The Political Economy of Livelihoods in Contemporary Zimbabwe

Author: Kirk Helliker,Manase Kudzai Chiweshe,Sandra Bhatasara

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351273221

Category: Political Science

Page: 232

View: 3020

Since the introduction of the fast track land reform programme in 2000, Zimbabwe has undergone major economic and political shifts and these have had a profound impact on both urban and rural livelihoods. This book provides rich empirical studies that examine a range of multi-faceted and contested livelihoods within the context of systemic crises. Taking a broad political economy approach, the chapters advance a grounded and in-depth understanding of emerging and shifting livelihood processes, strategies and resilience that foregrounds agency at household level. Highlighting an emergent scholarship amongst young black scholars in Zimbabwe, and providing an understanding of how people and communities respond to socio-economic challenges, this book is an important read for scholars of African political economy, southern African studies and livelihoods.
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Zimbabwe

The Political Economy of Transformation

Author: Hevina Smith Dashwood

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 9780802082268

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 252

View: 3932

Dashwood argues that it was the class interests of the ruling elite of Zimbabwethat explains the failure of the government to devise a coherent, socially sensitive development strategy in conjunction with market-based reforms.
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Farm Labor Struggles in Zimbabwe

The Ground of Politics

Author: Blair Rutherford

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 0253024072

Category: Social Science

Page: 294

View: 8018

In the early twentieth-first century, white-owned farms in Zimbabwe were subject to large-scale occupations by black urban dwellers in an increasingly violent struggle between national electoral politics, land reform, and contestations over democracy. Were the black occupiers being freed from racist bondage as cheap laborers by the state-supported massive land redistribution, or were they victims of state violence who had been denied access to their homes, social services, and jobs? Blair Rutherford examines the unequal social and power relations shaping the lives, livelihoods, and struggles of some of the farm workers during this momentous period in Zimbabwean history. His analysis is anchored in the time he spent on a horticultural farm just east of Harare, the capital of Zimbabwe, that was embroiled in the tumult of political violence associated with jambanja, the democratization movement. Rutherford complicates this analysis by showing that there was far more in play than political oppression by a corrupt and authoritarian regime and a movement to rectify racial and colonial land imbalances, as dominant narratives would have it. Instead, he reveals, farm worker livelihoods, access to land, gendered violence, and conflicting promises of rights and sovereignty played a more important role in the political economy of citizenship and labor than had been imagined.
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The Political Economy of Land and Agrarian Development in Ethiopia

The Arssi Region since 1941

Author: Ketebo Abdiyo Ensene

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351851349

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 773

Located in central Ethiopia, the Arssi region is one of the most productive in Ethiopia yet it has so far been neglected by scholars. This book scrutinizes the rural development of Arssi by focusing on the Swedish supported experimental venture known as the Chilalo Agricultural Development Unit (CADU) and later as the Arssi Rural Development Unit (ARDU). Ketebo Abdiyo Ensene investigates how effectively this strategy empowered the peasantry to change their farming techniques and produce beyond subsistence level. He also examines the accumulation of alienated land by the northern Ethiopian nobility through land grants, fake purchases, and other futile means of land grabs and the impact that this had on the native population. Finally, the book reassess the importance of the rural land reform of 1975 that followed the collapses of the imperial regime and argues that this was the most significant event in the history of agricultural development in Ethiopia. Land and Agrarian Development in Ethiopia will be of interest to scholars of Ethiopia, African Studies, economic history, political economy, development and agriculture.
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Circular Migration in Zimbabwe & Contemporary Sub-Saharan Africa

Author: Deborah Helen Potts

Publisher: Boydell & Brewer

ISBN: 1847010237

Category: Social Science

Page: 300

View: 3163

The World Bank insists that the urban share of sub-Saharan Africa's population is rapidly increasing - this study shows that in many countries this is no longer true as migration strategies have adapted in response to economic and political change.
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Africa's Land Rush

Rural Livelihoods & Agrarian Change

Author: Ruth Hall,Ian Scoones,Dzodzi Tsikata

Publisher: African Issues

ISBN: 9781847011305

Category: Electronic books

Page: 204

View: 9402

Interrogates the narratives of "land grabbing" and "agricultural investment" through detailed local studies that illuminate how these are experienced on the ground and the implications for Africa's land and agricultural economy
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The Political Economy of Everyday Life in Africa

Beyond the Margins

Author: Wale Adebanwi

Publisher: Boydell & Brewer

ISBN: 1847011659

Category: Africa

Page: 364

View: 2529

Multi-disciplinary examination of the role of ordinary African people as agents in the generation and distribution of well-being in modern Africa.
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The Informal Post-Socialist Economy

Embedded Practices and livelihoods

Author: Jeremy Morris,Abel Polese

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135009295

Category: Social Science

Page: 188

View: 7610

From smugglers to entrepreneurs, blue-collar workers and taxi drivers, this book deals with the multitude of characters engaged in informal economic practices in the former socialist regions. Going beyond a conception of informality as opposed to the formal sector, its authors demonstrate the fluid nature of informal transactions straddling the crossroads between illegal, illicit, socially acceptable and symbolically meaningful practices. Their argument is informed by a wide range of case studies, from Central Europe to the Baltics and Central Asia, each of which is constructed around a single informant. Each chapter narrates the story of a composite person or household that was carefully selected or constructed by an author with long-standing ethnographic research experience in the given field site. Wide in geographical, empirical and theoretical scope, the book uses ethnographic narrative accounts of everyday life to make links between ‘ordinary’ meanings of informality. Challenging reductively economistic perspectives on cross-border trading, undeclared work and other informal activities, the authors illustrate the wide variety of interpretive meanings that people ascribe to such practices. Alongside ‘getting by’ and ‘getting ahead’ in recently marketised societies, these meanings relate to sociality, kinship-ties and solidarity, along with more surprising ‘political’ and moral reasonings.
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The Handbook of Contemporary Cambodia

Author: Katherine Brickell,Simon Springer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131756782X

Category: Social Science

Page: 456

View: 3555

Offering a comprehensive overview of the current situation in the country, The Handbook of Contemporary Cambodia provides a broad coverage of social, cultural, political and economic development within both rural and urban contexts during the last decade. A detailed introduction places Cambodia within its global and regional frame, and the handbook is then divided into five thematic sections: Political and Economic Tensions Rural Developments Urban Conflicts Social Processes Cultural Currents The first section looks at the major political implications and tensions that have occurred in Cambodia, as well as the changing parameters of its economic profile. The handbook then highlights the major developments that are unfolding within the rural sphere, before moving on to consider how cities in Cambodia, and particularly Phnom Penh, have become primary sites of change. The fourth section covers the major processes that have shaped social understandings of the country, and how Cambodians have come to understand themselves in relation to each other and the outside world. Section five analyses the cultural dimensions of Cambodia’s current experience, and how identity comes into contact with and responds to other cultural themes. Bringing together a team of leading scholars on Cambodia, the handbook presents an understanding of how sociocultural and political economic processes in the country have evolved. It is a cutting edge and interdisciplinary resource for scholars and students of Southeast Asian Studies, as well as policymakers, sociologists and political scientists with an interest in contemporary Cambodia.
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State, Land and Democracy in Southern Africa

Author: Arrigo Pallotti,Corrado Tornimbeni

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317050312

Category: Political Science

Page: 208

View: 9121

Each country in southern Africa has a unique history but in all of them socio-economic inequalities and high poverty levels weaken the governments’ legitimacy and represent a challenge to models of economic development. One key issue appears to be the solution of the land question. This vital concern affects both citizenship and democracy in the political systems of the region, yet no government has shown the capacity or commitment to solve it. In this volume leading European, American and African scholars explore in detail the relationship between state, land and democracy. They examine the historical background of asset allocation and its impact on questions of nationality, the definition of citizenship, human rights and the current political and economic processes in southern Africa.
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Suffering for Territory

Race, Place, and Power in Zimbabwe

Author: Donald S. Moore

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822387328

Category: Political Science

Page: 424

View: 820

Since 2000, black squatters have forcibly occupied white farms across Zimbabwe, reigniting questions of racialized dispossession, land rights, and legacies of liberation. Donald S. Moore probes these contentious politics by analyzing fierce disputes over territory, sovereignty, and subjection in the country’s eastern highlands. He focuses on poor farmers in Kaerezi who endured colonial evictions from their ancestral land and lived as refugees in Mozambique during Zimbabwe’s guerrilla war. After independence in 1980, Kaerezians returned home to a changed landscape. Postcolonial bureaucrats had converted their land from a white ranch into a state resettlement scheme. Those who defied this new spatial order were threatened with eviction. Moore shows how Kaerezians’ predicaments of place pivot on memories of “suffering for territory,” at once an idiom of identity and entitlement. Combining fine-grained ethnography with innovative theoretical insights, this book illuminates the complex interconnections between local practices of power and the wider forces of colonial rule, nationalist politics, and global discourses of development. Moore makes a significant contribution to postcolonial theory with his conceptualization of “entangled landscapes” by articulating racialized rule, situated sovereignties, and environmental resources. Fusing Gramscian cultural politics and Foucault’s analytic of governmentality, he enlists ethnography to foreground the spatiality of power. Suffering for Territory demonstrates how emplaced micro-practices matter, how the outcomes of cultural struggles are contingent on the diverse ways land comes to be inhabited, labored upon, and suffered for.
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Women's Livelihood Rights

Recasting Citizenship for Development

Author: Sumi Krishna

Publisher: SAGE Publications India

ISBN: 8132101537

Category: Social Science

Page: 424

View: 6866

This interdisciplinary book looks at women`s natural resource-based livelihoods in the wider context of development viewed through the lens of citizenship rights. Unravelling the patriarchal social fabric and policy structures in India, it argues that the concept of citizenship needs to be extended to include recognition of ways of life and livelihood, so that women take their legitimate space as productive human beings, entitled to dignity as a political right, and not merely to protection and welfare. The editor weaves together a historical perspective on varied dimensions of livelihood, development and citizenship. Drawing upon rich field-based researches in 13 states across India, the authors deal with complex and inter-related themes: the need to recognise women`s right to resources and their livelihood and employment strategies; the challenges of democratic governance and of restructuring institutional systems to make them responsive; and the role of women`s collective agency in development. Reflecting upon and critically analysing context-specific issues in several less-studied locations, the book shows that there is much to be learnt from empathetic interaction with the collective struggles of poor women, and from action and dialogue on the ground. Further, it suggests that feminist politics has to network strategically with other struggles to counter the resistance of traditional and contemporary patriarchal structures, and to work towards recasting citizenship for a gender-just development that ensures women`s livelihood rights.
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Gender, Poverty and Livelihood in the Eastern Himalayas

Author: Sanjoy Hazarika,Reshmi Banerjee

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1351608584

Category: Social Science

Page: 190

View: 1027

The Eastern Himalaya region covers a geographical area that spans five nations and has diverse landscapes, a multitude of ethnic groups and a rich variety of flora and fauna. The region is relatively poor in terms of GDP and per capita income; industrialisation and infrastructure is under-developed; climate-induced disasters are frequent; and maternal and infant mortality rates are high. Economic constraints combined with restrictive cultural norms create barriers for women in education, employment and decision-making, thus further entrenching unequal gender relations. This book explores the ways in which gender-sensitive and inclusive policies can be developed to address the basic issues of marginalisation, livelihood, poverty and vulnerability in the Eastern Himalayas. The chapters in the volume touch upon current concerns, such as the economic and social challenges faced by women, their control over resources, questions of patriarchy, discrimination, gender rights and equity, information, empowerment and participation, and women as agents of change. This volume will be useful to researchers and scholars in gender studies, sociology and social anthropology, development studies, economic and human geography, politics, northeast and Himalayan studies, South Asian studies, as well as policymakers and those in the development sector and non-governmental organisations.
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African Politics

Author: P.F. Gonidec

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400989024

Category: Social Science

Page: 367

View: 7971

To an increasing extent, nationals of Third World countries are protesting against the tendency of foreign theoreticians and observers to study their problems - political problems in particular - in terms of concepts and theories established on the basis of European experiences. For instance, the Egyptian Abdel Malek I in La diaiectique sociaie, writes: 'At the starting point, whose broad lines we sketch here, there is evidence of inadequation, deriving from the fact of difference. Inadequation of the conceptual system of the social sciences. Differences between Western societie- which have provided the larger part of the analytical material for the con ceptual elaboration and establishment of theoretical systems in different disciplines - on the one hand, and non-Western societies (those of Asia, Africa and Latin America) on the other hand. ' This does not mean that the author impugns universalism and that he advocates enclosing the Third World in a sort of intellectual ghetto, overemphasizing its specificity, and constituting as it were 'reserves' designed to highlight the exotic aspect for the benefit of foreigners. 2 On the contrary, what he takes sociology to task for is its insufficiently universal and universalizing nature. This being so, his aim is to make concepts more universal and to rebuild theory with the help of reshaped concepts. Abel Malek's criticisms are largely justified. There is indeed a certain eurocentricity in the theories elaborated by political scientists, even if they deny it.
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Land, Poverty and Livelihoods in an Era of Globalization

Perspectives from Developing and Transition Countries

Author: A. Haroon Akram-Lodhi,Saturnino M. Borras Jr.,Cristóbal Kay

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134121911

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 448

View: 6957

A host of internationally eminent scholars are brought together here to explore the structural causes of rural poverty and income inequality, as well as the processes of social exclusion and political subordination encountered by the peasantry and rural workers across a wide range of countries. This volume examines the intersection of politics and economics and provides a critical analysis and framework for the study of neo-liberal land policies in the current phase of globalization. Utilizing new empirical evidence from ten countries, it provides an in-depth analysis of key country studies, a comparative analysis of agrarian reforms and their impact on rural poverty in Africa, Asia, Latin America and transition countries. Presenting an agrarian reform policy embedded in an appropriate development strategy, which is able to significantly reduce and hopefully eliminate rural poverty, this work is a key resource for postgraduate students studying in the areas of development economics, development studies and international political economy.
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Confronting Capital

Critique and Engagement in Anthropology

Author: Pauline Gardiner Barber,Belinda Leach,Winnie Lem

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136257470

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 6168

This volume is an exploration of the ways in which political economy as a mode of analysis moves anthropology toward a vital, politically engaged form of scholarship. It advances the understanding of the struggles of ordinary people in the face of capitalist change. In the current economic moment when such changes are tumultuous and the instabilities of capitalism are starkly revealed, this book responds to the urgent need for theoretical and methodological approaches for understanding the forces that shape our contemporary world. Through ethnographic investigations of the quotidian, and through the thematic of politics, history and livelihoods, which distinguish Marxist political economy in the field of anthropology, the authors here reveal the increasing complexity of everyday lives. Using examples derived from fieldwork carried out across diverse geographical locations, the authors pay particular attention to historical conditions shaping the peoples’ life trajectories. In so doing the authors engage critically, and with differing emphases, with political economy and Marxism as a mode of inquiry. This book illustrates the productive tension between observations emerging from the field and theoretical debates that is generated by anthropological ethnography.
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Economic Spaces of Pastoral Production and Commodity Systems

Markets and Livelihoods

Author: Prof Dr Jörg Gertel,Professor Richard Le Heron

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 140949036X

Category: Science

Page: 362

View: 9773

Pastoralism as a land use system is under recognized in terms of its contribution to food provision, livelihoods as well as to human security. This book is the first attempt to explore the dynamics of economic spaces of pastoral production and commodity systems for explicit South and North positionings. It develops and applies a new approach in combining agri-food, market and commodity chain perspectives with livelihood approaches. This enables new understandings of re-aligning exchange relations between the global south and the global north. The case studies presented open up new empirical insights in largely under-researched areas, such as Afghanistan, Chad, Tibet and Siberia and very recent changes in industrialized economies with major pastoral sectors. The book reveals new evidence and theoretical insights about significant changes in established producer-consumer relations in agriculture and food.
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Work and Livelihoods

History, Ethnography and Models in Times of Crisis

Author: Susana Narotzky,Victoria Goddard

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317602439

Category: Social Science

Page: 238

View: 4026

This volume presents a global range of ethnographic case studies to explore the ways in which - in the context of the restructuring of industrial work, the ongoing financial crisis, and the surge in unemployment and precarious employment - local and global actors engage with complex social processes and devise ideological, political, and economic responses to them. It shows how the reorganization and re-signification of work, notably shifts in the perception and valorization of work, affect domestic and community arrangements and shape the conditions of life of workers and their families.
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