The Fourth State of Matter

An Introduction to Plasma Science, 2nd Edition

Author: Shalom Eliezer,Y Eliezer

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420033433

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 8970

Plasma physics may hold the key to a virtually inexhaustible future energy source through the control of thermonuclear reactions. The complexity of plasma physics makes it a difficult subject to write about in popular terms, but the authors of The Fourth State of Matter: An Introduction to Plasma Science, Second Edition treat plasma in a comprehensible way. Combining factual substance with an easy-to-read and lucid presentation, the book describes the characteristics of plasma, its distribution in the universe, and how it is used by man. It explores plasma in industry and presents current and possible future applications. The book also details the history of plasma research and plasma technology. Retained from the first edition, rhyming verses add fun to the explanation of what can be complicated scientific concepts. Accessible to anyone interested in plasma physics, this non-mathematical book is an excellent addition to a well-rounded science collection.

Introduction to Hydrogen Technology

Author: K. S. V. Santhanam,Roman J. Press,Massoud J. Miri,Alla V. Bailey,Gerald A. Takacs

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119265584

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 432

View: 6864

Introduces the field of hydrogen technology and explains the basic chemistry underlying promising and innovative new technologies This new and completely updated edition of Introduction to Hydrogen Technology explains, at an introductory level, the scientific and technical aspects of hydrogen technology. It incorporates information on the latest developments and the current research in the field, including: new techniques for isolating and storing hydrogen, usage as a fuel for automobiles, residential power systems, mobile power systems, and space applications. Introduction to Hydrogen Technology, Second Edition features classroom-tested exercises and sample problems. It details new economical methods for isolating the pure hydrogen molecule. These less expensive methods help make hydrogen fuel a very viable alternative to petroleum-based energy. The book also adds a new chapter on hydrogen production and batteries. It also provides in-depth coverage of the many technical hurdles in hydrogen storage. The developments in fuel cells since the last edition has been updated. Offers new chapters on hydrogen production, storage, and batteries Features new sections on advanced hydrogen systems, new membranes, greenhouse gas sensors and updated technologies involving solar and wind energies Includes problems at the end of the Chapters, as well as solutions for adopters This book is an introduction to hydrogen technology for students who have taken at least one course in general chemistry and calculus; it will also be a resource book for scientists and researchers working in hydrogen-based technologies, as well as anyone interested in sustainable energy.

Bonding, Structure and Solid-State Chemistry

Author: Formerly Head of Chemical Physics Mark Ladd,Mark Ladd

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198729952


Page: 560

View: 2156

This book provides the reader with an introductory study in Bonding, Structure and Solid State Chemistry, starting from first principles. It is based on lecture courses given over several years, but is not directed at any particular degree course. Thus, it will find a place in all three-year degree courses in chemistry and in those subjects for which chemistry forms a significant part. It will also prepare readers for more intensive study in the title topics.Pre-knowledge is assumed in mathematics and physical sciences at about A-level standard, and additional mathematical and other topics are presented where necessary as appendices, so as not to disturb theflow of the main text.

Atomic Physics in Hot Plasmas

Author: David Salzmann

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195355154

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 670

The aim of this book is to provide the reader with a coherent and updated comprehensive treatise that covers the central subjects of the field. The style and content is suitable both for students and researchers. Highlights of the book include (among many others) the Ion-Sphere model, statistical models, Average-Atom model, emission spectrum, unresolved transition arrays, supertransition arrays, radiation transport, escape factors and x-ray lasers.

Plasma Astrophysics

Author: Toshiki Tajima

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Longman

ISBN: 9780201406429

Category: Science

Page: 494

View: 2123

The twentieth century has witnessed the transformation of astronomy from celestial mechanics to astrophysics. While optical telescopes may have presented a peek into the structure of the constituents of the universe, such as stars and galaxies, new windows of observation have revealed far more amorphous objects, from nebulae and sheets to filaments and voids, whose “violent” processes include flares, shocks, accretion disks and jets. In these processes, plasma is often the constituent matter—as well as the medium through which the astrophysical setting becomes so violent.In this graduate-level text, Tajima and Shibata offer a new synthesis starting where the classic works on plasma physics left off. Beginning with a view of plasma astrophysics through fundamental processes of quasi-magnetostatic equilibria, quasi-hydrostatic equilibria, and non-equilibria, the authors go on to develop unique approaches to violent astrophysical plasmas—as opposed to the more quiescent laboratory variety—and their processes. The text continues with an exploration of the fundamental processes in hydrostatic, magnetostatic, and gravitational objects. The final chapter is devoted to a discussion of the applications of plasma astrophysics to cosmology, anticipating future developments in this exciting field.This text will be of enormous use to graduate—and some advanced undergraduate—students, as well as to physicists entering the field of plasma physics.

Principles of Fusion Energy

An Introduction to Fusion Energy for Students of Science and Engineering

Author: A. A. Harms,Klaus F.. Schoepf,David Ross Kingdon

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789812380333

Category: Science

Page: 295

View: 9221

This textbook accommodates the two divergent developmental paths which have become solidly established in the field of fusion energy: the process of sequential tokamak development toward a prototype and the need for a more fundamental and integrative research approach before costly design choices are made.Emphasis is placed on the development of physically coherent and mathematically clear characterizations of the scientific and technological foundations of fusion energy which are specifically suitable for a first course on the subject. Of interest, therefore, are selected aspects of nuclear physics, electromagnetics, plasma physics, reaction dynamics, materials science, and engineering systems, all brought together to form an integrated perspective on nuclear fusion and its practical utilization.The book identifies several distinct themes. The first is concerned with preliminary and introductory topics which relate to the basic and relevant physical processes associated with nuclear fusion. Then, the authors undertake an analysis of magnetically confined, inertially confined, and low-temperature fusion energy concepts. Subsequently, they introduce the important blanket domains surrounding the fusion core and discuss synergetic fusion-fission systems. Finally, they consider selected conceptual and technological subjects germane to the continuing development of fusion energy systems.

An Introduction to Alfven Waves,

Author: Rodney Cross

Publisher: CRC Press


Category: Science

Page: 236

View: 6285

Alfven waves permeate the universe. They have been observed in the Sun, in the magnetosphere, as low frequency fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field, and they are easily generated in laboratory plasmas. Alfven waves serve as a useful diagnostic tool to probe plasma conditions in both space and laboratory plasmas. In the quest for nuclear fusion they have been used with spectacular success to heat tokamak plasmas to temperatures exceeding 50 million Kelvin. This book aims to provide an introduction to the physics of Alfven wave propagation for postgraduate physicists and astrophysicists who are entering research on laboratory or space plasmas. In the early chapters the basic properties of Alfven waves are derived for homogeneous plasmas, using the ideal magnetohydrodynamic fluid equations. The essential differences between torsional and compressional wave types are highlighted by an examination of phase and group velocity surfaces, and by a discussion of recent experimental results obtained with small, 'point-source', antennae. Later chapters deal with cylindrical plasmas, Alfven waves in a plasma with two or more ion species, effects of plasma current, resistive damping and inhomogeneous plasmas. There are also two chapters about numerical and experimental techniques, topics which are often neglected in other books.

Industrial Plasma Engineering

Volume 1: Principles

Author: J Reece Roth

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420050868

Category: Science

Page: 339

View: 5246

This book will provide the necessary theoretical background and a description of plasma-related devices and processes that are used industrially for physicists and engineers. It is a self-contained introduction to the principles of plasma engineering with comprehensive references. This volume also includes the terminology, jargon and acronyms used in the field of industrial plasma engineering - indexed when they first appear in the text - along with their definitions and a discussion of their meaning. It is aimed at assisting the student in learning key terminology and concepts, and providing the in-service engineer or scientist with a technical glossary. An extensive index and appendices enhance the value of this book as a key reference source. These incorporate a list of the nomenclature used in mathematical expressions in the text, physical constants, and often-used plasma formulae. SI units are used throughout. Intended for students from all engineering and physical science disciplines, and as a reference source by in-service engineers. Coverage: * basic information on plasma physics and the physical processes important in industrial plasmas * sources of ion and electron beams and ionizing radiation used in industrial applications * physics and technology of DC and RF electrical discharges.


Author: Hans Walter Heldt,Birgit Piechulla

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662443988

Category: Science

Page: 597

View: 8629

Die „Pflanzenbiochemie" hat sich im deutschsprachigen Raum, aber auch in zahlreichen Übersetzungen als Standardlehrbuch etabliert. Birgit Piechulla, Dozentin an der Universität Rostock, zeichnet als Co-Autorin bei dieser 5. Auflage verantwortlich und hat zusammen mit Hans-Walter Heldt das Buch gründlich überarbeitet und aktualisiert. Neueste wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse fanden Eingang in dieses Buch, die sich auch in neuen Abbildungen sowie der stark überarbeiteten Literatur widerspiegeln. Besonderen Wert legen die Autoren darauf, die offenen, zukunftsweisenden Fragen, die den derzeitigen Stand unseres Wissens markieren, aufzuzeigen. Aktualität sowie die klare und verständliche Didaktik komplexer Sachverhalte darzustellen -- das sind die Kennzeichen dieses Lehrbuches. Mit sorgfältig erstellten zweifarbigen Abbildungen erfüllt es einen hohen didaktischen Anspruch und reiht sich unter die besten Biochemie-Lehrbücher.

Interaction of Electromagnetic Waves with Electron Beams and Plasmas

Author: C. S. Liu,Vijai Kumar Tripathi

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810215774

Category: Science

Page: 167

View: 9178

The interaction of electromagnetic waves with matter has always been a fascinating subject of study. As matter in the universe is mostly in the plasma state, the study of electromagnetic waves in plasmas is of importance to astrophysics, space physics and ionospheric physics. The physics of electromagnetic wave interacting with electron beams and plasmas also serves as a basis for coherent radiation generation such as free electron laser and gyrotron and advanced accelerators. This monograph aims at reviewing the physical processes of linear and nonlinear collective interactions of electromagnetic waves with electron beams and unmagnetized plasmas.

Introduction to Laser Fusion

Author: Chiyoe Yamanaka

Publisher: Harwood Academic Pub

ISBN: 9783718650637

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 115

View: 4928

This volume provides a comprehensive introduction to the rapidly developing field of laser fusion. It covers the range of inertial confinement techniques extending from fusion reactions to the laser interaction with plasmas and implosion dynamics. The properties of various fusion drivers are reviewed, as are the current experimental status and future prospects of the technique.

Laser Plasma Physics

Forces and the Nonlinearity Principle

Author: Heinrich Hora

Publisher: SPIE Press

ISBN: 9780819435095

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 217

View: 8347

This acts as a reference work for the field of high intensity and/or high plasma density laser-plasma interactions for years to come. It covers everything from single particles to dense fluids, from computational physics to the practical results in fusion. In addition, it contains treatments of the theory of electrodynamics, laser-driven hydrodynamics, the Lorentz force, complex refractive index and relativistic effects in plasmas. Although the swamp of plasma physics is mostly a classical place, the author indicates where quantum and classical calculations converge.

Plasma Etching

Fundamentals and Applications

Author: M. Sugawara

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191590290

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 356

View: 1711

The focus of this book is the remarkable advances in understanding of low pressure RF (radio frequency) glow discharges. A basic analytical theory and plasma physics are explained. Plasma diagnostics are also covered before the practicalities of etcher use are explored.

Cosmic Plasma

Author: H. Alfvèn

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 9789027711519

Category: Science

Page: 164

View: 2540

The general background of this monograph and the aim of it is described in detail in Chapter I. As stated in 1.7 it is written according to the principle that "when rigour appears to conflict with simplicity, simplicity is given preference", which means that it is intended for a rather broad public. Not only graduate students but also advanced undergraduates should be able to understand at least most of it. This monograph is the result of many years of inspiring discussions with a number of colleagues, for which I want to thank them very much. Especially I should mention the groups in Stockholm and La Jolla: in Stockholm, Dr Carl-Gunne Flilthammar and many of his collaborators, including Drs Lars Block, Per Carlqvist, Lennart lindberg, Michael Raadu, Staffan Torven, Miroslav Babic, and Itlgvar Axniis, and further, Drs Bo Lehnert and Bjorn Bonnevier, all at the Royal Institute of Technology. Of other col­ leagues in Sweden, I should mention Dr Bertel Laurent, Stockholm University, Dr Aina Elvius, The Stockholm Observatory, and Dr Bengt Hultqvist, Kiruna. In La Jolla my thanks go first of all to Dr Gustaf Arrhenius, who once invited me to La Jolla, which was the start of a most interesting collaboration; further, to Dr W. B.

Plasma Science and the Environment

Author: Wallace Manheimer,Linda E. Sugiyama,Thomas H. Stix

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781563963773

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 2734

"Written by some of the world's foremost experts, the articles in this book show how plasma science can be applied to environmental problems, including atmospheric sensing and modification, energy conservation, reduction of air pollution, and processing of ordinary and radioactive wastes. Atmospheric CFC's might be zapped with big lasers. Urban air pollution could be removed by large convection towers built in or near cities. And weapons-grade plutonium can be destroyed with specially designed particle accelerators. Some of the technologies described here are in use already, while others are in the prototype stage, or are speculative approaches deserving of further study." "Contents" Written by some of the world's foremost experts, the articles in this book show how plasma science can be applied to environmental problems, including atmospheric sensing and modification, energy conservation, reduction of air pollution, and processing of ordinary and radioactive wastes. Atmospheric CFC's might be zapped with big lasers. Urban air pollution could be removed by large convection towers built in or near cities. And weapons-grade plutonium can be destroyed with specially designed particle accelerators. Some of the technologies described here are in use already, while others are in the prototype stage, or are speculative approaches deserving of further study.

Plasma Confinement

Author: R. D. Hazeltine,J. D. Meiss

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 9780486432427

Category: Science

Page: 455

View: 6619

Graduate-level text examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion with accounts of fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. 1992 edition.


A Voyage Through the Plasma Universe

Author: Hans Wilhelmsson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780750306393

Category: Science

Page: 158

View: 8150

Journeying through fusion in the universe, Fusion: A Voyage Through the Plasma Universe discusses all aspects of fusion and how they relate to our universe. It also studies the attempts to produce fusion energy on Earth. The book addresses a wide range of topics from stars, galaxies, comets, pulsars, black holes, and quasars to the auroras, lightning, and fluorescent tubes. Interestingly, the author explores how artists and authors like Vincent van Gogh, Leonardo da Vinci, and Hannes Alfvén have been fascinated by cosmic phenomena that rely on fusion and plasmas. He discusses motions in plasma, such as flames, waves, and whirls similar to those that occur in water. The book also examines several other branches of science where parallels can be found with fusion plasmas, including ecological systems that provide only very short-term weather forecasts and the dramatic changes in the world economy with its explosive tendencies and sometimes catastrophic results. It briefly shows how these nonlinear phenomena are at the heart of modern fusion plasma theory.

Plasma Astrophysics

Saas-Fee Advanced Course 24. Lecture Notes 1994. Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy

Author: J.G. Kirk,D.B. Melrose,E.R. Priest

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540583270

Category: Science

Page: 324

View: 1723

In three lectures on magnetohydrodynamics, on kinetic plasma physics and on particle acceleration, leading experts describe the physical basis of their subjects and extend the discussion to several applications in modern problems of astrophysics. The themes developed in this book will be helpful in understanding many processes in the universe from the solar corona to active galaxies.