The Ecology of Adaptive Radiation

Author: Dolph Schluter

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191588327

Category:

Page: 296

View: 2954

Adaptive radiation is the evolution of diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage. It can cause a single ancestral species to differentiate into an impressively vast array of species inhabiting a variety of environments. Much of life's diversity has arisen during adaptive radiations. Some of the most famous recent examples include the East African cichlid fishes, the Hawaiian silverswords, and of course, Darwin's Gal--aacute--;pagos finches,. This book evaluates the causes of adaptive radiation. It focuses on the 'ecological' theory of adaptive radiation, a body of ideas that began with Darwin and was developed through the early part of the 20th Century. This theory proposes that phenotypic divergence and speciation in adaptive radiation are caused ultimately by divergent natural selection arising from differences in environment and competition between species. In The Ecology of Adaptive Radiation the author re-evaluates the ecological theory, along with its most significant extensions and challenges, in the light of all the recent evidence. This important book is the first full exploration of the causes of adaptive radiation to be published for decades, written by one of the world's best young evolutionary biologists.
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Fundamentals of Biogeography

Author: Richard John Huggett

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134349688

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 8974

Fundamentals of Biogeography presents an accessible, engaging and comprehensive introduction to biogeography, explaining the ecology, geography, history and conservation of animals and plants. Starting with an outline of how species arise, disperse, diversify and become extinct, the book examines: how environmental factors (climate, substrate, topography, and disturbance) influence animals and plants; investigates how populations grow, interact and survive; how communities form and change; and explores the connections between biogeography and conservation. The second edition has been extensively revised and expanded throughout to cover new topics and revisit themes from the first edition in more depth. Illustrated throughout with informative diagrams and attractive photos and including guides to further reading, chapter summaries and an extensive glossary of key terms, Fundamentals of Biogeography clearly explains key concepts in the history, geography and ecology of life systems. In doing so, it tackles some of the most topical and controversial environmental and ethical concerns including species over-exploitation, the impacts of global warming, habitat fragmentation, biodiversity loss and ecosystem restoration.
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Evolutionary Biology of the Atlantic Salmon

Author: Tomislav Vladić,Erik Petersson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466598514

Category: Nature

Page: 297

View: 9156

Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L) is an anadromous species contributing to major fishery catches and comprising a significant part of the aquaculturally produced fish for human consumption. The aim of this book is to incite the interest in the field of knowledge gathered from a broad scope of disciplines that have investigated this fish species. Undeniably, increasing fishery pressure on wild fish stocks throughout the world oceans has prompted the need for sustainable aquacultural production for increasing human demands.
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Morphometrics for Nonmorphometricians

Author: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540958525

Category: Computers

Page: 367

View: 8701

This introduction to morphometrics does not rely on complex mathematics and statistics. It includes application case studies in fields ranging from paleontology to evolutionary ecology, and it discusses software for analyzing and comparing shape.
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Bulletin

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Ecology

Page: N.A

View: 3573

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Proceedings

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Biology

Page: N.A

View: 1100

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Sparidae

Biology and Aquaculture of Gilthead Sea Bream and Other Species

Author: Michalis A. Pavlidis,Constantinos C. Mylonas

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444392203

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 416

View: 4828

The Sparidae, commonly known as breams and porgies, is a family of fishes of the order Perciformes, and includes about 115 species of mainly marine coastal fish of high economic value, exploited and farmed for human consumption, as well as for recreational purposes. This landmark publication brings together a huge wealth of information on the biology and culture of gilthead sea bream and other Sparidae species. Commencing with an overview of the current status of aquaculture of Sparidae, the book continues with comprehensive coverage of the family’s phylogeny, evolution and taxonomy, stress and welfare issues, and reproduction and broodstock management. Further chapters include coverage of early development and metabolism, production systems, nutrition, quality, and health management. A final cutting-edge chapter looks at genomic-proteomic research in Sparidae and its application to genetic improvement. With contributions from Europe, the Middle East, Asia, Australasia and North America, carefully drawn together and edited by Professor M. Pavlidis and Dr C. C. Mylonas, themselves well known for their work in this area, Sparidae is an essential purchase for anyone working with this important family of fishes. Fish biologists, fish farmers, aquaculture researchers, and fisheries managers will all find much of great use and interest within this book’s covers. All universities and research establishments where biological sciences, aquaculture and fisheries science are studied and taught should have copies of this excellent book on their shelves.
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The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

Author: Peter Mitchell,Paul Lane

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191626155

Category: Social Science

Page: 1080

View: 4623

Africa has the longest and arguably the most diverse archaeological record of any of the continents. It is where the human lineage first evolved and from where Homo sapiens spread across the rest of the world. Later, it witnessed novel experiments in food-production and unique trajectories to urbanism and the organisation of large communities that were not always structured along strictly hierarchical lines. Millennia of engagement with societies in other parts of the world confirm Africa's active participation in the construction of the modern world, while the richness of its history, ethnography, and linguistics provide unusually powerful opportunities for constructing interdisciplinary narratives of Africa's past. This Handbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-date synthesis of African archaeology, covering the entirety of the continent's past from the beginnings of human evolution to the archaeological legacy of European colonialism. As well as covering almost all periods and regions of the continent, it includes a mixture of key methodological and theoretical issues and debates, and situates the subject's contemporary practice within the discipline's history and the infrastructural challenges now facing its practitioners. Bringing together essays on all these themes from over seventy contributors, many of them living and working in Africa, it offers a highly accessible, contemporary account of the subject for use by scholars and students of not only archaeology, but also history, anthropology, and other disciplines.
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Metabolic Ecology

A Scaling Approach

Author: Richard M. Sibly,James H. Brown,Astrid Kodric-Brown

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119968518

Category: Science

Page: 256

View: 7116

One of the first textbooks in this emerging important field of ecology. Most of ecology is about metabolism: the ways that organisms use energy and materials. The energy requirements of individuals – their metabolic rates – vary predictably with their body size and temperature. Ecological interactions are exchanges of energy and materials between organisms and their environments. So metabolic rate affects ecological processes at all levels: individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems. Each chapter focuses on a different process, level of organization, or kind of organism. It lays a conceptual foundation and presents empirical examples. Together, the chapters provide an integrated framework that holds the promise for a unified theory of ecology. The book is intended to be accessible to upper-level undergraduate, and graduate students, but also of interest to senior scientists. Its easy-to-read chapters and clear illustrations can be used in lecture and seminar courses. Together they make for an authoritative treatment that will inspire future generations to study metabolic ecology.
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Das Buch des Lebens

wer schrieb den genetischen Code?

Author: Lily E. Kay

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783518293461

Category: Genetic code

Page: 556

View: 979

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The Origin, Expansion, and Demise of Plant Species

Author: Donald A. Levin

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195351958

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 7949

Combining insights from observation, experimentation, and theory, The Origin, Expansion, and Demise of Plant Species offers a broad overview of species as dynamic entities that arise, have unique evolutionary histories, and ultimately go extinct. It begins with a review of species concepts and the exposition of a new concept; it then addresses plant speciation, the expansion of species from their narrow centers of origin, intraspecific differentiation, and contact zones between differentiated population systems. Special attention is given to the breakdown of cohesion among populations by reproductive and spatial barriers. Also, the ecological and genetic properties of small populations and fragmented population systems are discussed with a focus on the role of hybridization in the demise of species. It ends with an exploration of the longevity of species and the tempo of diversification, contrasting different groups of plants in these respects as well as in rates of chromosomal differentiation. This book provides a new synthesis of evolutionary biology and ecology. It examines species from their origins, then follows them through their expansion, differentiation and loss of cohesion, and decline and extinction. The stages in the lives of species are viewed through ecological and genetic theory, and topics typically addressed independently are woven into a continuous fabric. As the first synthetic treatment of the stages through which plant species pass, this book is very useful for botanists, evolutionary biologists, conservation biologists, as well as all curious students of the biological sciences.
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The Avian Migrant

The Biology of Bird Migration

Author: John H. Rappole

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231518633

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 4445

The purpose of migration, regardless of the distance involved, is to exploit two or more environments suitable for survival or reproduction over time, usually on a seasonal basis. Yet individual organisms can practice the phenomenon differently, and birds deploy unique patterns of movement over particular segments of time. Incorporating the latest research on bird migration, this concise, critical assessment offers contemporary readers a firm grasp of what defines an avian migrant, how the organism came to be, what is known about its behavior, and how we can resolve its enduring mysteries. John H. Rappole's sophisticated survey of field data clarifies key ecological, biological, physiological, navigational, and evolutionary concerns. He begins with the very first migrants, who traded a home environment of greater stability for one of greater seasonality, and uses the structure of the annual cycle to examine the difference between migratory birds and their resident counterparts. He ultimately connects these differences to evolutionary milestones that have shaped a migrant lifestyle through natural selection. Rather than catalogue and describe various aspects of bird migration, Rappole considers how the avian migrant fits within a larger ecological frame, enabling a richer understanding of the phenomenon and its critical role in sustaining a hospitable and productive environment. Rappole concludes with a focus on population biology and conservation across time periods, considering the link between bird migration and the spread of disease among birds and humans, and the effects of global warming on migrant breeding ranges, reaction norms, and macroecology.
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Der erweiterte Phänotyp

Der lange Arm der Gene

Author: Richard Dawkins

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783662559673

Category: Science

Page: 334

View: 2828

Der erweiterte Phänotyp - ein Klassiker der Evolutionsbiologie Richard Dawkins betrachtet dieses 1982 erschienene, 1999 überarbeitete und ergänzte Buch als seinen Hauptbeitrag zur Evolutionsbiologie und als Nachfolgewerk seines Bestsellers Das egoistische Gen. Für die deutschsprachige Übersetzung hat Richard Dawkins ein neues Vorwort verfasst. Dawkins erweitert in diesem Buch den Begriff des Phänotyps (als Summe aller Merkmale eines Individuums) auf die Auswirkungen der Gene dieses Individuums auf die Umwelt und auf andere Lebewesen. Beispiele sind die durch den Fortpflanzungstrieb des Bibers entstehenden Bauten, die drastische Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt haben können, oder das Gen eines Parasiten, welches das Verhalten seines Wirtes zum Nutzen des Parasiten (Saitenwurm) verändert. Dawkins betont mit diesem Ansatz die genzentrierte Sicht des Lebens. Im letzten Kapitel des Buches unternimmt er den Versuch, den Organismus neu zu definieren. Ich behaupte, dass die meisten Wissenschaftler, die meisten Autoren ein Werk haben, von dem sie sagen würden: Egal, ob Sie noch nie etwas von mir gelesen haben, lesen Sie wenigstens dies! Richard Dawkins
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