The Emperor's New Mind

Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics

Author: Roger Penrose

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198784929

Category: Computers

Page: 602

View: 9165

For many decades, the proponents of `artificial intelligence' have maintained that computers will soon be able to do everything that a human can do. In his bestselling work of popular science, Sir Roger Penrose takes us on a fascinating tour through the basic principles of physics, cosmology, mathematics, and philosophy to show that human thinking can never be emulated by a machine. Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.
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Shadows of the Mind

A Search for the Missing Science of Consciousness

Author: Roger Penrose

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195106466

Category: Computers

Page: 457

View: 5341

Presenting a look at the human mind's capacity while criticizing artificial intelligence, the author makes suggestions about classical and quantum physics and the role of microtubules
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Bridging the Gap between Life and Physics

Author: Ron Cottam,Willy Ranson

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319745336

Category: Science

Page: 338

View: 7516

This is the only book which deals with the correlatory comparison between hierarchical living systems and inorganic physical ones. The culmination of the book is the proposition of research to discover and understand the natural underlying level of organization which produces the descriptive commonality of life and physics. Traditional science eliminates life from its purview by its rejection of interrelationships as a primary content of systems. The conventional procedure of science is that of reductionism, whereby complex systems are dismantled to characterize lower level components, but virtually no attention is given to how to rebuild those systems—the underlying assumption is that analysis and synthesis are symmetrical. This book fulfills two main coupled functions. Firstly, it details hierarchy as the major formulation of natural complex systems and investigates the fundamental character of natural hierarchy as a widely transferable ‘container’ of structure and/or function – and this in the case of the new development of a representational or model hierarchy. Secondly, it couples this hierarchical description to that of the electronic properties of semiconductors, as a well-modeled canonical example of physical properties. The central thesis is that these two descriptions are comparable, if care is taken to treat logical and epistemological aspects with prudence: a large part of the book is composed of just this aspect of care for grounding consistency. As such great attention is given to correct assessment of argumentative features which are otherwise presumed ‘known’ but which are usually left uncertain. Development of the ideas is always based on a relationship between entity or phenomenon and their associated ecosystems, and this applies equally well to the consequent derivations of consciousness and information.
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Cycles of Time

An Extraordinary New View of the Universe

Author: Roger Penrose

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1446402215

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 3652

What came before the Big Bang? How did the universe begin and must it inevitably end? In this remarkable book Roger Penrose brilliantly illuminates some of the deepest mysteries of the universe. Cycles of Time contains a penetrating analysis of the second law of thermodynamics - according to which the 'randomness' of our world is continually increasing - and a thorough examination of the light-cone geometry of space-time. It combines these two central themes to show how the expected ultimate fate of our accelerating, expanding universe can actually be reinterpreted as the 'big bang' of a new one. Presenting various standard and non-standard cosmological models, discussing black holes in depth as well as taking in the role of the cosmic microwave background along the way, Roger Penrose argues that the Big Bang was not actually the beginning of everything - nor will it signal the end. Original and compelling, Cycles of Time offers new answers to the ultimate questions of life.
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Fashion, Faith, and Fantasy in the New Physics of the Universe

Author: Roger Penrose

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780691178530

Category: Mathematics

Page: 520

View: 8559

What can fashionable ideas, blind faith, or pure fantasy possibly have to do with the scientific quest to understand the universe? Surely, theoretical physicists are immune to mere trends, dogmatic beliefs, or flights of fancy? In fact, acclaimed physicist and bestselling author Roger Penrose argues that researchers working at the extreme frontiers of physics are just as susceptible to these forces as anyone else. In this provocative book, he argues that fashion, faith, and fantasy, while sometimes productive and even essential in physics, may be leading today's researchers astray in three of the field's most important areas--string theory, quantum mechanics, and cosmology. Arguing that string theory has veered away from physical reality by positing six extra hidden dimensions, Penrose cautions that the fashionable nature of a theory can cloud our judgment of its plausibility. In the case of quantum mechanics, its stunning success in explaining the atomic universe has led to an uncritical faith that it must also apply to reasonably massive objects, and Penrose responds by suggesting possible changes in quantum theory. Turning to cosmology, he argues that most of the current fantastical ideas about the origins of the universe cannot be true, but that an even wilder reality may lie behind them. Finally, Penrose describes how fashion, faith, and fantasy have ironically also shaped his own work, from twistor theory, a possible alternative to string theory that is beginning to acquire a fashionable status, to "conformal cyclic cosmology," an idea so fantastic that it could be called "conformal crazy cosmology." The result is an important critique of some of the most significant developments in physics today from one of its most eminent figures.
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Consciousness and the Universe

Author: Rouse Ball Professor of Mathematics Roger Penrose

Publisher: Cosmology Science Publishers

ISBN: 9781938024436

Category:

Page: 1126

View: 348

Is consciousness an epiphenomenal happenstance of this particular universe? Or does the very concept of a universe depend upon its presence? Does consciousness merely perceive reality, or does reality depend upon it? Did consciousness simply emerge as an effect of evolution? Or was it, in some sense, always "out there" in the world? These questions and more, are addressed in this special edition. FEATURING Cosmological Foundations of Consciousness Origins of Thought Evolution of Consciousness Neuroscience of Free Will Quantum Physics & Consciousness Out-of-Body and Near Death Experiences Dreams & Hallucinations Paleolithic Cosmology & Spirituality Self-Consciousness in Apes, Dolphins, Cephalopods, Machines Consciousness in Extra-Terrestrials Sexual Consciousness How Consciousness Becomes the Physical Universe Over 70 Consciousness Raising Articles By: Deepak Chopra, Roger Penrose, Stuart Hameroff, Brandon Carter, Michael Persinger, Walter Freeman, Howard Shevrin, Arnold Trehub, Bruce MacLennan, GianCarlo Ghirardi, Don Page, Shan Gao, Gordon Globus, Fred Kuttner, Bruce Rosenblum, Jack Sarfatti, Etzel Cardena, Larry Dossey, Bruce Greyson, Roger Nelson, Paola Zizzi, Rudolph Tanzi, Ernesto Di Mauro, Michael Nauenberg, Thomas Suddendorf, Lori Marino, Andrea E. Cavanna, Ian Tattersall, Ellert R.S. Nijenhuis, Bruce Greyson, Milford H. Wolpoff, Edgar Mitchell, Thomas H. Huxley, RenA A(c) Descartes, Sigmund Freud, Williams James, and many more. This Text Is Divided into 14 Sections with 70+ Chapters Section I. Cosmology of Consciousness Section II. Brain and Mind Section III. What is Consciousness Section IV. Consciousness and Thought Section V. The Neuroanatomy of the Unconscious Section VI. Remote Consciousness Section VII. Self-Consciousness - Dissociated, Shared, Near Death Consciousness Section VIII. Dreams, Hallucinations & Altered States of Consciousness Section IX. Origins & Evolution of Consciousness Section X. Paleolithic Consciousness: Neanderthals, Cro-Magnon, Spirituality, Sexuality Section XI. Animal and Artificial Consciousness Section XII. Quantum Physics and Consciousness Section XIII. Consciousness and ExtraTerrestrials Section XIV. Consciousness and the Universe About the Editors Dr. Penrose shared the Wolf Prize in physics with Stephen Hawking, and is renowned world-wide for his work in general relativity, quantum mechanics, geometry and consciousness. He is the author of many important papers and books including The Emperor s New Mind, Shadows of the Mind, The Road to Reality, and his latest Cycles of Time, which proposes serial universes. Dr Stuart Hameroff, of the University of Arizona, is a world famous consciousness researcher and organizer of the conference series Toward a Science of Consciousness."
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The Turing Guide

Author: Jack Copeland,Jonathan Bowen,Mark Sprevak,Robin Wilson

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198747829

Category: Science

Page: 544

View: 3464

Alan Turing has long proved a subject of fascination, but following the centenary of his birth in 2012, the code-breaker, computer pioneer, mathematician (and much more) has become even more celebrated with much media coverage, and several meetings, conferences and books raising public awareness of Turing's life and work. This volume will bring together contributions from some of the leading experts on Alan Turing to create a comprehensive guide to Turing that will serve as a useful resource for researchers in the area as well as the increasingly interested general reader. The book will cover aspects of Turing's life and the wide range of his intellectual activities, including mathematics, code-breaking, computer science, logic, artificial intelligence and mathematical biology, as well as his subsequent influence.
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The Road to Reality

A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe

Author: Roger Penrose

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1446418200

Category: Science

Page: 1136

View: 1377

The Road to Reality is the most important and ambitious work of science for a generation. It provides nothing less than a comprehensive account of the physical universe and the essentials of its underlying mathematical theory. It assumes no particular specialist knowledge on the part of the reader, so that, for example, the early chapters give us the vital mathematical background to the physical theories explored later in the book. Roger Penrose's purpose is to describe as clearly as possible our present understanding of the universe and to convey a feeling for its deep beauty and philosophical implications, as well as its intricate logical interconnections. The Road to Reality is rarely less than challenging, but the book is leavened by vivid descriptive passages, as well as hundreds of hand-drawn diagrams. In a single work of colossal scope one of the world's greatest scientists has given us a complete and unrivalled guide to the glories of the universe that we all inhabit.
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Roger Penrose

Collected Works. 1953-1967. Vol. 1

Author: Roger Penrose

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780199219445

Category: Mathematics

Page: 822

View: 5711

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What is Life?

With Mind and Matter and Autobiographical Sketches

Author: Erwin Schrodinger

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107604664

Category: Philosophy

Page: 184

View: 2138

"What Is Life?" is Nobel laureate Erwin Schrödinger's exploration of the question which lies at the heart of biology. His essay, "Mind and Matter," investigates what place consciousness occupies in the evolution of life, and what part the state of development of the human mind plays in moral questions. "Autobiographical Sketches" offers a fascinating fragmentary account of his life as a background to his scientific writings.
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The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing

Author: Richard Dawkins

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199216819

Category: Science

Page: 419

View: 6244

An anthology of diverse and inspiring pieces to browse and to treasure. It shows the many of the best scientists have displayed as much imagination and skill with the pen as in the laboratory.
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The Undiscovered Mind

How the Human Brain Defies Replication, Medication, and Explanation

Author: John Horgan

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 0684865785

Category: Medical

Page: 336

View: 2418

A respected journalist explores the fields of science that try to explain the mysteries of the human mind, arguing that science has done little to plumb the depths of our minds and cannot ever rationally explain all of human behavior. 50,000 first printing.
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Daydreaming in Humans and Machines

A Computer Model of the Stream of Thought

Author: Erik T. Mueller

Publisher: Intellect Books

ISBN: 9780893915629

Category: Artificial intelligence.

Page: 393

View: 6199

This volume presents a computer model of human daydreaming to demonstrate how it is useful for creative problem solving and learning in both humans and computers. The model is implemented as the running computer program Daydreaming, which takes simple descriptions of external world events as input and produces descriptions of daydreams and actions as output.
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What is Life?

How Chemistry Becomes Biology

Author: Addy Pross

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191650897

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 1187

Seventy years ago, Erwin Schrödinger posed a profound question: 'What is life, and how did it emerge from non-life?' This problem has puzzled biologists and physical scientists ever since. Living things are hugely complex and have unique properties, such as self-maintenance and apparently purposeful behaviour which we do not see in inert matter. So how does chemistry give rise to biology? What could have led the first replicating molecules up such a path? Now, developments in the emerging field of 'systems chemistry' are unlocking the problem. Addy Pross shows how the different kind of stability that operates among replicating molecules results in a tendency for chemical systems to become more complex and acquire the properties of life. Strikingly, he demonstrates that Darwinian evolution is the biological expression of a deeper, well-defined chemical concept: the whole story from replicating molecules to complex life is one continuous process governed by an underlying physical principle. The gulf between biology and the physical sciences is finally becoming bridged. This new edition includes an Epilogue describing developments in the concepts of fundamental forms of stability discussed in the book, and their profound implications. Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.
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The Quantum Story

A history in 40 moments

Author: Jim Baggott

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191604291

Category: Science

Page: 496

View: 7780

The twentieth century was defined by physics. From the minds of the world's leading physicists there flowed a river of ideas that would transport mankind to the pinnacle of wonderment and to the very depths of human despair. This was a century that began with the certainties of absolute knowledge and ended with the knowledge of absolute uncertainty. It was a century in which physicists developed weapons with the capacity to destroy our reality, whilst at the same time denying us the possibility that we can ever properly comprehend it. Almost everything we think we know about the nature of our world comes from one theory of physics. This theory was discovered and refined in the first thirty years of the twentieth century and went on to become quite simply the most successful theory of physics ever devised. Its concepts underpin much of the twenty-first century technology that we have learned to take for granted. But its success has come at a price, for it has at the same time completely undermined our ability to make sense of the world at the level of its most fundamental constituents. Rejecting the fundamental elements of uncertainty and chance implied by quantum theory, Albert Einstein once famously declared that 'God does not play dice'. Niels Bohr claimed that anybody who is not shocked by the theory has not understood it. The charismatic American physicist Richard Feynman went further: he claimed that nobody understands it. This is quantum theory, and this book tells its story. Jim Baggott presents a celebration of this wonderful yet wholly disconcerting theory, with a history told in forty episodes — significant moments of truth or turning points in the theory's development. From its birth in the porcelain furnaces used to study black body radiation in 1900, to the promise of stimulating new quantum phenomena to be revealed by CERN's Large Hadron Collider over a hundred years later, this is the extraordinary story of the quantum world. Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.
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Time's Arrow and Archimedes' Point

New Directions for the Physics of Time

Author: Huw Price

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198026137

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 4198

Why is the future so different from the past? Why does the past affect the future and not the other way around? What does quantum mechanics really tell us about the world? In this important and accessible book, Huw Price throws fascinating new light on some of the great mysteries of modern physics, and connects them in a wholly original way. Price begins with the mystery of the arrow of time. Why, for example, does disorder always increase, as required by the second law of thermodynamics? Price shows that, for over a century, most physicists have thought about these problems the wrong way. Misled by the human perspective from within time, which distorts and exaggerates the differences between past and future, they have fallen victim to what Price calls the "double standard fallacy": proposed explanations of the difference between the past and the future turn out to rely on a difference which has been slipped in at the beginning, when the physicists themselves treat the past and future in different ways. To avoid this fallacy, Price argues, we need to overcome our natural tendency to think about the past and the future differently. We need to imagine a point outside time -- an Archimedean "view from nowhen" -- from which to observe time in an unbiased way. Offering a lively criticism of many major modern physicists, including Richard Feynman and Stephen Hawking, Price shows that this fallacy remains common in physics today -- for example, when contemporary cosmologists theorize about the eventual fate of the universe. The "big bang" theory normally assumes that the beginning and end of the universe will be very different. But if we are to avoid the double standard fallacy, we need to consider time symmetrically, and take seriously the possibility that the arrow of time may reverse when the universe recollapses into a "big crunch." Price then turns to the greatest mystery of modern physics, the meaning of quantum theory. He argues that in missing the Archimedean viewpoint, modern physics has missed a radical and attractive solution to many of the apparent paradoxes of quantum physics. Many consequences of quantum theory appear counterintuitive, such as Schrodinger's Cat, whose condition seems undetermined until observed, and Bell's Theorem, which suggests a spooky "nonlocality," where events happening simultaneously in different places seem to affect each other directly. Price shows that these paradoxes can be avoided by allowing that at the quantum level the future does, indeed, affect the past. This demystifies nonlocality, and supports Einstein's unpopular intuition that quantum theory describes an objective world, existing independently of human observers: the Cat is alive or dead, even when nobody looks. So interpreted, Price argues, quantum mechanics is simply the kind of theory we ought to have expected in microphysics -- from the symmetric standpoint. Time's Arrow and Archimedes' Point presents an innovative and controversial view of time and contemporary physics. In this exciting book, Price urges physicists, philosophers, and anyone who has ever pondered the mysteries of time to look at the world from the fresh perspective of Archimedes' Point and gain a deeper understanding of ourselves, the universe around us, and our own place in time.
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The Engines of Our Ingenuity

An Engineer Looks at Technology and Culture

Author: John H. Lienhard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195167313

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 9145

This book explores the nature of creativity in engineering and technology, and how it relates to creativity in art or science. Lienhard has for ten years done a twice-weekly radio show, carried on about 35 NPR stations, consisting of 3-minute essays on technology. He uses the substance of selected segments of his radio program to create a continuous narrative presenting his insights on technological creativity. This book has the same title as his radio program, to further draw the attention of his one million listeners.
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How Consciousness Became the Universe

Quantum Physics, Cosmology, Neuroscience, Parallel Universes, 2nd Edition

Author: Deepak Chopra,Sir Roger Penrose,Brandon Carter

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781938024450

Category: Science

Page: 574

View: 7805

Contents I: How Consciousness Became the Universe 1. How Consciousness Becomes the Physical Universe 2. Perceived Reality, Quantum Mechanics, and Consciousness 3. Quantum Reality and Mind 4. Space, Time and Consciousness 5. Does the Universe have Cosmological Memory? Does This Imply Cosmic Consciousness? 6. Cosmological Foundations of Consciousness 7. What Consciousness Does: A Quantum Cosmology of Mind 8. Detecting Mass Consciousness: Effects of Globally Shared Attention and Emotion II: Neuroscience, Cosmology and the Evolution of Consciousness of the Universe 9. Paleolithic Cosmic Consciousness of the Cosmos 10. The Brain and Consciousness: Dynamics and Evolution 11.Quantum Physics the Multiplicity of Mind: Split-Brains, Fragmented Minds, Dissociation, Quantum Consciousness 12. Many Mansions: Special Relativity, Higher-Dimensional Space, Neuroscience, Consciousness and Time 13. Brain, Consciousness, and Free Will 14. Consciousness in the Universe: Neuroscience, Quantum Space-Time Geometry and Orch OR Theory III. Consciousness, Quantum Physics, Relativity, Precognition, Retrocausation, Multiple Dimensions, Entanglement, Time 15. The Theory of MindTime 16. Consciousness of Continuity in Time 17. The Time Machine of Consciousness. Past Present Future Exist Simultaneously. Entanglement, Tachyons, Relative Time, Circle of Time, Quantum Time, Dream Time, PreCognition, Retrocausation, Deja Vu, and Premonitions 18. The Observer's Now, Past and Future in Physics from a Psycho-Biological Perspective 19. Synchronicity, Entanglement, Quantum Information and the Psyche 20. Consciousness, the Paranormal and Higher Dimensions IV. Uncertainty Principle, Parallel Universes, Wave Functions, Entanglement, Violations of Causality, and Paradoxes of Time Travel 21. Multiverse Scenarios in Cosmology: Classification, Cause, Challenge, Controversy, and Criticism 22. Classical Anthropic Everett Model: Indeterminacy in a Preordained Multiverse 23. Cosmology, The Uncertainty Principle, Wave Function, Probability, Entanglement, and Multiple Worlds 24. Logic of Quantum Mechanics, Parallel Worlds and Phenomenon of Consciousness V: THE AFFECT OF CONSCIOUSNESS OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE 25. Consciousness and Quantum Physics: A Deconstruction of the Topic 26. Consciousness and Quantum Measurement 27. A Quantum Physical Effect of Consciousness 28. The Conscious Observer in the Quantum Experiment 29. Does Quantum Mechanics Require A Conscious Observer? 30. Quantum Physics, Advanced Waves and Consciousness 31. How Consciousness Became the Universe
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Nothing: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Frank Close

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191574643

Category: Philosophy

Page: 176

View: 8408

What is 'nothing'? What remains when you take all the matter away? Can empty space - a void - exist? This Very Short Introduction explores the science and the history of the elusive void: from Aristotle who insisted that the vacuum was impossible, via the theories of Newton and Einstein, to our very latest discoveries and why they can tell us extraordinary things about the cosmos. Frank Close tells the story of how scientists have explored the elusive void, and the rich discoveries that they have made there. He takes the reader on a lively and accessible history through ancient ideas and cultural superstitions to the frontiers of current research. He describes how scientists discovered that the vacuum is filled with fields; how Newton, Mach, and Einstein grappled with the nature of space and time; and how the mysterious 'aether' that was long ago supposed to permeate the void may now be making a comeback with the latest research into the 'Higgs field'. We now know that the vacuum is far from being empty - it seethes with virtual particles and antiparticles that erupt spontaneously into being, and it also may contain hidden dimensions that we were previously unaware of. These new discoveries may provide answers to some of cosmology's most fundamental questions: what lies outside the universe, and, if there was once nothing, then how did the universe begin? ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
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Roger Penrose: Collected Works

Volume 6: 1997-2003

Author: Roger Penrose

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0199219419

Category: Mathematics

Page: 808

View: 746

The sixth volume of six that bring together 50 years of the work of Professor Sir Roger Penrose
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