The Evolution of Animal Communication: Reliability and Deception in Signaling Systems

Reliability and Deception in Signaling Systems

Author: William A. Searcy,Stephen Nowicki

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400835720

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 4730

Gull chicks beg for food from their parents. Peacocks spread their tails to attract potential mates. Meerkats alert family members of the approach of predators. But are these--and other animals--sometimes dishonest? That's what William Searcy and Stephen Nowicki ask in The Evolution of Animal Communication. They take on the fascinating yet perplexing question of the dependability of animal signaling systems. The book probes such phenomena as the begging of nesting birds, alarm calls in squirrels and primates, carotenoid coloration in fish and birds, the calls of frogs and toads, and weapon displays in crustaceans. Do these signals convey accurate information about the signaler, its future behavior, or its environment? Or do they mislead receivers in a way that benefits the signaler? For example, is the begging chick really hungry as its cries indicate or is it lobbying to get more food than its brothers and sisters? Searcy and Nowicki take on these and other questions by developing clear definitions of key issues, by reviewing the most relevant empirical data and game theory models available, and by asking how well theory matches data. They find that animal communication is largely reliable--but that this basic reliability also allows the clever deceiver to flourish. Well researched and clearly written, their book provides new insight into animal communication, behavior, and evolution.
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Evolution and the Social Mind

Evolutionary Psychology and Social Cognition

Author: Joseph P. Forgas,Martie G. Haselton,William von Hippel

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1136872981

Category: Psychology

Page: 344

View: 9019

This book seeks to combine the study of human social cognition - the way we think, decide, plan and analyze social situations - with an evolutionary framework that considers these activities in light of evolutionary adaptations for solving problems of survival faced by our ancestors over thousands of generations. The chapters report recent research and theories illustrating how evolutionary principles can shed new light on the subtle and often subconscious ways that cognitive mechanisms guide peoples’ thoughts, memories, judgments, attitudes and behaviors in social life. The contributors to this volume, who are leading researchers in their fields, seek answers to such intriguing questions as: how can evolutionary principles help to explain human beliefs, attitudes, judgments, prejudice, and group preferences? Are there benefits to behaving unpredictably? Why are prototypical faces more attractive than atypical ones? How do men and women think about, and select potential mates? What are the adaptive functions of negative affect? What are the evolutionary influences on the way people think about and respond to social exclusion and ostracism? Evolution and the Social Mind offers a highly integrated and representative coverage of this emerging field, and is suitable as a textbook in advanced courses dealing with social cognition and evolutionary psychology.
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Neural Networks and Animal Behavior

Author: Magnus Enquist,Stefano Ghirlanda

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400850789

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 7576

How can we make better sense of animal behavior by using what we know about the brain? This is the first book that attempts to answer this important question by applying neural network theory. Scientists create Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to make models of the brain. These networks mimic the architecture of a nervous system by connecting elementary neuron-like units into networks in which they stimulate or inhibit each other's activity in much the same way neurons do. This book shows how scientists can employ ANNs to analyze animal behavior, explore the general principles of the nervous systems, and test potential generalizations among species. The authors focus on simple neural networks to show how ANNs can be investigated by math and by computers. They demonstrate intuitive concepts that make the operation of neural networks more accessible to nonspecialists. The first chapter introduces various approaches to animal behavior and provides an informal introduction to neural networks, their history, and their potential advantages. The second chapter reviews artificial neural networks, including biological foundations, techniques, and applications. The following three chapters apply neural networks to such topics as learning and development, classical instrumental condition, and the role of genes in building brain networks. The book concludes by comparing neural networks to other approaches. It will appeal to students of animal behavior in many disciplines. It will also interest neurobiologists, cognitive scientists, and those from other fields who wish to learn more about animal behavior.
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Calls Beyond Our Hearing

Unlocking the Secrets of Animal Voices

Author: Holly Menino

Publisher: Macmillan

ISBN: 0312587570

Category: Nature

Page: 260

View: 1400

The author of Darwin's Fox describes her visits to diverse world locations where she drew on cutting-edge studies with scientists and explorers to learn about how animals use communication to feed, play, mate and survive. 15,000 first printing.
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Coexisting with Large Carnivores

Lessons From Greater Yellowstone

Author: Tim Clark,Murray Rutherford,Denise Casey

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9781597268448

Category: Nature

Page: 290

View: 7876

As in the rest of the United States, grizzly bears, wolves, and mountain lions in and around Yellowstone National Park were eliminated or reduced decades ago to very low numbers. In recent years, however, populations have begun to recover, leading to encounters between animals and people and, more significantly, to conflicts among people about what to do with these often controversial neighbors. Coexisting with Large Carnivores presents a close-up look at the socio-political context of large carnivores and their management in western Wyoming south of Yellowstone National Park, including the southern part of what is commonly recognized as the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. The book brings together researchers and others who have studied and worked in the region to help untangle some of the highly charged issues associated with large carnivores, their interactions with humans, and the politics that arise from those interactions. This volume argues that coexistence will be achieved only by a thorough understanding of the human populations involved, their values, attitudes, beliefs, and the institutions through which carnivores and humans are managed. Coexisting with Large Carnivores offers important insights into this complex, dynamic issue and provides a unique overview of issues and strategies for managers, researchers, government officials, ranchers, and everyone else concerned about the management and conservation of large carnivores and the people who live nearby.
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Science

Author: John Michels (Journalist)

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 9725

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Tropical Zoology

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Animals

Page: N.A

View: 1988

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Animal Signals

Author: John Maynard Smith,David Harper

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198526858

Category: Nature

Page: 166

View: 992

Why are animal signals reliable? This is the central problem for evolutionary biologists interested in signals. Of course, not all signals are reliable; but most are, otherwise receivers of signals would ignore them. A number of theoretical answers have been proposed and empirical studies made, but there still remains a considerable amount of confusion. The authors, one a theoretician the other a fieldworker, introduce a sense of order to this chaos. A significant cause of confusion has been the tendency for different researchers to use either the same term with different meanings, or different terms with the same meaning. The authors attempt to clarify these differences. A second cause of confusion has arisen because many biologists continue to assume that there is only one correct explanation for signal reliability. The authors argue that the reliability of signals is maintained in several ways, relevant in different circumstances, and that biologists must learn to distinguish between them. In this book they explain the different theories, give examples of signalling systems to which one or another theory applies, and point to the many areas where further work, both theoretical and empirical, is required.
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Plant-Animal Communication

Author: H. Martin Schaefer,Graeme D. Ruxton

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191620971

Category: Science

Page: 298

View: 6578

Communication is an essential factor underpinning the interactions between species and the structure of their communities. Plant-animal interactions are particularly diverse due to the complex nature of their mutualistic and antagonistic relationships. However the evolution of communication and the underlying mechanisms responsible remain poorly understood. Plant-Animal Communication is a timely summary of the latest research and ideas on the ecological and evolutionary foundations of communication between plants and animals, including discussions of fundamental concepts such as deception, reliability, and camouflage. It introduces how the sensory world of animals shapes the various modes of communication employed, laying out the basics of vision, scent, acoustic, and gustatory communication. Subsequent chapters discuss how plants communicate in these sensory modes to attract animals to facilitate seed dispersal, pollination, and carnivory, and how they communicate to defend themselves against herbivores. Potential avenues for productive theoretical and empirical research are clearly identified, and suggestions for novel empirical approaches to the study of communication in general are outlined.
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Communicating Risks and Benefits

An Evidence Based User's Guide

Author: Baruch Fischhoff

Publisher: Government Printing Office

ISBN: 9780160901799

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 240

View: 3133

Effective risk communication is essential to the well-being of any organization and those people who depend on it. Ineffective communication can cost lives, money and reputations. Communicating Risks and Benefits: An Evidence-Based User’s Guide provides the scientific foundations for effective communications. The book authoritatively summarizes the relevant research, draws out its implications for communication design, and provides practical ways to evaluate and improve communications for any decision involving risks and benefits. Topics include the communication of quantitative information and warnings, the roles of emotion and the news media, the effects of age and literacy, and tests of how well communications meet the organization’s goals. The guide will help users in any organization, with any budget, to make the science of their communications as sound as the science that they are communicating.
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Moral Sentiments and Material Interests

The Foundations of Cooperation in Economic Life

Author: Herbert Gintis

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262072526

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 404

View: 2507

Multidisciplinary research into cooperation and the implications for public policy, drawing on insights from economics, anthropology, biology, social psychology, and sociology.
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René Dubos, Friend of the Good Earth

Microbiologist, Medical Scientist, Environmentalist

Author: Carol L. Moberg

Publisher: Amer Society for Microbiology

ISBN: 9781555813406

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 260

View: 4486

Rene Dubos; Friend of the Good Earth: Microbiologist, Medical Scientist, Environmentalist is a biography of one of the most influential scientists in recent history. Documenting his life from his birth in 1901 to his death in 1982, this book examines the intriguing career of Dubos and his tremendous impact on science, medicine, society, and the ......
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The Major Transitions in Evolution

Author: John Maynard Smith,Eors Szathmary

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198502944

Category: Nature

Page: 346

View: 1965

During evolution there have been several major changes in the way genetic information is organized and transmitted from one generation to the next. These transitions include the origin of life itself, the first eukaryotic cells, reproduction by sexual means, the appearance of multicellular plants and animals, the emergence of cooperation and of animal societies. This is the first book to discuss all these major transitions and their implications for our understanding of evolution.Clearly written and illustrated with many original diagrams, this book will be welcomed by students and researchers in the fields of evolutionary biology, ecology, and genetics.
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Howler Monkeys

Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation

Author: Martín M. Kowalewski,Paul A. Garber,Liliana Cortés-Ortiz,Bernardo Urbani,Dionisios Youlatos

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1493919601

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 4585

Howler monkeys (genus Alouatta) comprise twelve species of leaf-eating New World monkeys that range from southern Mexico through northern Argentina. This genus is the most widespread of any New World primate taxa, and can be found to inhabit a range of forest types from undisturbed rainforest to severely anthropogenically impacted forest fragments. Although there have been many studies on individual species of howler monkeys, this book is the first comprehensive volume to place information on howler behavior and biology within a theoretical framework of ecological and social adaptability. This is the second of two volumes devoted to the genus Alouatta. This volume: · Examines behavioral and physiological mechanisms that enable howler monkeys to exploit highly disturbed and fragmented habitats · Presents models of howler monkey diet, social organization, and mating systems that can also inform researchers studying Old World colobines, apes, and other tropical mammals These goals are achieved in a collection of chapters written by a distinguished group of scientists on the feeding ecology, behavior, mating strategies, and management and conservation of howlers. This book also contains chapters on the howler microbiome, the concept of behavioral variability, sexual selection, and the role of primates in forest regeneration.
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The Handbook of Communication Skills

Author: Owen Hargie

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134242379

Category: Psychology

Page: 600

View: 2972

The Handbook of Communication Skills is recognised as one of the core texts in the field of communication. This thoroughly revised and updated third edition arrives at a time of considerable growing interest in this area, with recent research showing the importance of communication skills for success in many walks of life. The book's core principle, that interpersonal communication can be conceptualized as a form of skilled activity, is examined in detail and a comprehensive transactional model of skilled communication is presented, which takes into account current conceptual and research perspectives. This book provides a comprehensive analysis of research, theory and practice in the key skill areas of communication, such as non-verbal communication, persuasion, leadership, assertiveness, self-disclosure, listening and negotiation. Each chapter is written by a recognised authority in that particular specialism, among them world leaders in their particular fields. In the ten years since the last edition, a large volume of research has been published and the text has been comprehensively updated by reviewing this wealth of data. In addition a new chapter on persuasion has been added - one of the areas of most rapid growth in social psychology and communication. The Handbook of Communication Skills represents the most significant single contribution to the literature in this domain. It will be of continued interest to researchers and students in psychology and communication, as well as in a variety of other contexts, from vocational courses in health, business and education, to many others such as nursing and social work whose day-to-day work is dependent on effective interpersonal skills.
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Escaping From Predators

An Integrative View of Escape Decisions

Author: William E. Cooper, Jr,Daniel T. Blumstein

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316368483

Category: Medical

Page: N.A

View: 1982

When a predator attacks, prey are faced with a series of 'if', 'when' and 'how' escape decisions – these critical questions are the foci of this book. Cooper and Blumstein bring together a balance of theory and empirical research to summarise over fifty years of scattered research and benchmark current thinking in the rapidly expanding literature on the behavioural ecology of escaping. The book consolidates current and new behaviour models with taxonomically divided empirical chapters that demonstrate the application of escape theory to different groups. The chapters integrate behaviour with physiology, genetics and evolution to lead the reader through the complex decisions faced by prey during a predator attack, examining how these decisions interact with life history and individual variation. The chapter on best practice field methodology and the ideas for future research presented throughout, ensure this volume is practical as well as informative.
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The Biological Evolution of Religious Mind and Behavior

Author: Eckart Voland,Wulf Schiefenhövel

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642001284

Category: Science

Page: 305

View: 7102

In a Darwinian world, religious behavior - just like other behaviors - is likely to have undergone a process of natural selection in which it was rewarded in the evolutionary currency of reproductive success. This book aims to provide a better understanding of the social scenarios in which selection pressure led to religious practices becoming an evolved human trait, i.e. an adaptive answer to the conditions of living and surviving that prevailed among our prehistoric ancestors. This aim is pursued by a team of expert authors from a range of disciplines. Their contributions examine the relevant physiological, emotional, cognitive and social processes. The resulting understanding of the functional interplay of these processes gives valuable insights into the biological roots and benefits of religion.
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