The Methodologies of Positivism and Marxism

A Sociological Debate

Author: Norma R.A. Romm

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1349121312

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 2554

Focusing on the methodological principles which underlie sociologists' study of social reality, this text offers clarification and outlines how the different approaches to study originate from various methodogical and philosophical traditions.
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Companion to Social Archaeology

Author: Lynn Meskell,Robert W. Preucel

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470692863

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 603

The Companion to Social Archaeology is the first scholarly work to explore the encounter of social theory and archaeology over the past two decades. Grouped into four sections - Knowledges, Identities, Places, and Politics - each of which is prefaced with a review essay that contextualizes the history and developments in social archaeology and related fields. Draws together newer trends that are challenging established ways of understanding the past. Includes contributions by leading scholars who instigated major theoretical trends.
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Sociology in Perspective

Author: Mark Kirby

Publisher: Heinemann

ISBN: 9780435331603

Category: Sociology

Page: 831

View: 1090

This text, specifically for AQA specifications, is designed to be easy and encouraging for students to use. The book contains updated material and activities together with a new chapter on study skills. It also indicates clearly where activities meet the new evidence requirements for key skills.
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Developments in the Methodology of Social Science

Author: W. Leinfellner,Eckehart Köhler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401022593

Category: Social Science

Page: 445

View: 7753

Philosophy of Science deals with the problem, 'What is science?' It seems that the answer to this question can only be found if we have an answer to the question, 'How does science function?' Thus, the study of the methodology of social sciences is a prominent factor in any analysis of these sciences. The history of philosophy shows clearly that the answer to the question, 'How does science function?' was the conditio sine qua non of any kind of philosophy of science, epistemology and even of logic. Aristotle, Hume, Kant, Mill, Russell, to mention a few classical authors, clearly emphasized the primacy of methodology of science for any kind of philosophy of science. One may even state that analyses of the presup positions, the foundations, the aims, goals and purposes of science are nothing else than analyses of their general and specific formal, as well as practical and empirical methods. Thus, the whole program of any phi losophy of science is dependent on the analysis of the methods of sciences and the establishment of their criteria. If the study of scientific method is the predominant factor in the philosophy of science, then all the other problems will depend on the outcome of such a study. For example, the old question of a possible unity of all social sciences will be brought to a solution by the study of the presuppositions, the methods, as well as of the criteria germane to all social sciences.
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Cultural Theory

Classical and Contemporary Positions

Author: Tim Edwards

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1848607520

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 7770

"Written by some of the leading thinkers in the field, the book is an excellent resource for longstanding and contemporary issues in cultural theory. Comprehensive and well-written." - David Oswell, Goldsmiths College This timely volume provides a framework for understanding the cultural turn in terms of the classical legacy, contemporary cultural theory and cultural analysis. It reveals the significance of Marxist humanism, Georg Simmel, the Frankfurt School, Stuart Hall and the Birmingham School, Giddens, Bauman, Foucault, Bourdieu and Baudrillard. Readers receive a dazzling, critical survey of some of the primary figures in the field. However, the book is much more than a Rough Guide tour through the 'great figures' in the field. Through an analysis of specific problems, such as transculturalism, transnationalsim, feminism, popular music and cultural citizenship, it demonstrates the relevance of cultural sociology in elucidating some of the key questions of our time.
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Marx and Wittgenstein

Social Praxis and Social Explanation

Author: D. Rubinstein

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317831349

Category: Philosophy

Page: 248

View: 7245

First published in 2005. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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Antipositivist Theories of the Sciences

Critical Rationalism, Critical Theory and Scientific Realism

Author: N. Stockman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401576785

Category: Science

Page: 284

View: 5289

The sciences are too important to be left exclusively to scientists, and indeed they have not been. The structure of scientific knowledge, the role of the sciences in society, the appropriate social contexts for the pursuit of scientific inquiry, have long been matters for reflection and debate about the sciences carried on both within academe and outside it. Even within the universities this reflection has not been the property of any single discipline. Philosophy might have been first in the field, but history and the social sciences have also entered the fray. For the latter, new problems came to the fore, since reflection on the sciences is, in the case of the social sciences, necessarily also reflection on themselves as sciences. Reflection on the natural sciences and self-reflection by the social sciences came to be dominated in the 1960s by the term 'positivism'. At the time when this word had been invented, the sciences were flourishing; their social and material environment had become increasingly favourable to scientific progress, and the sciences were pointing the way to an optimistic future. In the later twentieth century, however, 'positivism' came to be a word used more frequently by those less sure of nineteenth century certainties. In both sociology and philosophy, 'positivism' was now something to be rejected, and, symbolizing the collapse of an earlier consensus, it became itself the shibboleth of a new dissensus, as different groups of reflective thinkers, in rejecting 'positivism', rejected something different, and often rejected each other.
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The Sociology of Virtue

The Political & Social Theories of George Sorel

Author: John Stanley

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520037908

Category: Social Science

Page: 387

View: 6272

Studie over het werk van de Franse socioloof en anarcho-syndicalistische activist Georges Sorel (1847-1922).
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The Debate on Classes

Author: Erik Olin Wright

Publisher: Verso

ISBN: 9781859842805

Category: Social Science

Page: 356

View: 9773

Erik Olin Wright's Classes was hailed on publication, by the American Journal of Sociology, as "almost certain to be the most important book on social classes" of the decade. Wright presented a bold attempt—through the subtle use of the tools of analytical Marxism—to resolve some of the long-standing problems in contemporary class theory. The Debate on Classes brings together major critics of Wright's work to assess the adequacy of his theory. From differing perspectives, they deploy a range of empirical data—from studies undertaken in a number of countries—and they address questions as varied as the concept of "contradictory class locations," the continuing coherence of Marxist approaches to class, the relation between stratification and social development, as well as the contentious roles of gender and ethnicity in generating inequality, and the central problem of the import of "consciousness" and concrete political activity on class composition. Also included are Wright's own spirited responses and reformulations in the light of these criticisms, thereby presenting the reader with an open, scholarly discussion in which intellectual collaboration develops an understanding of the impact of class on the wider terrain of culture and politics.
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Sociology, Phenomenology and Marxian Analysis

A Critical Discussion of the Theory and Practice of a Science of Society

Author: Barry Smart

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134479808

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 6776

Sociology is an established academic discipline but there has been continuing debate over its status as a science and the nature of its subject matter. This led to the emergence of a phenomenological sociology and to critiques of positivist sociology. This critical reappraisal of the relevance of Marxian analysis for a science of society shows how these developments within sociology have had their counterpart in Marxism. The author analyses the status of Marx’s work and the Marxist ‘tradition’ in sociology. He focuses upon those concerns which are common to both Marxian analysis and sociology – the question of subjectivity; the nature of social reality; and the dialectical relationship of the ‘doing’ or practice of a science of society to the social world within which such social analyses are situated. Originally published in 1976.
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Structure, Interaction and Social Theory (RLE Social Theory)

Author: Derek Layder

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317650670

Category: Social Science

Page: 164

View: 8208

A central problem in contemporary social theory is that of providing an account of social interaction that does justice both to the self-monitoring capacities of the individuals involved and to the society that ‘frames’ the interaction. This book attempts to resolve this problem, arguing for an objectivist or ‘structuralist’ account which does not undervalue the importance of the indexical and negotiated aspects of interaction, and which takes seriously the Marxist-rationalist critique of empiricism and humanism and the associated idea that society should be treated as a supra-individual, preconstituted and constraining object of scientific analysis. First, Dr Layder pinpoints certain of the strengths and weaknesses of various schools of thought: social psychology (scrutinized in both its sociological and psychological forms), sociology, the Marxist-rationalist approach. Whilst rejecting the mechanistic or naively deterministic theories which are often associated with an objectivist stance, he argues that the productive activities of situated actors must be understood as existing in an articulated relationship with, and within, sets of preconstituted contextual constraints. This thesis is illustrated conceptually by the development of a framework which distinguishes two types and levels of social structure, with different modes of production and reproduction, and empirically by an analysis of aspects of interaction in the occupation of acting.
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Habermas's Critical Theory of Society

Author: Jane Braaten

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791407592

Category: Social Science

Page: 191

View: 357

This book provides an understanding of the content and aims of Habermas's critical theory of society -- the theory that analyzes the causes of our cultural lack of direction, polical apathy, and the increasing complexity of modern society. The author offers a foothold on the current debates regarding the credibility and cogency of the theory. Braaten presents Habermas's defense of his critique of reason in his most recent work concerning the confrontation between postmodernists and neoconservatives, and modernists and liberal theorists. She also explores the possibility of applying Habermas's critical resources in the United States in ways that he himself may not have considered.
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Debates in Contemporary Political Philosophy

An Anthology

Author: Derek Matravers,Jonathan Pike

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134415907

Category: Philosophy

Page: 464

View: 1126

This textbook reflects the buoyant state of contemporary political philosophy, and the development of the subject in the past two decades. It includes seminal papers on fundamental philosophical issues such as: the nature of social explanation distributive justice liberalism and communitarianism citizenship and multiculturalism nationalism democracy criminal justice. A range of views is represented, demonstrating the richness of the philosophical contribution to some of the most contested areas of public policy and political decision making. Each section has an introduction by the editors that situates the papers in the ongoing debate. Further Reading sections feature at the end of each chapter. Readings from the following thinkers are included: Steven Lukes, Robert Nozick, John Rawls, Bhikhu Parekh, Antony Duff, G.A. Cohen, Derek Parfit, Roger Scruton, Michael Sandel, Alasdair MacIntrye. Debates in Contemporary Political Philosophy will be a valuable resource for upper-level students interested in current thinking in this area.
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Vision and Method in Historical Sociology

Author: Theda Skocpol

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521297240

Category: Social Science

Page: 410

View: 375

Some of the most important questions of the social sciences in the twentieth century have been posed by scholars working at the intersections of social theory and history viewed on a grand scale. The core essays of this book focus on the careers and contributions of nine of these scholars: Marc Bloch, Karl Polanyi, S. N. Eisenstadt, Reinhard Bendix, Perry Anderson, E. P. Thompson, Charles Tilly, Immanuel Wallerstein, and Barrington Moore, Jr. The essays convey a vivid sense of the vision and values each of these major scholars brings (or bought) to his work and analyze and evaluate the research designs and methods each used in his most important works. The introduction and conclusion discuss the long-running tradition of historically grounded research in sociology, while the conclusion also provides a detailed discussion and comparison of three recurrent strategies for bringing historical evidence and theoretical ideas to bear upon one another. informative, thought-provoking, and unusually practical, the book offers fascinating and relevant reading to sociologists, social historians, historically oriented political economists, and anthropologists - and, indeed, to anyone who wants to learn more about the ideas and methods of some of the best-known scholars in the modern social sciences.
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Values and Educational Leadership

Author: Paul Thomas Begley

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791442913

Category: Education

Page: 341

View: 9036

Studies values and their influences in educational leadership.
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Social Science

Author: Delanty, Gerard

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335217214

Category: Social Science

Page: 197

View: 9417

What is social science? Does social scientific knowledge differ from other kinds of knowledge, such as the natural sciences and common sense? What is the relation between method and knowledge? This concise and accessible book provides a critical discussion and comprehensive overview of the major philosophical debates on the methodological foundations of the social sciences. From its origins in the sixteenth century when a new system of knowledge was created around the idea of modernity, the author shows how the philosophy of social science developed as a reflection on some of the central questions in modernity. Visions of modernity have been reflected in the self-understanding of the social sciences. From the positivist dispute on explanation vs. understanding to controversies about standpoint to debates about constructivism and realism, Delanty outlines the major shifts in the philosophy of social science. He argues that social science is an intellectual framework for the transformation of the social world. The new edition is updated and expanded throughout with the latest developments in the field, including a new chapter on feminist standpoint epistemology, and additional material on neo-positivism, pragmatism, and reflexivity. This is one of the most ambitious and wide-ranging texts in recent years on debates on method and the contemporary situation of social science. It is of interest to undergraduate students and postgraduates as well as to professional researchers with an interest in the philosophy of the social sciences and social theory.
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Feminist Sociology

Author: Sara Delamont

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761972556

Category: Social Science

Page: 195

View: 2802

Exploring the achievements of British feminist sociology in theory, methods and empirical research, Sara Delamont outlines the barriers to the development of feminism and explores contemporary challenges. She provides an unrivalled guide to the origins of feminism in the discipline of sociology, analyzes the uneasy relationships between feminists and the founding fathers, and elucidates the opportunities and challenges presented by postmodernism.
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Positivism, Presupposition and Current Controversies (Theoretical Logic in Sociology)

Author: Jeffrey C. Alexander

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317808819

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 6795

This volume begins by challenging the bases of the recent scientization of sociology. Then it challenges some of the ambitious claims of recent theoretical debate. The author not only reinterprets the most important classical and modern sociological theories but extracts from the debates the elements of a more satisfactory, inclusive approach to these general theoretical points.
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