science of Mind Over Body

Author: Jo Marchant

Publisher: Crown

ISBN: 0385348169

Category: Medical

Page: 320

View: 3645

A New York Times Bestseller Finalist for the Royal Society Insight Investment Science Book Prize Longlisted for the Wellcome Book Prize A rigorous, skeptical, deeply reported look at the new science behind the mind's surprising ability to heal the body Have you ever felt a surge of adrenaline after narrowly avoiding an accident? Salivated at the sight (or thought) of a sour lemon? Felt turned on just from hearing your partner's voice? If so, then you've experienced how dramatically the workings of your mind can affect your body. Yet while we accept that stress or anxiety can damage our health, the idea of "healing thoughts" was long ago hijacked by New Age gurus and spiritual healers. Recently, however, serious scientists from a range of fields have been uncovering evidence that our thoughts, emotions and beliefs can ease pain, heal wounds, fend off infection and heart disease and even slow the progression of AIDS and some cancers. In Cure, award-winning science writer Jo Marchant travels the world to meet the physicians, patients and researchers on the cutting edge of this new world of medicine. We learn how meditation protects against depression and dementia, how social connections increase life expectancy and how patients who feel cared for recover from surgery faster. We meet Iraq war veterans who are using a virtual arctic world to treat their burns and children whose ADHD is kept under control with half the normal dose of medication. We watch as a transplant patient uses the smell of lavender to calm his hostile immune system and an Olympic runner shaves vital seconds off his time through mind-power alone. Drawing on the very latest research, Marchant explores the vast potential of the mind's ability to heal, lays out its limitations and explains how we can make use of the findings in our own lives. With clarity and compassion, Cure points the way towards a system of medicine that treats us not simply as bodies but as human beings.
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The History of Time: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Leofranc Holford-Strevens

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191578002

Category: History

Page: 160

View: 3538

Why do we measure time in the way that we do? Why is a week seven days long? At what point did minutes and seconds come into being? Why are some calendars lunar and some solar? The organisation of time into hours, days, months and years seems immutable and universal, but is actually far more artificial than most people realise. The French Revolution resulted in a restructuring of the French calendar, and the Soviet Union experimented with five and then six-day weeks. Leofranc Holford-Strevens explores these questions using a range of fascinating examples from Ancient Rome and Julius Caesar's imposition of the Leap Year, to the 1920s' project for a fixed Easter. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
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Measurement, Judgment, and Decision Making

Author: Michael H. Birnbaum

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 008053600X

Category: Psychology

Page: 367

View: 9753

Measurement, Judgment, and Decision Making provides an excellent introduction to measurement, which is one of the most basic issues of the science of psychology and the key to science. Written by leading researchers, the book covers measurement, psychophysical scaling, multidimensional scaling, stimulus categorization, and behavioral decision making. Each chapter provides a useful handbook summary and unlocks the door for a scholar who desires entry to that field. Any psychologist who manipulates an independent variable that affects a psychological construct or who uses a numerical dependent variable to measure a psychological construct will want to study this book. Written by leading researchers in fields of measurement, psychophysical scaling, multidimensional scaling, stimulus categorization, and behavioral decision making Provides basic definitions and summaries of theories Presents summaries and citations to relevant literature Contains new developments, current controversies, and open questions Explains relationships among fields and historical links
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Through Two Doors at Once

The Elegant Experiment That Captures the Enigma of Our Quantum Reality

Author: Anil Ananthaswamy

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101986115

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 8046

The intellectual adventure story of the "double-slit" experiment, showing how a sunbeam split into two paths first challenged our understanding of light and then the nature of reality itself--and continues to almost 200 years later. Many of the greatest scientific minds have grappled with this experiment. Thomas Young devised it in the early 1800s to show that light behaves like a wave, and in doing so opposed Isaac Newton's view that light is made of particles. But then Albert Einstein showed that light comes in quanta, or particles. Quantum mechanics was born. This led to a fierce debate between Einstein and Niels Bohr over the nature of reality--subatomic bits of matter and its interaction with light--again as revealed by the double-slit experiment. Richard Feynman held that it embodies the central mystery of the quantum world. Decade after decade, hypothesis after hypothesis, scientists have returned to this ingenious experiment to help them answer deeper and deeper questions about the fabric of the universe. How can a single particle behave both like a particle and a wave? Does a particle, or indeed reality, exist before we look at it, or does looking create reality, as the textbook "Copenhagen interpretation" of quantum mechanics seems to suggest? How can particles influence each other faster than the speed of light? Is there a place where the quantum world ends and the familiar classical world of our daily lives begins, and if so, can we find it? And if there's no such place, then does the universe split into two each time a particle goes through the double-slit? Through Two Doors at Once celebrates the elegant simplicity of an iconic experiment and its profound reach. With his extraordinarily gifted eloquence, Anil Ananthaswamy travels around the world, through history and down to the smallest scales of physical reality we have yet fathomed. It is the most fantastic voyage you can take.
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The Total Survey Error Approach

A Guide to the New Science of Survey Research

Author: Herbert F. Weisberg

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226891291

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 7955

In 1939, George Gallup's American Institute of Public Opinion published a pamphlet optimistically titled The New Science of Public Opinion Measurement. At the time, though, survey research was in its infancy, and only now, six decades later, can public opinion measurement be appropriately called a science, based in part on the development of the total survey error approach. Herbert F. Weisberg's handbook presents a unified method for conducting good survey research centered on the various types of errors that can occur in surveys—from measurement and nonresponse error to coverage and sampling error. Each chapter is built on theoretical elements drawn from specific disciplines, such as social psychology and statistics, and follows through with detailed treatments of the specific types of error and their potential solutions. Throughout, Weisberg is attentive to survey constraints, including time and ethical considerations, as well as controversies within the field and the effects of new technology on the survey process—from Internet surveys to those completed by phone, by mail, and in person. Practitioners and students will find this comprehensive guide particularly useful now that survey research has assumed a primary place in both public and academic circles.
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GDP

A Brief but Affectionate History

Author: Diane Coyle

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400873630

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 184

View: 8346

Why did the size of the U.S. economy increase by 3 percent on one day in mid-2013—or Ghana's balloon by 60 percent overnight in 2010? Why did the U.K. financial industry show its fastest expansion ever at the end of 2008—just as the world’s financial system went into meltdown? And why was Greece’s chief statistician charged with treason in 2013 for apparently doing nothing more than trying to accurately report the size of his country’s economy? The answers to all these questions lie in the way we define and measure national economies around the world: Gross Domestic Product. This entertaining and informative book tells the story of GDP, making sense of a statistic that appears constantly in the news, business, and politics, and that seems to rule our lives—but that hardly anyone actually understands. Diane Coyle traces the history of this artificial, abstract, complex, but exceedingly important statistic from its eighteenth- and nineteenth-century precursors through its invention in the 1940s and its postwar golden age, and then through the Great Crash up to today. The reader learns why this standard measure of the size of a country’s economy was invented, how it has changed over the decades, and what its strengths and weaknesses are. The book explains why even small changes in GDP can decide elections, influence major political decisions, and determine whether countries can keep borrowing or be thrown into recession. The book ends by making the case that GDP was a good measure for the twentieth century but is increasingly inappropriate for a twenty-first-century economy driven by innovation, services, and intangible goods.
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The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

Author: James Evans

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199874453

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 1896

The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach readers how to do real astronomy using the methods of ancient astronomers. For example, readers will learn to predict the next retrograde motion of Jupiter using either the arithmetical methods of the Babylonians or the geometric methods of Ptolemy. They will learn how to use an astrolabe and how to design sundials using Greek and Roman techniques. The book also contains supplementary exercises and patterns for making some working astronomical instruments, including an astrolabe and an equatorium. More than a presentation of astronomical methods, the book provides a critical look at the evidence used to reconstruct ancient astronomy. It includes extensive excerpts from ancient texts, meticulous documentation, and lively discussions of the role of astronomy in the various cultures. Accessible to a wide audience, this book will appeal to anyone interested in how our understanding of our place in the universe has changed and developed, from ancient times through the Renaissance.
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