A Framework for Policy-Oriented Inquiries
Author: Douglas M. Johnston
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Antarctica is the last, most inhospitable frontier on earth, yet it presents a great number of unresolved conflicts between nations, individuals, environmentalists, scientists & business groups. The International Law of Antarctica addresses the crucial question of how international law can respond to claims that will certainly shape tomorrow's Antarctica. The author adopts a policy-oriented approach & focuses on the primary issue of determining the effective norms by which the process of value shaping & sharing develops in Antarctica, & to what extent such norms satisfy the prevailing aspirations of the world community. Where discrepancies are significant policies are proposed that may better meet such aspirations, as well as methods for their implementation. Part I of this study describes the social, power, & legal processes relating to Antarctica; reviews the geographic, technological, economic, & historical context in which these processes evolve, & how their special features affect such processes; & finally postulates the basic community policies with reference to which the process of claims & decisions in Antarctica are analyzed. Part II focuses on national claims to Antarctica by reviewing claims relating to the modes to establish exclusive appropriation of the area. Part III is a detailed examination of specific claims to Antarctica resources: claims to mineral & living resources, & claims relating to space-extension resources, namely, Antarctica sea & air space. It is concluded by an appraisal of the congruence of the existing order of Antarctica with the postulated basic policies, critically reviewing proposals for a new order, & advancing long-term & more immediate alternatives.