The Image before the Weapon

a critical history of the distinction between combatant and civilian

Author: Helen M. Kinsella

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801461262

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 4476

Since at least the Middle Ages, the laws of war have distinguished between combatants and civilians under an injunction now formally known as the principle of distinction. The principle of distinction is invoked in contemporary conflicts as if there were an unmistakable and sure distinction to be made between combatant and civilian. As is so brutally evident in armed conflicts, it is precisely the distinction between civilian and combatant, upon which the protection of civilians is founded, cannot be taken as self-evident or stable. Helen M. Kinsella documents that the history of international humanitarian law itself admits the difficulty of such a distinction. In The Image Before the Weapon, Kinsella explores the evolution of the concept of the civilian and how it has been applied in warfare. A series of discourses-including gender, innocence, and civilization- have shaped the legal, military, and historical understandings of the civilian and she documents how these discourses converge at particular junctures to demarcate the difference between civilian and combatant. Engaging with works on the law of war from the earliest thinkers in the Western tradition, including St. Thomas Aquinas and Christine de Pisan, to contemporary figures such as James Turner Johnson and Michael Walzer, Kinsella identifies the foundational ambiguities and inconsistencies in the principle of distinction, as well as the significant role played by Christian concepts of mercy and charity. She then turns to the definition and treatment of civilians in specific armed conflicts: the American Civil War and the U.S.-Indian Wars of the nineteenth century, and the civil wars of Guatemala and El Salvador in the 1980s. Finally, she analyzes the two modern treaties most influential for the principle of distinction: the 1949 IV Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Times of War and the 1977 Protocols Additional to the 1949 Conventions, which for the first time formally defined the civilian within international law. She shows how the experiences of the two world wars, but particularly World War II, and the Algerian war of independence affected these subsequent codifications of the laws of war. As recognition grows that compliance with the principle of distinction to limit violence against civilians depends on a firmer grasp of its legal, political, and historical evolution, The Image before the Weapon is a timely intervention in debates about how best to protect civilian populations.
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The Image Before the Weapon

A Critical History of the Distinction Between Combatant and Civilian

Author: Helen Kinsella

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780801449031

Category: History

Page: 260

View: 414

The evolution of the legal, military, and historical concept of the civilian during warfare.
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The Image Before the Weapon

A Critical History of the Distinction Between Combatant and Civilian

Author: Helen Kinsella

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801460786

Category: History

Page: 260

View: 5565

Helen Kinsella explores how the concept of civilian has evolved and how this concept has been employed in times of war, from the Middle Ages through to the modern era.
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Identifying the Enemy

Civilian Participation in Armed Conflict

Author: Emily Crawford

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191667935

Category: Law

Page: 260

View: 2907

Over the past twenty-five years, significant changes in the conduct of wars have increasingly placed civilians in traditional military roles - employing civilians to execute drone strikes, the 'targeted killing' of suspected terrorists, the use of private security contractors in combat zones, and the spread of cyber attacks. Under the laws of armed conflict, civilians cannot be targeted unless they take direct part in hostilities. Once civilians take action, they become targets. This book analyses the complex question of how to identify just who those civilians are. Identifying the Enemy examines the history of civilian participation in armed conflict and how the law has responded to such action. It asks the crucial question: what is 'direct participation in hostilities'? The book slices through the attempts to untie this Gordian knot, and shows that the changing nature of warfare has called into question the very foundation of the civilian/military dichotomy that is at the heart of the law of armed conflict.
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Amnesty in the Age of Human Rights Accountability

Comparative and International Perspectives

Author: Francesca Lessa,Leigh A. Payne

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 110738009X

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 6382

This edited volume brings together well-established and emerging scholars of transitional justice to discuss the persistence of amnesty in the age of human rights accountability. The volume attempts to reframe debates, moving beyond the limited approaches of 'truth versus justice' or 'stability versus accountability' in which many of these issues have been cast in the existing scholarship. The theoretical and empirical contributions in this book offer new ways of understanding and tackling the enduring persistence of amnesty in the age of accountability. In addition to cross-national studies, the volume encompasses eleven country cases of amnesty for past human rights violations: Argentina, Brazil, Cambodia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Indonesia, Rwanda, South Africa, Spain, Uganda and Uruguay. The volume goes beyond merely describing these case studies, but also considers what we learn from them in terms of overcoming impunity and promoting accountability to contribute to improvements in human rights and democracy.
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Leaders and International Conflict

Author: Giacomo Chiozza,H. E. Goemans

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139501666

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 2573

Chiozza and Goemans seek to explain why and when political leaders decide to initiate international crises and wars. They argue that the fate of leaders and the way leadership changes, shapes leaders' decisions to initiate international conflict. Leaders who anticipate regular removal from office, through elections for example, have little to gain and much to lose from international conflict, whereas leaders who anticipate a forcible removal from office, such as through coup or revolution, have little to lose and much to gain from conflict. This theory is tested against an extensive analysis of more than 80 years of international conflict and with an intensive historical examination of Central American leaders from 1848 to 1918. Leaders and International Conflict highlights the political nature of the choice between war and peace and will appeal to all scholars of international relations and comparative politics.
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Bomb

The Race to Build--and Steal--the World's Most Dangerous Weapon

Author: Steve Sheinkin

Publisher: Flash Point

ISBN: 1596438614

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 272

View: 5646

In December of 1938, a chemist in a German laboratory made a shocking discovery: When placed next to radioactive material, a Uranium atom split in two. That simple discovery launched a scientific race that spanned 3 continents. In Great Britain and the United States, Soviet spies worked their way into the scientific community; in Norway, a commando force slipped behind enemy lines to attack German heavy-water manufacturing; and deep in the desert, one brilliant group of scientists was hidden away at a remote site at Los Alamos. This is the story of the plotting, the risk-taking, the deceit, and genius that created the world's most formidable weapon. This is the story of the atomic bomb. Bomb is a 2012 National Book Awards finalist for Young People's Literature. Bomb is a 2012 Washington Post Best Kids Books of the Year title. Bomb is a 2013 Newbery Honor book.
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The Last Girl

My Story of Captivity, and My Fight Against the Islamic State

Author: Nadia Murad

Publisher: Tim Duggan Books

ISBN: 1524760455

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 320

View: 9973

WINNER OF THE NOBEL PEACE PRIZE In this intimate memoir of survival, a former captive of the Islamic State tells her harrowing and ultimately inspiring story. Nadia Murad was born and raised in Kocho, a small village of farmers and shepherds in northern Iraq. A member of the Yazidi community, she and her brothers and sisters lived a quiet life. Nadia had dreams of becoming a history teacher or opening her own beauty salon. On August 15th, 2014, when Nadia was just twenty-one years old, this life ended. Islamic State militants massacred the people of her village, executing men who refused to convert to Islam and women too old to become sex slaves. Six of Nadia’s brothers were killed, and her mother soon after, their bodies swept into mass graves. Nadia was taken to Mosul and forced, along with thousands of other Yazidi girls, into the ISIS slave trade. Nadia would be held captive by several militants and repeatedly raped and beaten. Finally, she managed a narrow escape through the streets of Mosul, finding shelter in the home of a Sunni Muslim family whose eldest son risked his life to smuggle her to safety. Today, Nadia's story—as a witness to the Islamic State's brutality, a survivor of rape, a refugee, a Yazidi—has forced the world to pay attention to an ongoing genocide. It is a call to action, a testament to the human will to survive, and a love letter to a lost country, a fragile community, and a family torn apart by war.
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The Mis-education of the Negro

Author: Carter Godwin Woodson

Publisher: ReadaClassic.com

ISBN: N.A

Category: African Americans

Page: 207

View: 8370

Woodson's classic work of criticism explores how the education received by blacks has failed to give them an appreciation of themselves as a race and their contributions to history. Woodson puts forward a program that calls for the educated to learn about their past and serve the black community. (Education/Teaching)
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Boy Nobody

Author: Allen Zadoff

Publisher: Little, Brown Books for Young Readers

ISBN: 0316243892

Category: Juvenile Fiction

Page: 352

View: 6797

They needed the perfect assassin. Boy Nobody is the perennial new kid in school, the one few notice and nobody thinks much about. He shows up in a new high school in a new town under a new name, makes a few friends, and doesn't stay long. Just long enough for someone in his new friend's family to die-of "natural causes." Mission accomplished, Boy Nobody disappears, moving on to the next target. But when he's assigned to the mayor of New York City, things change. The daughter is unlike anyone he has encountered before; the mayor reminds him of his father. And when memories and questions surface, his handlers at The Program are watching. Because somewhere deep inside, Boy Nobody is somebody: the kid he once was; the teen who wants normal things, like a real home and parents; a young man who wants out. And who just might want those things badly enough to sabotage The Program's mission. In this action-packed series debut, author Allen Zadoff pens a page-turning thriller that is as thought-provoking as it is gripping, introducing an utterly original and unforgettable antihero.
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Weapons of Mass Instruction

A Schoolteacher's Journey Through the Dark World of Compulsory Schooling

Author: John Taylor Gatto

Publisher: New Society Publishers

ISBN: 1550924249

Category: Education

Page: 192

View: 9922

The transformation of schooling from a twelve-year jail sentence to freedom to learn.
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Culture As Weapon

Art and Marketing in the Age of Total Communication

Author: Nato Thompson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781612196800

Category:

Page: 288

View: 2153

The production of culture was once the domain of artists, but beginning in the early 1900s, the emerging fields of public relations, advertising and marketing transformed the way the powerful communicate with the rest of us. A century later, the tools are more sophisticated than ever, the onslaught more relentless. In Culture as Weapon, acclaimed curator and critic Nato Thompson reveals how institutions use culture to ensure profits and constrain dissent - and shows us that there are alternatives.
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Weapons of Math Destruction

How Big Data Increases Inequality and Threatens Democracy

Author: Cathy O'Neil

Publisher: Crown Books

ISBN: 0553418815

Category: Big data

Page: 259

View: 9172

"A former Wall Street quantitative analyst sounds an alarm on mathematical modeling, a pervasive new force in society that threatens to undermine democracy and widen inequality, "--NoveList.
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The Perfect Weapon

War, Sabotage, and Fear in the Cyber Age

Author: David E. Sanger

Publisher: Crown

ISBN: 0451497910

Category: Political Science

Page: 384

View: 7381

In 2015, Russian hackers tunneled deep into the computer systems of the Democratic National Committee, and the subsequent leaks of the emails they stole may have changed the course of American democracy. But to see the DNC hacks as Trump-centric is to miss the bigger, more important story: Within that same year, the Russians not only had broken into networks at the White House, the State Department, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff, but had placed implants in American electrical and nuclear plants that could give them the power to switch off vast swaths of the country. This was the culmination of a decade of escalating digital sabotage among the world’s powers, in which Americans became the collateral damage as China, Iran, North Korea, and Russia battled in cyberspace to undercut one another in daily just-short-of-war conflict. The Perfect Weapon is the startling inside story of how the rise of cyberweapons transformed geopolitics like nothing since the invention of the atomic bomb. Cheap to acquire, easy to deny, and usable for a variety of malicious purposes—from crippling infrastructure to sowing discord and doubt—cyber is now the weapon of choice for democracies, dictators, and terrorists. Two presidents—Bush and Obama—drew first blood with Operation Olympic Games, which used malicious code to blow up Iran’s nuclear centrifuges, and yet America proved remarkably unprepared when its own weapons were stolen from its arsenal and, during President Trump’s first year, turned back on the US and its allies. The government was often paralyzed, unable to threaten the use of cyberweapons because America was so vulnerable to crippling attacks on its own networks of banks, utilities, and government agencies. Moving from the White House Situation Room to the dens of Chinese government hackers to the boardrooms of Silicon Valley, New York Times national security correspondent David Sanger—who broke the story of Olympic Games in his previous book—reveals a world coming face-to-face with the perils of technological revolution. The Perfect Weapon is the dramatic story of how great and small powers alike slipped into a new era of constant sabotage, misinformation, and fear, in which everyone is a target.
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Countdown to Zero Day

Stuxnet and the Launch of the World's First Digital Weapon

Author: Kim Zetter

Publisher: Crown

ISBN: 0770436188

Category: History

Page: 448

View: 4535

Top cybersecurity journalist Kim Zetter tells the story behind the virus that sabotaged Iran’s nuclear efforts and shows how its existence has ushered in a new age of warfare—one in which a digital attack can have the same destructive capability as a megaton bomb. In January 2010, inspectors with the International Atomic Energy Agency noticed that centrifuges at an Iranian uranium enrichment plant were failing at an unprecedented rate. The cause was a complete mystery—apparently as much to the technicians replacing the centrifuges as to the inspectors observing them. Then, five months later, a seemingly unrelated event occurred: A computer security firm in Belarus was called in to troubleshoot some computers in Iran that were crashing and rebooting repeatedly. At first, the firm’s programmers believed the malicious code on the machines was a simple, routine piece of malware. But as they and other experts around the world investigated, they discovered a mysterious virus of unparalleled complexity. They had, they soon learned, stumbled upon the world’s first digital weapon. For Stuxnet, as it came to be known, was unlike any other virus or worm built before: Rather than simply hijacking targeted computers or stealing information from them, it escaped the digital realm to wreak actual, physical destruction on a nuclear facility. In these pages, Wired journalist Kim Zetter draws on her extensive sources and expertise to tell the story behind Stuxnet’s planning, execution, and discovery, covering its genesis in the corridors of Bush’s White House and its unleashing on systems in Iran—and telling the spectacular, unlikely tale of the security geeks who managed to unravel a sabotage campaign years in the making. But Countdown to Zero Day ranges far beyond Stuxnet itself. Here, Zetter shows us how digital warfare developed in the US. She takes us inside today’s flourishing zero-day “grey markets,” in which intelligence agencies and militaries pay huge sums for the malicious code they need to carry out infiltrations and attacks. She reveals just how vulnerable many of our own critical systems are to Stuxnet-like strikes, from nation-state adversaries and anonymous hackers alike—and shows us just what might happen should our infrastructure be targeted by such an attack. Propelled by Zetter’s unique knowledge and access, and filled with eye-opening explanations of the technologies involved, Countdown to Zero Day is a comprehensive and prescient portrait of a world at the edge of a new kind of war.
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BoJack Horseman: The Art Before the Horse

Author: Chris McDonnell

Publisher: Abrams

ISBN: 1683352130

Category: Performing Arts

Page: 240

View: 8972

Netflix’s BoJack Horseman has quickly become one of the most critically acclaimed animated comedy series in recent memory. Set in an off-kilter, cynically spun rendering of modern-day Hollywood, the show follows washed-up horse actor BoJack Horseman (voiced by Will Arnett) as he attempts to turn his life around. BoJack Horseman: The Art Before the Horse is the official behind-the-scenes companion to this cult-hit series. Part oral history sourced from original interviews with the show’s cast and crew, part art book—including sketches, storyboards, and background art—this book will trace the series from conception to post-production. Beginning with the initial development of creator/ showrunner Raphael Bob-Waksberg and production designer Lisa Hanawalt’s inimitable aesthetic vision, The Art Before the Horse goes on to reveal all of the moving parts—direction, writing, casting, animation, and music—that come together to form this uniquely bleak, emotionally potent, very funny show. Also Available: BoJack Horseman 2019 Wall Calendar (ISBN: 978-1-4197-3177-8)
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Equipped

The Weapon of Prayer (Journal Edition)

Author: E. M. Bounds

Publisher: Whitaker House

ISBN: 1641230304

Category: Religion

Page: 192

View: 4255

What is the one thing that “puts God to work”? Prayer! In response to His children’s prayers and petitions, God has promised to answer, to do, and to give us “all things whatsoever.” E. M. Bounds expounds on God’s need of people who pray. He explains why prayer moves God to act, how busyness in church activities can hinder prayer, why Jesus could not dispense with prayer, how the early apostles gave themselves to prayer, and why prayer is essential in God’s kingdom. Includes inspiring sketches of the prayer lives of dedicated Christians, such as David Brainerd, George Müller, and Jonathan Edwards. This journal edition includes room for readers to reflect and add their own prayers.
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The War of the Worlds

Author: Herbert George Wells

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science fiction

Page: 288

View: 5058

H.G. Wells's hugely influential book tracks the exploits of a writer who struggles to survive an alien invasion of Victorian England. After seeing the monstrous Martians firsthand, the narrator attempts to evade their destructive mechanized vehicles and must stay on the run to avoid detection. As he meets other desperate humans, he becomes increasingly pessimistic about any chance of survival. The novel stands as a major milestone in science-fiction literature, inspiring legions of subsequent writers and an endless array of hostile-alien scenarios.
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Glock

The Rise of America's Gun

Author: Paul M. Barrett

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 0307719952

Category: History

Page: 300

View: 5348

Traces the story of the American gun market as reflected by an Austrian six-cylinder revolver, tracing how it has become a weapon of choice on both sides of the law, in the entertainment industry, and among Second Amendment enthusiasts.
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