The Real and the Complex: A History of Analysis in the 19th Century

Author: Jeremy Gray

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319237152

Category: Mathematics

Page: 350

View: 2926

This book contains a history of real and complex analysis in the nineteenth century, from the work of Lagrange and Fourier to the origins of set theory and the modern foundations of analysis. It studies the works of many contributors including Gauss, Cauchy, Riemann, and Weierstrass. This book is unique owing to the treatment of real and complex analysis as overlapping, inter-related subjects, in keeping with how they were seen at the time. It is suitable as a course in the history of mathematics for students who have studied an introductory course in analysis, and will enrich any course in undergraduate real or complex analysis.
Release

Worlds Out of Nothing

A Course in the History of Geometry in the 19th Century

Author: Jeremy Gray

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780857290601

Category: Mathematics

Page: 384

View: 3799

Based on the latest historical research, Worlds Out of Nothing is the first book to provide a course on the history of geometry in the 19th century. Topics covered in the first part of the book are projective geometry, especially the concept of duality, and non-Euclidean geometry. The book then moves on to the study of the singular points of algebraic curves (Plücker’s equations) and their role in resolving a paradox in the theory of duality; to Riemann’s work on differential geometry; and to Beltrami’s role in successfully establishing non-Euclidean geometry as a rigorous mathematical subject. The final part of the book considers how projective geometry rose to prominence, and looks at Poincaré’s ideas about non-Euclidean geometry and their physical and philosophical significance. Three chapters are devoted to writing and assessing work in the history of mathematics, with examples of sample questions in the subject, advice on how to write essays, and comments on what instructors should be looking for.
Release

Analysis by Its History

Author: Ernst Hairer,Gerhard Wanner

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387770364

Category: Mathematics

Page: 379

View: 8217

This book presents first-year calculus roughly in the order in which it was first discovered. The first two chapters show how the ancient calculations of practical problems led to infinite series, differential and integral calculus and to differential equations. The establishment of mathematical rigour for these subjects in the 19th century for one and several variables is treated in chapters III and IV. Many quotations are included to give the flavor of the history. The text is complemented by a large number of examples, calculations and mathematical pictures and will provide stimulating and enjoyable reading for students, teachers, as well as researchers.
Release

Plato's Ghost

The Modernist Transformation of Mathematics

Author: Jeremy Gray

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400829040

Category: Mathematics

Page: 528

View: 871

Plato's Ghost is the first book to examine the development of mathematics from 1880 to 1920 as a modernist transformation similar to those in art, literature, and music. Jeremy Gray traces the growth of mathematical modernism from its roots in problem solving and theory to its interactions with physics, philosophy, theology, psychology, and ideas about real and artificial languages. He shows how mathematics was popularized, and explains how mathematical modernism not only gave expression to the work of mathematicians and the professional image they sought to create for themselves, but how modernism also introduced deeper and ultimately unanswerable questions. Plato's Ghost evokes Yeats's lament that any claim to worldly perfection inevitably is proven wrong by the philosopher's ghost; Gray demonstrates how modernist mathematicians believed they had advanced further than anyone before them, only to make more profound mistakes. He tells for the first time the story of these ambitious and brilliant mathematicians, including Richard Dedekind, Henri Lebesgue, Henri Poincaré, and many others. He describes the lively debates surrounding novel objects, definitions, and proofs in mathematics arising from the use of naïve set theory and the revived axiomatic method--debates that spilled over into contemporary arguments in philosophy and the sciences and drove an upsurge of popular writing on mathematics. And he looks at mathematics after World War I, including the foundational crisis and mathematical Platonism. Plato's Ghost is essential reading for mathematicians and historians, and will appeal to anyone interested in the development of modern mathematics.
Release

Mathematics and Its History

Author: John Stillwell

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 144196052X

Category: Mathematics

Page: 662

View: 5439

From a review of the second edition: "This book covers many interesting topics not usually covered in a present day undergraduate course, as well as certain basic topics such as the development of the calculus and the solution of polynomial equations. The fact that the topics are introduced in their historical contexts will enable students to better appreciate and understand the mathematical ideas involved...If one constructs a list of topics central to a history course, then they would closely resemble those chosen here." (David Parrott, Australian Mathematical Society) This book offers a collection of historical essays detailing a large variety of mathematical disciplines and issues; it’s accessible to a broad audience. This third edition includes new chapters on simple groups and new sections on alternating groups and the Poincare conjecture. Many more exercises have been added as well as commentary that helps place the exercises in context.
Release

Polynomials and Polynomial Inequalities

Author: Peter Borwein,Tamas Erdelyi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461207932

Category: Mathematics

Page: 480

View: 1591

After an introduction to the geometry of polynomials and a discussion of refinements of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra, the book turns to a consideration of various special polynomials. Chebyshev and Descartes systems are then introduced, and Müntz systems and rational systems are examined in detail. Subsequent chapters discuss denseness questions and the inequalities satisfied by polynomials and rational functions. Appendices on algorithms and computational concerns, on the interpolation theorem, and on orthogonality and irrationality round off the text. The book is self-contained and assumes at most a senior-undergraduate familiarity with real and complex analysis.
Release

Invitation to Classical Analysis

Author: Peter L. Duren

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 0821869329

Category: Mathematics

Page: 392

View: 9840

This book gives a rigorous treatment of selected topics in classical analysis, with many applications and examples. The exposition is at the undergraduate level, building on basic principles of advanced calculus without appeal to more sophisticated techniques of complex analysis and Lebesgue integration. Among the topics covered are Fourier series and integrals, approximation theory, Stirling's formula, the gamma function, Bernoulli numbers and polynomials, the Riemann zeta function, Tauberian theorems, elliptic integrals, ramifications of the Cantor set, and a theoretical discussion of differential equations including power series solutions at regular singular points, Bessel functions, hypergeometric functions, and Sturm comparison theory. Preliminary chapters offer rapid reviews of basic principles and further background material such as infinite products and commonly applied inequalities. This book is designed for individual study but can also serve as a text for second-semester courses in advanced calculus. Each chapter concludes with an abundance of exercises. Historical notes discuss the evolution of mathematical ideas and their relevance to physical applications. Special features are capsule scientific biographies of the major players and a gallery of portraits. Although this book is designed for undergraduate students, others may find it an accessible source of information on classical topics that underlie modern developments in pure and applied mathematics.
Release

Amazing and Aesthetic Aspects of Analysis

Author: Paul Loya

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493967959

Category: Mathematics

Page: 722

View: 417

Lively prose and imaginative exercises draw the reader into this unique introductory real analysis textbook. Motivating the fundamental ideas and theorems that underpin real analysis with historical remarks and well-chosen quotes, the author shares his enthusiasm for the subject throughout. A student reading this book is invited not only to acquire proficiency in the fundamentals of analysis, but to develop an appreciation for abstraction and the language of its expression. In studying this book, students will encounter: the interconnections between set theory and mathematical statements and proofs; the fundamental axioms of the natural, integer, and real numbers; rigorous ε-N and ε-δ definitions; convergence and properties of an infinite series, product, or continued fraction; series, product, and continued fraction formulæ for the various elementary functions and constants. Instructors will appreciate this engaging perspective, showcasing the beauty of these fundamental results.
Release

Continuous Nowhere Differentiable Functions

The Monsters of Analysis

Author: Marek Jarnicki,Peter Pflug

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319126709

Category: Mathematics

Page: 299

View: 1672

This book covers the construction, analysis, and theory of continuous nowhere differentiable functions, comprehensively and accessibly. After illuminating the significance of the subject through an overview of its history, the reader is introduced to the sophisticated toolkit of ideas and tricks used to study the explicit continuous nowhere differentiable functions of Weierstrass, Takagi–van der Waerden, Bolzano, and others. Modern tools of functional analysis, measure theory, and Fourier analysis are applied to examine the generic nature of continuous nowhere differentiable functions, as well as linear structures within the (nonlinear) space of continuous nowhere differentiable functions. To round out the presentation, advanced techniques from several areas of mathematics are brought together to give a state-of-the-art analysis of Riemann’s continuous, and purportedly nowhere differentiable, function. For the reader’s benefit, claims requiring elaboration, and open problems, are clearly indicated. An appendix conveniently provides background material from analysis and number theory, and comprehensive indices of symbols, problems, and figures enhance the book’s utility as a reference work. Students and researchers of analysis will value this unique book as a self-contained guide to the subject and its methods.
Release

Emergence of the Theory of Lie Groups

An Essay in the History of Mathematics 1869–1926

Author: Thomas Hawkins

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461212022

Category: Mathematics

Page: 566

View: 8020

The great Norwegian mathematician Sophus Lie developed the general theory of transformations in the 1870s, and the first part of the book properly focuses on his work. In the second part the central figure is Wilhelm Killing, who developed structure and classification of semisimple Lie algebras. The third part focuses on the developments of the representation of Lie algebras, in particular the work of Elie Cartan. The book concludes with the work of Hermann Weyl and his contemporaries on the structure and representation of Lie groups which serves to bring together much of the earlier work into a coherent theory while at the same time opening up significant avenues for further work.
Release

Galois Theory

Author: Steven H. Weintraub

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0387875751

Category: Mathematics

Page: 212

View: 3301

Galois theory is a mature mathematical subject of particular beauty. Any Galois theory book written nowadays bears a great debt to Emil Artin’s classic text "Galois Theory," and this book is no exception. While Artin’s book pioneered an approach to Galois theory that relies heavily on linear algebra, this book’s author takes the linear algebra emphasis even further. This special approach to the subject together with the clarity of its presentation, as well as the choice of topics covered, has made the first edition of this book a more than worthwhile addition to the literature on Galois Theory. The second edition, with a new chapter on transcendental extensions, will only further serve to make the book appreciated by and approachable to undergraduate and beginning graduate math majors.
Release

Geometric Integration Theory

Author: Steven G. Krantz,Harold R. Parks

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780817646790

Category: Mathematics

Page: 340

View: 6656

This textbook introduces geometric measure theory through the notion of currents. Currents, continuous linear functionals on spaces of differential forms, are a natural language in which to formulate types of extremal problems arising in geometry, and can be used to study generalized versions of the Plateau problem and related questions in geometric analysis. Motivating key ideas with examples and figures, this book is a comprehensive introduction ideal for both self-study and for use in the classroom. The exposition demands minimal background, is self-contained and accessible, and thus is ideal for both graduate students and researchers.
Release

A Mathematical Odyssey

Journey from the Real to the Complex

Author: Steven G. Krantz,Harold R. Parks

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1461489393

Category: Mathematics

Page: 382

View: 3130

Mathematics is a poem. It is a lucid, sensual, precise exposition of beautiful ideas directed to specific goals. It is worthwhile to have as broad a cross-section of mankind as possible be conversant with what goes on in mathematics. Just as everyone knows that the Internet is a powerful and important tool for communication, so everyone should know that the Poincaré conjecture gives us important information about the shape of our universe. Just as every responsible citizen realizes that the mass-production automobile was pioneered by Henry Ford, so everyone should know that the P/NP problem has implications for security and data manipulation that will affect everyone. This book endeavors to tell the story of the modern impact of mathematics, of its trials and triumphs and insights, in language that can be appreciated by a broad audience. It endeavors to show what mathematics means for our lives, how it impacts all of us, and what new thoughts it should cause us to entertain. It introduces new vistas of mathematical ideas and shares the excitement of new ideas freshly minted. It discusses the significance and impact of these ideas, and gives them meaning that will travel well and cause people to reconsider their place in the universe. Mathematics is one of mankind's oldest disciplines. Along with philosophy, it has shaped the very modus of human thought. And it continues to do so. To be unaware of modern mathematics is to miss out on a large slice of life. It is to be left out of essential modern developments. We want to address this point, and do something about it. This is a book to make mathematics exciting for people of all interests and all walks of life. Mathematics is exhilarating, it is ennobling, it is uplifting, and it is fascinating. We want to show people this part of our world, and to get them to travel new paths.
Release

Varieties of Integration

Author: C. Ray Rosentrater

Publisher: The Mathematical Association of America

ISBN: 0883853590

Category: Mathematics

Page: 342

View: 1368

Varieties of Integration explores the critical contributions by Riemann, Darboux, Lebesgue, Henstock, Kurzweil, and Stieltjes to the theory of integration and provides a glimpse of more recent variations of the integral such as those involving operator-valued measures. By the first year of graduate school, a young mathematician will have encountered at least three separate definitions of the integral. The associated integrals are typically studied in isolation with little attention paid to the relationships between them or to the historical issues that motivated their definitions. Varieties of Integration redresses this situation by introducing the Riemann, Darboux, Lebesgue, and gauge integrals in a single volume using a common set of examples. This approach allows the reader to see how the definitions influence proof techniques and computational strategies. Then the properties of the integrals are compared in three major areas: the class of integrable functions, the convergence properties of the integral, and the best form of the Fundamental Theorems of Calculus.
Release

Abstractionism

Essays in Philosophy of Mathematics

Author: Philip A. Ebert,Marcus Rossberg

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199645264

Category:

Page: 368

View: 1916

Abstractionism, which is a development of Frege's original Logicism, is a recent and much debated position in the philosophy of mathematics. This volume contains 16 original papers by leading scholars on the philosophical and mathematical aspects of Abstractionism. After an extensive editors' introduction to the topic of abstractionism, five contributions deal with the semantics and meta-ontology of Abstractionism, as well as the so-called Caesar Problem. Four papers then discuss abstractionist epistemology, focusing on the idea of implicit definitions and non-evidential warrants (entitlements) to account for a priori mathematical knowledge. This is followed by four chapters concerning the mathematics of Abstractionism, in particular the issue of impredicativity, the Bad Company objection, and the question of abstractionist set theory. Finally, the last section of the book contains three contributions that discuss Frege's application constraint within an abstractionist setting.
Release

A Historian Looks Back

The Calculus as Algebra and Selected Writings

Author: Judith V. Grabiner

Publisher: MAA

ISBN: 0883855720

Category: Mathematics

Page: 287

View: 2289

Judith Grabiner has written extensively on the history of mathematics, principally for mathematicians rather than historians. This collection of her work highlights the benefits of studying the development of mathematical ideas and the relationship between culture and mathematics. She also considers the struggles and successes of famous mathematicians with the aim of inspiring students and teachers alike. A large part of this book is the author's The Calculus as Algebra: J.-L. Lagrange, 1736-1813 which focuses on Lagrange's pioneering attempt to reduce the calculus to algebra. The nine other articles are on a broad range of other topics such as some widely held myths about the history of mathematics and the work of heavyweight mathematicians such as Descartes, Newton, Maclaurin and Lagrange. Six of these articles have won awards from the MAA for expository excellence. This collection is an inspiring resource for history of mathematics courses.
Release

The Mathematics of Elections and Voting

Author: W.D. Wallis

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319098101

Category: Mathematics

Page: 96

View: 4522

This title takes an in-depth look at the mathematics in the context of voting and electoral systems, with focus on simple ballots, complex elections, fairness, approval voting, ties, fair and unfair voting, and manipulation techniques. The exposition opens with a sketch of the mathematics behind the various methods used in conducting elections. The reader is lead to a comprehensive picture of the theoretical background of mathematics and elections through an analysis of Condorcet’s Principle and Arrow’s Theorem of conditions in electoral fairness. Further detailed discussion of various related topics include: methods of manipulating the outcome of an election, amendments, and voting on small committees. In recent years, electoral theory has been introduced into lower-level mathematics courses, as a way to illustrate the role of mathematics in our everyday life. Few books have studied voting and elections from a more formal mathematical viewpoint. This text will be useful to those who teach lower level courses or special topics courses and aims to inspire students to understand the more advanced mathematics of the topic. The exercises in this text are ideal for upper undergraduate and early graduate students, as well as those with a keen interest in the mathematics behind voting and elections.
Release

Theory of Complex Functions

Author: Reinhold Remmert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461209390

Category: Mathematics

Page: 458

View: 7257

A lively and vivid look at the material from function theory, including the residue calculus, supported by examples and practice exercises throughout. There is also ample discussion of the historical evolution of the theory, biographical sketches of important contributors, and citations - in the original language with their English translation - from their classical works. Yet the book is far from being a mere history of function theory, and even experts will find a few new or long forgotten gems here. Destined to accompany students making their way into this classical area of mathematics, the book offers quick access to the essential results for exam preparation. Teachers and interested mathematicians in finance, industry and science will profit from reading this again and again, and will refer back to it with pleasure.
Release

From Groups to Geometry and Back

Author: Vaughn Climenhaga,Anatole Katok

Publisher: American Mathematical Soc.

ISBN: 1470434792

Category: Geometry

Page: 420

View: 6165

Groups arise naturally as symmetries of geometric objects, and so groups can be used to understand geometry and topology. Conversely, one can study abstract groups by using geometric techniques and ultimately by treating groups themselves as geometric objects. This book explores these connections between group theory and geometry, introducing some of the main ideas of transformation groups, algebraic topology, and geometric group theory. The first half of the book introduces basic notions of group theory and studies symmetry groups in various geometries, including Euclidean, projective, and hyperbolic. The classification of Euclidean isometries leads to results on regular polyhedra and polytopes; the study of symmetry groups using matrices leads to Lie groups and Lie algebras. The second half of the book explores ideas from algebraic topology and geometric group theory. The fundamental group appears as yet another group associated to a geometric object and turns out to be a symmetry group using covering spaces and deck transformations. In the other direction, Cayley graphs, planar models, and fundamental domains appear as geometric objects associated to groups. The final chapter discusses groups themselves as geometric objects, including a gentle introduction to Gromov's theorem on polynomial growth and Grigorchuk's example of intermediate growth. The book is accessible to undergraduate students (and anyone else) with a background in calculus, linear algebra, and basic real analysis, including topological notions of convergence and connectedness. This book is a result of the MASS course in algebra at Penn State University in the fall semester of 2009.
Release