The Ecology of Adaptive Radiation

Author: Dolph Schluter

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191588327

Category:

Page: 296

View: 7192

Adaptive radiation is the evolution of diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage. It can cause a single ancestral species to differentiate into an impressively vast array of species inhabiting a variety of environments. Much of life's diversity has arisen during adaptive radiations. Some of the most famous recent examples include the East African cichlid fishes, the Hawaiian silverswords, and of course, Darwin's Gal--aacute--;pagos finches,. This book evaluates the causes of adaptive radiation. It focuses on the 'ecological' theory of adaptive radiation, a body of ideas that began with Darwin and was developed through the early part of the 20th Century. This theory proposes that phenotypic divergence and speciation in adaptive radiation are caused ultimately by divergent natural selection arising from differences in environment and competition between species. In The Ecology of Adaptive Radiation the author re-evaluates the ecological theory, along with its most significant extensions and challenges, in the light of all the recent evidence. This important book is the first full exploration of the causes of adaptive radiation to be published for decades, written by one of the world's best young evolutionary biologists.
Release

Ecological Speciation

Author: Patrik Nosil

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199587116

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 1706

The formation of new species ('speciation') creates new biological diversity. This book addresses the role of ecological differences between populations in driving speciation. It reviews this process of 'ecological speciation' from ecological, geographic, and genetic perspectives.
Release

Evolutionary Ecology

The Trinidadian Guppy

Author: Anne E. Magurran

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198527862

Category: Science

Page: 206

View: 9046

The Trinidadian guppy represents a uniguely tractable vertebrate system, which has raised key questions in evolutionary ecology and supplied many of the answers. This work discusses this study and incorporates significant new findings and insights.
Release

Quantitative Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Integrating models with data

Author: Otso Ovaskainen,Henrik Johan de Knegt,Maria del Mar Delgado

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191024228

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 9024

This novel, interdisciplinary text achieves an integration of empirical data and theory with the aid of mathematical models and statistical methods. The emphasis throughout is on spatial ecology and evolution, especially on the interplay between environmental heterogeneity and biological processes. The book provides a coherent theme by interlinking the modelling approaches used for different subfields of spatial ecology: movement ecology, population ecology, community ecology, and genetics and evolutionary ecology (each being represented by a separate chapter). Each chapter starts by describing the concept of each modelling approach in its biological context, goes on to present the relevant mathematical models and statistical methods, and ends with a discussion of the benefits and limitations of each approach. The concepts and techniques discussed throughout the book are illustrated throughout with the help of empirical examples. This is an advanced text suitable for any biologist interested in the integration of empirical data and theory in spatial ecology/evolution through the use of quantitative/statistical methods and mathematical models. The book will also be of relevance and use as a textbook for graduate-level courses in spatial ecology, ecological modelling, theoretical ecology, and statistical ecology.
Release

Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean

Ecology, Evolution, and Plate Tectonics

Author: Jonathan Roughgarden,Joan Roughgarden

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195067312

Category: Science

Page: 200

View: 6168

The author of this treatise uses the Anolis lizard to demonstrate the concept of ecology models - how ecological context supplies the natural selection that drives evolution and how evolutionary change among species in turn affects their ecological station.
Release

Developmental Plasticity and Evolution

Author: Mary Jane West-Eberhard

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198028567

Category: Science

Page: 916

View: 461

The first comprehensive synthesis on development and evolution: it applies to all aspects of development, at all levels of organization and in all organisms, taking advantage of modern findings on behavior, genetics, endocrinology, molecular biology, evolutionary theory and phylogenetics to show the connections between developmental mechanisms and evolutionary change. This book solves key problems that have impeded a definitive synthesis in the past. It uses new concepts and specific examples to show how to relate environmentally sensitive development to the genetic theory of adaptive evolution and to explain major patterns of change. In this book development includes not only embryology and the ontogeny of morphology, sometimes portrayed inadequately as governed by "regulatory genes," but also behavioral development and physiological adaptation, where plasticity is mediated by genetically complex mechanisms like hormones and learning. The book shows how the universal qualities of phenotypes--modular organization and plasticity--facilitate both integration and change. Here you will learn why it is wrong to describe organisms as genetically programmed; why environmental induction is likely to be more important in evolution than random mutation; and why it is crucial to consider both selection and developmental mechanism in explanations of adaptive evolution. This book satisfies the need for a truly general book on development, plasticity and evolution that applies to living organisms in all of their life stages and environments. Using an immense compendium of examples on many kinds of organisms, from viruses and bacteria to higher plants and animals, it shows how the phenotype is reorganized during evolution to produce novelties, and how alternative phenotypes occupy a pivotal role as a phase of evolution that fosters diversification and speeds change. The arguments of this book call for a new view of the major themes of evolutionary biology, as shown in chapters on gradualism, homology, environmental induction, speciation, radiation, macroevolution, punctuation, and the maintenance of sex. No other treatment of development and evolution since Darwin's offers such a comprehensive and critical discussion of the relevant issues. Developmental Plasticity and Evolution is designed for biologists interested in the development and evolution of behavior, life-history patterns, ecology, physiology, morphology and speciation. It will also appeal to evolutionary paleontologists, anthropologists, psychologists, and teachers of general biology.
Release

Phylogeny, Ecology, and Behavior

A Research Program in Comparative Biology

Author: Daniel R. Brooks,Deborah A. McLennan

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226075716

Category: Science

Page: 434

View: 8560

"The merits of this work are many. A rigorous integration of phylogenetic hypotheses into studies of adaptation, adaptive radiation, and coevolution is absolutely necessary and can change dramatically our collective 'gestalt' about much in evolutionary biology. The authors advance and illustrate this thesis beautifully. The writing is often lucid, the examples are plentiful and diverse, and the juxtaposition of examples from different biological systems argues forcefully for the validity of the thesis. Many new insights are offered here, and the work is usually accessible to both the practiced phylogeneticist and the naive ecologist."—Joseph Travis, Florida State University "[Phylogeny, Ecology, and Behavior] presents its arguments forcefully and cogently, with ample . . .support. Brooks and McLennan conclude as they began, with the comment that evolution is a result, not a process, and that it is the result of an interaction of a variety of processes, environmental and historical. Evolutionary explanations must consider all these components, else they are incomplete. As Darwin's explanations of descent with modification integrated genealogical and ecological information, so must workers now incorporate historical and nonhistorical, and biological and nonbiological, processes in their evolutionary perspective."—Marvalee H. Wake, Bioscience "This book is well-written and thought-provoking, and should be read by those of us who do not routinely turn to phylogenetic analysis when investigating adaptation, evolutionary ecology and co-evolution."—Mark R. MacNair, Journal of Natural History
Release

Speciation in Birds

Author: Trevor Price

Publisher: Roberts & Company

ISBN: 9780974707785

Category: Nature

Page: 470

View: 5244

In 1990 Sibley and Monroe compiled a list of the world's birds. On that list were 9,672 species. In what has been something of a taxonomic revolution more have been added as vocalizations have been studied and DNA sequenced. Now there are likely to be close to 10,000 recognized extant species of birds, and many times that number that have gone extinct over the past 145 million years or so since the first know fossil bird, Archeopteryx. Speciation in Birds is an authoritative synthesis on the behavioral and genetic causes and consequences of speciation in birds.
Release

The Ecology and Evolution of Heliconius Butterflies

Author: Chris D. Jiggins

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0192509071

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 6502

The Heliconius butterflies are one of the classic systems in evolutionary biology and have contributed hugely to our understanding of evolution over the last 150 years. Their dramatic radiation and remarkable mimicry has fascinated biologists since the days of Bates, Wallace, and Darwin. The Ecology and Evolution of Heliconius Butterflies is the first thorough and accessible treatment of the ecology, genetics, and behaviour of these butterflies, exploring how they offer remarkable insights into tropical biodiversity. The book starts by outlining some of the evolutionary questions that Heliconius research has helped to address, then moves on to an overview of the butterflies themselves and their ecology and behaviour before focussing on wing pattern evolution, and finally, speciation. Richly illustrated with 32 colour plates, this book makes the extensive scientific literature on Heliconius butterflies accessible to a wide audience of professional ecologists, evolutionary biologists, entomologists, and amateur collectors.
Release

Darwin's Finches

Author: David Lack

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521272421

Category: Nature

Page: 208

View: 6288

David Lack's classic work on the finches of the Galapagos Islands (Darwin's Finches) was first published in 1947; few books have had such a great impact on evolutionary biology, indeed it is still one of the most succinct and fascinating treatises ever written about the origin of new species. The 1947 version is reproduced with facsimile pages of the original text, tables and line illustrations. The major feature of this reprint is the additional material supplied by Dr Peter Boag and Dr Laurene Ratcliffe who have both completed studies on the Galapagos. The readership will comprise students of evolution and ecology and those interested in the history of evolutionary thought. Amateur ornithologists and tourists visiting the Galapagos Islands will find this account fascinating.
Release

The Adaptive Landscape in Evolutionary Biology

Author: Erik Svensson,Ryan Calsbeek

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199595372

Category: Science

Page: 319

View: 6684

The 'Adaptive Landscape' has been a central concept in population genetics and evolutionary biology since this powerful metaphor was first formulated in 1932. This volume brings together historians of science, philosophers, ecologists, and evolutionary biologists, to discuss the state of the art from several different perspectives.
Release

Evolutionary Analysis, Global Edition

Author: Scott Freeman,Jon C. Herron

Publisher: Pearson Higher Ed

ISBN: 1292082682

Category: Science

Page: 864

View: 7038

For undergraduate courses in Evolution By presenting evolutionary biology as a dynamic, ongoing research effort and organizing discussions around questions, this best-selling text helps students think like scientists as they learn about evolution. The authors convey the excitement and logic of evolutionary science by introducing principles through recent and classical studies, and by emphasizing real-world applications. In the Fifth Edition, co-author Jon Herron takes the lead in streamlining and updating content to reflect key changes in the field. The design and art program have also been updated for enhanced clarity.
Release

Fundamentals of Biogeography

Author: Richard John Huggett

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134349688

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 3446

Fundamentals of Biogeography presents an accessible, engaging and comprehensive introduction to biogeography, explaining the ecology, geography, history and conservation of animals and plants. Starting with an outline of how species arise, disperse, diversify and become extinct, the book examines: how environmental factors (climate, substrate, topography, and disturbance) influence animals and plants; investigates how populations grow, interact and survive; how communities form and change; and explores the connections between biogeography and conservation. The second edition has been extensively revised and expanded throughout to cover new topics and revisit themes from the first edition in more depth. Illustrated throughout with informative diagrams and attractive photos and including guides to further reading, chapter summaries and an extensive glossary of key terms, Fundamentals of Biogeography clearly explains key concepts in the history, geography and ecology of life systems. In doing so, it tackles some of the most topical and controversial environmental and ethical concerns including species over-exploitation, the impacts of global warming, habitat fragmentation, biodiversity loss and ecosystem restoration.
Release

Carnivoran Evolution

New Views on Phylogeny, Form and Function

Author: Anjali Goswami,Anthony Friscia

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139488538

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 4415

Members of the mammalian clade Carnivora have invaded nearly every continent and ocean, evolving into bamboo-eating pandas, clam-eating walruses and of course, flesh-eating sabre-toothed cats. With this ecological, morphological and taxonomic diversity and a fossil record spanning over sixty million years, Carnivora has proven to be a model clade for addressing questions of broad evolutionary significance. This volume brings together top international scientists with contributions that focus on current advances in our understanding of carnivoran relationships, ecomorphology and macroevolutionary patterns. Topics range from the palaeoecology of the earliest fossil carnivorans to the influences of competition and constraint on diversity and biogeographic distributions. Several studies address ecomorphological convergences among carnivorans and other mammals with morphometric and Finite Element analyses, while others consider how new molecular and palaeontological data have changed our understanding of carnivoran phylogeny. Combined, these studies also illustrate the diverse suite of approaches and questions in evolutionary biology and palaeontology.
Release

Evolution's Wedge

Competition and the Origins of Diversity

Author: David Pfennig,Karin Pfennig

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520954041

Category: Nature

Page: 320

View: 7831

Evolutionary biology has long sought to explain how new traits and new species arise. Darwin maintained that competition is key to understanding this biodiversity and held that selection acting to minimize competition causes competitors to become increasingly different, thereby promoting new traits and new species. Despite Darwin’s emphasis, competition’s role in diversification remains controversial and largely underappreciated. In their synthetic and provocative book, evolutionary ecologists David and Karin Pfennig explore competition's role in generating and maintaining biodiversity. The authors discuss how selection can lessen resource competition or costly reproductive interactions by promoting trait evolution through a process known as character displacement. They further describe character displacement’s underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms. The authors then consider character displacement’s myriad downstream effects, ranging from shaping ecological communities to promoting new traits and new species and even fueling large-scale evolutionary trends. Drawing on numerous studies from natural populations, and written for a broad audience, Evolution’s Wedge seeks to inspire future research into character displacement’s many implications for ecology and evolution.
Release

Eco-evolutionary Dynamics

Author: Andrew P. Hendry

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400883083

Category: Science

Page: 416

View: 7958

In recent years, scientists have realized that evolution can occur on timescales much shorter than the "long lapse of ages" emphasized by Darwin—in fact, evolutionary change is occurring all around us all the time. This book provides an authoritative and accessible introduction to eco-evolutionary dynamics, a cutting-edge new field that seeks to unify evolution and ecology into a common conceptual framework focusing on rapid and dynamic environmental and evolutionary change. Andrew Hendry covers key aspects of evolution, ecology, and their interactions. Topics range from natural selection, adaptive divergence, ecological speciation, and gene flow to population and community dynamics, ecosystem function, plasticity, and genomics. Hendry evaluates conceptual and methodological approaches, and draws on empirical data from natural populations—including those in human-disturbed environments—to tackle a number of classic and emerging research questions. He also discusses exciting new directions for future research at the intersection of ecology and evolution. An invaluable guide for students and researchers alike, Eco-evolutionary Dynamics reveals how evolution and ecology interact strongly on short timescales to shape the world we see around us.
Release

The Hawaiian Honeycreepers

Drepanidinae

Author: H. Douglas Pratt

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019854653X

Category: Nature

Page: 342

View: 2487

This book is the most up to date work on honeycreepers, covering the life history, relationships, and biology of the birds. The honeycreepers, with their bright colouration and canary-like songs, are famed for their unique evolutionary history as a geographically isolated group that has undergone a spectacular burst of adaptions to the islands of the Hawaiian archipelago.
Release

Divergence with Genetic Exchange

Author: Michael L. Arnold

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198755112

Category: Evolutionary genetics

Page: 272

View: 9873

The study of genetic exchange resulting from natural hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, and viral recombination has long been marked by controversy between researchers holding different conceptual frameworks. Those subscribing to a doctrine of 'species purity' have traditionally been reluctant to recognise inferences suggesting anything other than a marginal role for non-allopatric divergence leading to gene transfer between different lineages. However, an increasing number of evolutionary biologists now accept that there is a growing body of evidence indicating the existence of non-allopatric diversification across many lineages and all domains of biological diversity. Divergence with Genetic Exchange investigates the mechanisms associated with evolutionary divergence and diversification, focussing on the role played by the exchange of genes between divergent lineages, a process recently termed 'divergence-with-gene-flow'. Although the mechanisms by which such divergent forms of life exchange genomic material may differ widely, the outcomes of interest - adaptive evolution and the formation of new hybrid lineages - do not. Successive chapters cover the history of the field, detection methodologies, outcomes, implications for conservation programs, and the effects on the human lineage associated with the process of genetic transfer between divergent lineages. This research level text is suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate level students taking related courses in departments of genetics, ecology and evolution. It will also be of relevance and use to professional evolutionary biologists and systematists seeking a comprehensive and authoritative overview of this rapidly expanding field.
Release

Morphometrics for Nonmorphometricians

Author: Ashraf M.T. Elewa

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540958525

Category: Computers

Page: 367

View: 8404

This introduction to morphometrics does not rely on complex mathematics and statistics. It includes application case studies in fields ranging from paleontology to evolutionary ecology, and it discusses software for analyzing and comparing shape.
Release

The Evolutionary Strategies that Shape Ecosystems

Author: J. Philip Grime,Simon Pierce

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118223276

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 6773

In 1837 a young Charles Darwin took his notebook, wrote "I think" and then sketched a rudimentary, stick-like tree. Each branch of Darwin's tree of life told a story of survival and adaptation – adaptation of animals and plants not just to the environment but also to life with other living things. However, more than 150 years since Darwin published his singular idea of natural selection, the science of ecology has yet to account for how contrasting evolutionary outcomes affect the ability of organisms to coexist in communities and to regulate ecosystem functioning. In this book Philip Grime and Simon Pierce explain how evidence from across the world is revealing that, beneath the wealth of apparently limitless and bewildering variation in detailed structure and functioning, the essential biology of all organisms is subject to the same set of basic interacting constraints on life-history and physiology. The inescapable resulting predicament during the evolution of every species is that, according to habitat, each must adopt a predictable compromise with regard to how they use the resources at their disposal in order to survive. The compromise involves the investment of resources in either the effort to acquire more resources, the tolerance of factors that reduce metabolic performance, or reproduction. This three-way trade-off is the irreducible core of the universal adaptive strategy theory which Grime and Pierce use to investigate how two environmental filters selecting, respectively, for convergence and divergence in organism function determine the identity of organisms in communities, and ultimately how different evolutionary strategies affect the functioning of ecosystems. This book reflects an historic phase in which evolutionary processes are finally moving centre stage in the effort to unify ecological theory, and animal, plant and microbial ecology have begun to find a common theoretical framework. Visit www.wiley.com/go/grime/evolutionarystrategies to access the artwork from the book.
Release