The Nature of Mediterranean Europe

An Ecological History

Author: Alfred Thomas Grove,Oliver Rackham

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300100556

Category: History

Page: 384

View: 5461

This large volume draws on evidence from fieldwork, historical records, archaeology, pollen analysis and recent research in discussing the ecology of Mediterranean Europe from the past to the present day. Grove and Rackham provide clear explanations and discussions of different ecosystems, of ruined landscapes, climate fluctuations and vegetation change, the impact of fire, terracing, agriculture and man's changing subsistence strategies, of coastal erosion and deforestation. A highly readable book, packed full of information, which also assesses the pessimistic view that many people hold over the future of the landscape and environment.
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The New Dimensions of the European Landscapes

Author: R.H.G Jongman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402029103

Category: Science

Page: 258

View: 9828

The European Landscape is under stress of changing land use and a changing attitude of its users. Globalization, the disappearance of the iron curtain and the recent EU enlargement to 25 countries have changed the economic and environmental dimensions of Europe. Europe is changing its face from a western and eastern part to one European Union and to fast connections between its centres of activity. The rural and cultural heritage of Europe has to be adapted to cope with this change. However, its landscape is worth to be conserved as well, because it represents the European history in the same way as castles and churches. It even more represents the history of the common people, because it has been the tradition of the rural population that made these landscapes. It cannot be prevented that Europe is changing and it is good that Europe adapts to the new dimensions of the world. We, in Europe, have to define what we think is important and what must be conserved, what can be adapted to be used for new functions and what can be abolished because it has no value. These decisions will determine the new dimensions of the European landscapes. The Frontis Workshop on the New Dimensions of the European Landscape was held on 10-12 June 2002. Wageningen University and Research Centre organized this workshop aiming to develop visions on the landscape in Europe, its development and design in the future and to strengthen the international network in landscape planning.
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European Wood-pastures in Transition

A Social-ecological Approach

Author: Tibor Hartel,Tobias Plieninger

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135139032

Category: Nature

Page: 322

View: 5573

Wood-pastures are important elements of European cultural identity and have an exceptional ecological value, yet they are in decline all over Europe. The structure of wood-pastures is strongly influenced by grazing and multiple other land uses and by local and regional environmental conditions. This book examines the diverse expressions of wood-pastures across Europe. It provides a new perspective, using a social-ecological framework to explore social and ecological values, governing institutions, threats and conservation approaches. It explores the major drivers of decline, which are shown to be related to accelerated cultural, institutional and developmental changes occurring across Europe over the past century. Case studies are included from North-Western, Southern, and Eastern Europe. Written by renowned scholars and conservationists, the book contributes to developing better, locally adapted conservation policies and management approaches for wood-pastures.
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The Making of the Cretan Landscape

Author: Oliver Rackham,Jennifer Moody

Publisher: Manchester University Press

ISBN: 9780719036477

Category: Art

Page: 237

View: 7548

This is the first book to help the visitor understand Crete's remarkable landscape, which is just as spectacular as the island's rich archaeological heritage. Crete is a wonderful and dramatic island, a miniature continent with precipitous mountains, a hundred gorges, unique plants, extinct animals and lost civilisations, as well as the characteristic agricultural landscape of olive groves, vines and goats, Jennifer Moody and Oliver Rackham explain how the island's peculiar and extraordinary features, moulded and modified by centuries of human activity, have come together to create the landscape we see today. They also explain the formation and ecology of Crete's beautiful mountains and coastline, and the contemporary threats to the island's fragile natural beauty.
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European Landscapes in Transition

Implications for Policy and Practice

Author: Teresa Pinto-Correia,Jørgen Primdahl,Bas Pedroli

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108340318

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 8961

European rural landscapes as we experience them today are the result of ongoing processes and interactions between nature and society. These are changing fast: the future landscapes will be different from those we know currently. Written for academics, policy-makers and practitioners, this book is the first to explore the complex histories of rural landscapes in Europe as a basis for their sound governance in future. Tensions between the needs of agricultural spaces driven by economic incentives and a variety of non-agricultural functions are explored to demonstrate current challenges and the shortfalls in the policies that address them. Using inspiring case studies that highlight the roles of regional agents and communities, the authors go further than the usual analyses to illustrate the importance of local context. Written by experts currently working to revitalise the rural landscapes of Europe, the text concludes with suggestions for improving landscape policy and planning practice.
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Environmental Challenges in the Mediterranean 2000–2050

Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Environmental Challenges in the Mediterranean 2000–2050 Madrid, Spain 2–5 October 2002

Author: Antonio Marquina

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400709730

Category: Social Science

Page: 390

View: 1844

This book addresses six key factors that will affect environmental policies in the Mediterranean region during the next fifty years: population growth, climate change, soil erosion and desertification, water scarcity, food production, and urbanization and pollution. The authors assess these as potential sources of violent conflict. The interdisciplinary approach makes this a relevant and useful reference for a broad range of professionals, specialists and researchers.
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Landscapes and Societies

Selected Cases

Author: I. Peter Martini,Ward Chesworth

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048194131

Category: Science

Page: 478

View: 6291

This book contains case histories intended to show how societies and landscapes interact. The range of interest stretches from the small groups of the earliest Neolithic, through Bronze and Iron Age civilizations, to modern nation states. The coexistence is, of its very nature reciprocal, resulting in changes in both society and landscape. In some instances the adaptations may be judged successful in terms of human needs, but failure is common and even the successful cases are ephemeral when judged in the light of history. Comparisons and contrasts between the various cases can be made at various scales from global through inter-regional, to regional and smaller scales. At the global scale, all societies deal with major problems of climate change, sea-level rise, and with ubiquitous problems such as soil erosion and landscape degradation. Inter-regional differences bring out significant detail with one region suffering from drought when another suffers from widespread flooding. For example, desertification in North Africa and the Near East contrasts with the temperate countries of southern Europe where the landscape-effects of deforestation are more obvious. And China and Japan offer an interesting comparison from the standpoint of geological hazards to society - large, unpredictable and massively erosive rivers in the former case, volcanoes and accompanying earthquakes in the latter. Within the North African region localized climatic changes led to abandonment of some desertified areas with successful adjustments in others, with the ultimate evolution into the formative civilization of Egypt, the "Gift of the Nile". At a smaller scale it is instructive to compare the city-states of the Medieval and early Renaissance times that developed in the watershed of a single river, the Arno in Tuscany, and how Pisa, Siena and Florence developed and reached their golden periods at different times depending on their location with regard to proximity to the sea, to the main trunk of the river, or in the adjacent hills. Also noteworthy is the role of technology in opening up opportunities for a society. Consider the Netherlands and how its history has been formed by the technical problem of a populous society dealing with too much water, as an inexorably rising sea threatens their landscape; or the case of communities in Colorado trying to deal with too little water for farmers and domestic users, by bringing their supply over a mountain chain. These and others cases included in the book, provide evidence of the successes, near misses and outright failures that mark our ongoing relationship with landscape throughout the history of Homo sapiens. The hope is that compilations such as this will lead to a better understanding of the issue and provide us with knowledge valuable in planning a sustainable modus vivendi between humanity and landscape for as long as possible. Audience: The book will interest geomorphologists, geologists, geographers, archaeologists, anthropologists, ecologists, environmentalists, historians and others in the academic world. Practically, planners and managers interested in landscape/environmental conditions will find interest in these pages, and more generally the increasingly large body of opinion in the general public, with concerns about Planet Earth, will find much to inform their opinions. Extra material: The color plate section is available at http://extras.springer.com
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The Mediterranean

An Environmental History

Author: Johnson Donald Hughes

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1576078108

Category: Science

Page: 333

View: 4833

Covers the key environmental developments in the Mediterranean throughout recorded history and includes case studies charting the agricultural problems of ancient Mesopotamia, climatic change contributing to the downfall of the Roman Empire, and the impact of dam building at Aswan on the Nile.
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Everyone Eats

Understanding Food and Culture

Author: E. N. Anderson

Publisher: NYU Press

ISBN: 0814704956

Category: Social Science

Page: 295

View: 5010

Florence Nightingale (1820-1920) is famous as the heroine of the Crimean War and later as a campaigner for health care founded on a clean environment and good nursing. Though best known for her pioneering demonstration that disease rather than wounds killed most soldiers, she was also heavily allied to social reform movements and to feminist protest against the enforced idleness of middle-class women. This original edition provides bold new insights into Nightingale's beliefs and a new picture of the relationship between feminism and religion. Suggestions for Thought to the Searchers after Truth Among the Artisans of England (1860), which contains the novel Cassandra, is a central text in 19th-century history of feminist thought and is published here for the first time. Nightingale argues that work was the means by which every individual sought self-fulfillment and served God. She wrote influentially about the group most Victorians declared to be above work: unmarried, middle-class women.
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The Iceberg in the Mist: Northern Research in Pursuit of a “Little Ice Age”

Author: A.E.J. Ogilvie,Trausti Jónsson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 940173352X

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 5657

THE "LITTLE ICE AGE": LOCAL AND GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES P. D. JONES and K. R. BRIFFA Climatic Research Unit, University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK. This volume of Climatic Change is devoted to the study of the climate of the last 1000 years, with a major emphasis on the last few centuries. The timespan encompasses what has been referred to as the "Little Ice Age" (Bradley, 1992). This term was originally coined by glaciologists, with reference to the most recent major glacial advance of the Holocene (Bradley and Jones, 1993). Although other such advances in different parts of the world may not have been synchronous, the term "Little Ice Age" has come to be associated with the period of a widespread foreward movement of European glaciers between about 14 50 to 1850, as well as with relatively cooler temperatures. The issue of whether or not this concept is appropriate, is a major theme of many of the papers included in this volume.
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The Oxford Handbook of Environmental History

Author: Andrew C. Isenberg

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199394474

Category: Science

Page: 640

View: 3111

The field of environmental history emerged just decades ago but has established itself as one of the most innovative and important new approaches to history, one that bridges the human and natural world, the humanities and the sciences. With the current trend towards internationalizing history, environmental history is perhaps the quintessential approach to studying subjects outside the nation-state model, with pollution, global warming, and other issues affecting the earth not stopping at national borders. With 25 essays, this Handbook is global in scope and innovative in organization, looking at the field thematically through such categories as climate, disease, oceans, the body, energy, consumerism, and international relations.
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The Ecology of the Ancient Greek World

Author: Robert Sallares

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801426155

Category: History

Page: 588

View: 7782

A pioneering study in historical population biology, this book offers the first comprehensive ecological history of the ancient Greek world. It proposes a new model for treating the relationship between the population and the land, centering on the distribution and abundance of living organisms.
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Mediterranean Ecogeography

Author: Harriett Allen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317877128

Category: Science

Page: 286

View: 4383

A core textbook series that aims to provide students with accessible, up-to-date accounts of Ecogeography - the marriage of ecology with geography - in the primary terrestrial and marine environments. This is the first book in the series on Mediterranean Ecogeography. Biological diversity in the Mediterranean Basin is amongst the highest of any region on earth, both in terms of total species numbers and endemism. The flora is estimated at about 25,000 species of flowering plants and ferns, compared with about 6000 species in non-Mediterranean Europe. About 50% of these are endemic. Diversity amongst vertebrate animals is also high, though endemism rates are lower than for plants. The high levels of diversity contribute to, and are a reflection of, the considerable variability of landscape. This results from a combination of factors including geological and tectonic history, relief and physiography, climate, geomorphological processes, hydrology, soils, the incidence of fires and impact of human activities. The landscapes of the Mediterranean Basin are thus varied and fragmented; a mosaic of ecosystems and communities. Mediterranean Ecogeography aims to examine and explain this heterogeneity, and the approach is focused on the ecogeography of the region. Analysing the factors which account for the present distributions of plants and animals, and the functioning of ecosystems within the Mediterranean Basin can help in the understanding of the relationship between people and natural ecosystems. A key to the conservation of these ecosystems is the wise use of resources, biological and physical. In addition, it is vital to assess how the natural environments of the region will respond to further change. In the last twenty years, understanding of the functioning of mediterranean-type ecosystems has advanced through several international projects. This book draws upon the findings of these, and other research in the Mediterranean Basin, to present a comprehensive text on a key region of the world, and the problems and prospects of its environmental exploitation.
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Antiquity and Modernity

A Celebration of European History and Heritage in the Olympic Year 2004

Author: Nicholas Charles Pappas

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Europe

Page: 384

View: 9471

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Natural History and Applied Ecology of Carabid Beetles

Proceedings of the IXth European Carabidologists' Meeting (26-31 July 1998, Camigliatello, Cosenza, Italy)

Author: Pietro Brandmayr

Publisher: Pensoft Publishers

ISBN: 9789546421005

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 8894

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Sustaining Agriculture and the Rural Environment

Governance, Policy, and Multifunctionality

Author: Floor Brouwer

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 360

View: 7577

Apart from food and raw materials, agriculture can also provide ancillary benefits such as landscapes, biodiversity, cultural heritage and thriving rural communities. This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of strategies for sustainable management practices and their implementation through the adoption of suitable instruments. Such practices aim to sustain and support the multiple functions provided by agriculture and natural resources in the rural countryside. The authors explore the value of alternative governance structures and examine the design of policy models and institutional mechanisms for a range of different countries and agricultural methods. The empirical results allow them to identify successful examples as well as recognize practices which have failed. They can then transfer positive policies to geographical areas or production systems where effective and efficient strategies for the sustainable management of natural resources are urgently needed. In doing so, the authors hope to improve the design, identification and implementation of appropriate policy instruments to help sustain the rural economy in the future. overcome institutional constraints. This timely new book explores emerging perspectives on multifunctionality in agriculture and the rural environment. It will be widely read by academics, researchers and policymakers with an interest in agricultural and resource economics, environmental governance and sustainable development.
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Mare Nostrum

Neogene and Anthropic Natural History of the Mediterranean Basin, with Emphasis on the Levant

Author: Francis Dov Por,Chanan Dimentman

Publisher: Pensoft Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 349

View: 3447

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