The Methodologies of Positivism and Marxism

A Sociological Debate

Author: Norma R.A. Romm

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1349121312

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 4544

Focusing on the methodological principles which underlie sociologists' study of social reality, this text offers clarification and outlines how the different approaches to study originate from various methodogical and philosophical traditions.
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Sociology in Perspective

Author: Mark Kirby

Publisher: Heinemann

ISBN: 9780435331603

Category: Sociology

Page: 831

View: 9896

This text, specifically for AQA specifications, is designed to be easy and encouraging for students to use. The book contains updated material and activities together with a new chapter on study skills. It also indicates clearly where activities meet the new evidence requirements for key skills.
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Companion to Social Archaeology

Author: Lynn Meskell,Robert W. Preucel

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470692863

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 505

The Companion to Social Archaeology is the first scholarly work to explore the encounter of social theory and archaeology over the past two decades. Grouped into four sections - Knowledges, Identities, Places, and Politics - each of which is prefaced with a review essay that contextualizes the history and developments in social archaeology and related fields. Draws together newer trends that are challenging established ways of understanding the past. Includes contributions by leading scholars who instigated major theoretical trends.
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Developments in the Methodology of Social Science

Author: W. Leinfellner,Eckehart Köhler

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401022593

Category: Social Science

Page: 445

View: 2946

Philosophy of Science deals with the problem, 'What is science?' It seems that the answer to this question can only be found if we have an answer to the question, 'How does science function?' Thus, the study of the methodology of social sciences is a prominent factor in any analysis of these sciences. The history of philosophy shows clearly that the answer to the question, 'How does science function?' was the conditio sine qua non of any kind of philosophy of science, epistemology and even of logic. Aristotle, Hume, Kant, Mill, Russell, to mention a few classical authors, clearly emphasized the primacy of methodology of science for any kind of philosophy of science. One may even state that analyses of the presup positions, the foundations, the aims, goals and purposes of science are nothing else than analyses of their general and specific formal, as well as practical and empirical methods. Thus, the whole program of any phi losophy of science is dependent on the analysis of the methods of sciences and the establishment of their criteria. If the study of scientific method is the predominant factor in the philosophy of science, then all the other problems will depend on the outcome of such a study. For example, the old question of a possible unity of all social sciences will be brought to a solution by the study of the presuppositions, the methods, as well as of the criteria germane to all social sciences.
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Cultural Theory

Classical and Contemporary Positions

Author: Tim Edwards

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1848607520

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 5895

"Written by some of the leading thinkers in the field, the book is an excellent resource for longstanding and contemporary issues in cultural theory. Comprehensive and well-written." - David Oswell, Goldsmiths College This timely volume provides a framework for understanding the cultural turn in terms of the classical legacy, contemporary cultural theory and cultural analysis. It reveals the significance of Marxist humanism, Georg Simmel, the Frankfurt School, Stuart Hall and the Birmingham School, Giddens, Bauman, Foucault, Bourdieu and Baudrillard. Readers receive a dazzling, critical survey of some of the primary figures in the field. However, the book is much more than a Rough Guide tour through the 'great figures' in the field. Through an analysis of specific problems, such as transculturalism, transnationalsim, feminism, popular music and cultural citizenship, it demonstrates the relevance of cultural sociology in elucidating some of the key questions of our time.
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Marx and Wittgenstein

Social Praxis and Social Explanation

Author: D. Rubinstein

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317831349

Category: Philosophy

Page: 248

View: 5157

First published in 2005. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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Antipositivist Theories of the Sciences

Critical Rationalism, Critical Theory and Scientific Realism

Author: N. Stockman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401576785

Category: Science

Page: 284

View: 8937

The sciences are too important to be left exclusively to scientists, and indeed they have not been. The structure of scientific knowledge, the role of the sciences in society, the appropriate social contexts for the pursuit of scientific inquiry, have long been matters for reflection and debate about the sciences carried on both within academe and outside it. Even within the universities this reflection has not been the property of any single discipline. Philosophy might have been first in the field, but history and the social sciences have also entered the fray. For the latter, new problems came to the fore, since reflection on the sciences is, in the case of the social sciences, necessarily also reflection on themselves as sciences. Reflection on the natural sciences and self-reflection by the social sciences came to be dominated in the 1960s by the term 'positivism'. At the time when this word had been invented, the sciences were flourishing; their social and material environment had become increasingly favourable to scientific progress, and the sciences were pointing the way to an optimistic future. In the later twentieth century, however, 'positivism' came to be a word used more frequently by those less sure of nineteenth century certainties. In both sociology and philosophy, 'positivism' was now something to be rejected, and, symbolizing the collapse of an earlier consensus, it became itself the shibboleth of a new dissensus, as different groups of reflective thinkers, in rejecting 'positivism', rejected something different, and often rejected each other.
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Über soziale Arbeitsteilung

Studie über die Organisation höherer Gesellschaften

Author: Émile Durkheim

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783518286050

Category: Division of labor

Page: 544

View: 2274

Enth.: Ueber soziale Arbeitsteilung / E. Durkheim. Arbeitsteilung und Moral / Niklas Luhmann. Arbeitsteilung, Solidarität und Moral / Hans-Peter Müller und Michael Schmid.
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The Sociology of Virtue

The Political & Social Theories of George Sorel

Author: John Stanley

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520037908

Category: Social Science

Page: 387

View: 2905

Studie over het werk van de Franse socioloof en anarcho-syndicalistische activist Georges Sorel (1847-1922).
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Gesammelte Werke

Hermeneutik : Wahrheit und Methode. - 1. Grundzüge einer philosophischen Hermeneutik. Bd. 1

Author: Hans-Georg Gadamer

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161502118

Category: Philosophy

Page: 495

View: 1710

English summary: Gadamer's main work, Truth and Method, will be published in 2010, exactly 50 years after the first edition, in a slightly corrected version as an inexpensive student edition. This is seen as one of the few standard works of German post-war philosophy which has achieved worldwide recognition. The huge reaction to this is surprising for many reasons, among other things because in this work an important new theory is presented in intimations only using the author's own conceptual instruments; in fact the author is careful when touching on ancient themes in the philosophical approach to the world. The main question in the work is: What actually happens when we understand? Gadamer focuses on the historical dimensions of understanding, including his famous rehabilitation of prejudice. In addition to the systematic excursus, the book contains an intellectual history of hermeneutics, which is convincing in its virtuosity in dealing with a variety of inspirational figures such as Hegel, Dilthey, Husserl and Heidegger. The amiability and objectivity with which Gadamer invites his readers to a discussion are what account for the enormous influence of this exemplary textbook. German description: Wir sagen, dass wir ein Gesprach fuhren, aber je eigentlicher ein Gesprach ist, desto weniger liegt die Fuhrung desselben in dem Willen des einen oder anderen Partners. (...) Was bei einem Gesprach herauskommt, weiss keiner vorher. (Gadamer, Wahrheit und Methode I, S. 387) Das Hauptwerk Wahrheit und Methode erscheint 2010, genau 50 Jahre nach der Erstausgabe, in durchgesehener und korrigierter Form als preiswerte Studienausgabe. Dieses Buch, das sein Autor erst im Alter von 60 Jahren schrieb, wurde zu einem Uberraschungserfolg der philosophischen Literatur. Als eines der wenigen weltweit anerkannten Standardwerke der deutschen Nachkriegsphilosophie wurde es in viele Sprachen ubersetzt.Die grosse Resonanz konnte aus vielerlei Grunden erstaunen, unter anderem weil hier nur in Andeutungen eine grosse neue Theorie mit eigenem begrifflichen Instrumentarium vorgestellt wird; der Autor umkreist vorsichtig uralte Themen des philosophischen Weltzugangs. Vor allem geht es um die Frage: Was geschieht eigentlich, wenn wir verstehen? Er stellt die geschichtliche Dimension des Verstehens in den Mittelpunkt, auch durch seine beruhmte Rehabilitierung des Vorurteils. Die systematischen Exkurse werden erganzt durch eine Geistesgeschichte der Hermeneutik, die in ihrer virtuosen Behandlung so unterschiedlicher Anreger wie Hegel, Dilthey, Husserl und Heidegger uberzeugt. Die Freundlichkeit und Sachlichkeit, mit der Gadamer seinen Leser ins Gesprach einladt, machen den Rang dieses vorbildlichen Lehrbuchs aus.
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Social Science

Author: Delanty, Gerard

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335217214

Category: Social Science

Page: 197

View: 6497

What is social science? Does social scientific knowledge differ from other kinds of knowledge, such as the natural sciences and common sense? What is the relation between method and knowledge? This concise and accessible book provides a critical discussion and comprehensive overview of the major philosophical debates on the methodological foundations of the social sciences. From its origins in the sixteenth century when a new system of knowledge was created around the idea of modernity, the author shows how the philosophy of social science developed as a reflection on some of the central questions in modernity. Visions of modernity have been reflected in the self-understanding of the social sciences. From the positivist dispute on explanation vs. understanding to controversies about standpoint to debates about constructivism and realism, Delanty outlines the major shifts in the philosophy of social science. He argues that social science is an intellectual framework for the transformation of the social world. The new edition is updated and expanded throughout with the latest developments in the field, including a new chapter on feminist standpoint epistemology, and additional material on neo-positivism, pragmatism, and reflexivity. This is one of the most ambitious and wide-ranging texts in recent years on debates on method and the contemporary situation of social science. It is of interest to undergraduate students and postgraduates as well as to professional researchers with an interest in the philosophy of the social sciences and social theory.
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The Debate on Classes

Author: Erik Olin Wright

Publisher: Verso

ISBN: 9781859842805

Category: Social Science

Page: 356

View: 5735

Erik Olin Wright's Classes was hailed on publication, by the American Journal of Sociology, as "almost certain to be the most important book on social classes" of the decade. Wright presented a bold attempt—through the subtle use of the tools of analytical Marxism—to resolve some of the long-standing problems in contemporary class theory. The Debate on Classes brings together major critics of Wright's work to assess the adequacy of his theory. From differing perspectives, they deploy a range of empirical data—from studies undertaken in a number of countries—and they address questions as varied as the concept of "contradictory class locations," the continuing coherence of Marxist approaches to class, the relation between stratification and social development, as well as the contentious roles of gender and ethnicity in generating inequality, and the central problem of the import of "consciousness" and concrete political activity on class composition. Also included are Wright's own spirited responses and reformulations in the light of these criticisms, thereby presenting the reader with an open, scholarly discussion in which intellectual collaboration develops an understanding of the impact of class on the wider terrain of culture and politics.
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Soziologische Phantasie

Author: C. Wright Mills

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 365810015X

Category: Social Science

Page: 325

View: 3075

Soziologische Phantasie, die erstmals 1963 erschienene deutsche Übersetzung von C. Wright Mills‘ The Sociological Imagination, darf zurecht als Meilenstein wissenschaftlich-politischer Debatten in den Vereinigten Staaten betrachtet werden und zählt auch heute noch zu einer der wichtigsten Selbstkritiken der Soziologie. Mills schlägt hier einen dritten Weg zwischen bloßem Empirismus und abgehobener Theorie ein: Er plädiert für eine kritische Sozialwissenschaft, die sich weder bürokratisch instrumentalisieren lässt noch selbstverliebt vor sich hin prozessiert, sondern gesellschaftliche Bedeutung erlangt, indem sie den Zusammenhang von persönlichen Schwierigkeiten und öffentlichen Problemen erhellt. Eben dies sei Aufgabe und Verheißung einer Soziologie, die sich viel zu häufig „einer merkwürdigen Lust an der Attitüde des Unbeteiligten“ hingebe.
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Responsible Research Practice

Revisiting Transformative Paradigm in Social Research

Author: Norma RA Romm

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319743864

Category: Social Science

Page: 518

View: 7385

This book explores ways in which creative research practice can be explicitly and mindfully geared to make a difference to the quality of social and ecological existence. It offers a range of examples of how different research methods can be employed (and re-tuned) with this intention. The book suggests that what Romm names "active" research involves using the research space responsibly to open up new avenues for thinking and acting on the part of those involved in the inquiry and wider stakeholders. The book includes a discussion of a range of epistemological, ontological, methodological and axiological positions (or paradigms) that can be embraced by inquirers implicitly or explicitly. It details the contours of an epistemology where knowing is recognized to be grounded in social relations, as a matter of ethics. While focusing on discussing the “transformative paradigm” and attendant view of research ethics, it considers to what extent the borders between paradigms can be treated as being permeable in creative and active inquiries. Apart from considering options for enhancing responsible research practice during the process of inquiry (and reconsidering mixed-research designs) the book also considers options for responsible theorizing that is inspirational for pursuing goals of social and ecological justice.
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Sociology, Phenomenology and Marxian Analysis

A Critical Discussion of the Theory and Practice of a Science of Society

Author: Barry Smart

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134479808

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 7371

Sociology is an established academic discipline but there has been continuing debate over its status as a science and the nature of its subject matter. This led to the emergence of a phenomenological sociology and to critiques of positivist sociology. This critical reappraisal of the relevance of Marxian analysis for a science of society shows how these developments within sociology have had their counterpart in Marxism. The author analyses the status of Marx’s work and the Marxist ‘tradition’ in sociology. He focuses upon those concerns which are common to both Marxian analysis and sociology – the question of subjectivity; the nature of social reality; and the dialectical relationship of the ‘doing’ or practice of a science of society to the social world within which such social analyses are situated. Originally published in 1976.
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Structure, Interaction and Social Theory (RLE Social Theory)

Author: Derek Layder

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317650670

Category: Social Science

Page: 164

View: 5187

A central problem in contemporary social theory is that of providing an account of social interaction that does justice both to the self-monitoring capacities of the individuals involved and to the society that ‘frames’ the interaction. This book attempts to resolve this problem, arguing for an objectivist or ‘structuralist’ account which does not undervalue the importance of the indexical and negotiated aspects of interaction, and which takes seriously the Marxist-rationalist critique of empiricism and humanism and the associated idea that society should be treated as a supra-individual, preconstituted and constraining object of scientific analysis. First, Dr Layder pinpoints certain of the strengths and weaknesses of various schools of thought: social psychology (scrutinized in both its sociological and psychological forms), sociology, the Marxist-rationalist approach. Whilst rejecting the mechanistic or naively deterministic theories which are often associated with an objectivist stance, he argues that the productive activities of situated actors must be understood as existing in an articulated relationship with, and within, sets of preconstituted contextual constraints. This thesis is illustrated conceptually by the development of a framework which distinguishes two types and levels of social structure, with different modes of production and reproduction, and empirically by an analysis of aspects of interaction in the occupation of acting.
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Habermas's Critical Theory of Society

Author: Jane Braaten

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791407592

Category: Philosophy

Page: 191

View: 904

This book provides an understanding of the content and aims of Habermas's critical theory of society -- the theory that analyzes the causes of our cultural lack of direction, polical apathy, and the increasing complexity of modern society. The author offers a foothold on the current debates regarding the credibility and cogency of the theory. Braaten presents Habermas's defense of his critique of reason in his most recent work concerning the confrontation between postmodernists and neoconservatives, and modernists and liberal theorists. She also explores the possibility of applying Habermas's critical resources in the United States in ways that he himself may not have considered.
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