The Development of the Modern State

A Sociological Introduction

Author: Gianfranco Poggi

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 9780804710428

Category: Political Science

Page: 175

View: 3686

The institutional features and the past and future role of the state should be a central concern of contemporary sociological and political theory, but until now they have been sadly neglected. Lately, in particular, the state's increasing involvement in the management of industrial and industrializing societies has made it even more important to understand its past development, its current activities, and the related trends in its structure and in its relation to the larger society. As a contribution to this task, Gianfranco Poggi reviews the main phases in the institutional history of the modern state. Restating a typology elaborated, among others by Max Weber, he outlines first the feudal system of rule, then the late-medieval Ständestaat and the absolutist state. Next the book discusses the nineteenth-century constitutional state, seen as the most accomplished embodiment of the modern, Western state. Finally, it points out the major developments which have occurred since the end of the last century in the relationship between the state and society, and identifies the threat these pose to the persistence of Western political values. Throughout, the discussion draws upon an impressive body of literature on the modern state (much of it not available in English) from the fields of history, law, and the social sciences.
Release

The Political Ecology of the State

The basis and the evolution of environmental statehood

Author: Antonio Augusto Rossotto Ioris

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317936620

Category: Science

Page: 186

View: 3477

The contemporary state is not only the main force behind environmental change, but the reactions to environmental problems have played a crucial role in the modernisation of the state apparatus, especially because of its mediatory role. The Political Ecology of the State is the first book to critically assess the philosophical basis of environmental statehood and regulation, addressing the emergence and evolution of environmental regulation from the early twentieth century to the more recent phase of ecological modernisation and the neoliberalisation of nature. The state is understood as the result of permanent socionatural interactions and multiple forms of contestation, from a critical politico-ecological approach. This book examines the tension between pro- and anti-commons tendencies that have permeated the organisation and failures of the environmental responses put forward by the state. It provides a reinterpretation of the achievements and failures of mainstream environmental policies and regulation, and offers a review of the main philosophical influences behind different periods of environmental statehood and regulation. It sets out an agenda for going beyond conventional state regulation and grassroots dealings with the state, and as such redefines the environmental apparatus of the state.
Release

Comparative Politics

Author: Daniele Caramani

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199574979

Category: Political Science

Page: 640

View: 1701

"Comparative Politics" provides a comprehensive introduction to political systems around the world. It covers methods and theories; the nation-state; institutions; actors and processes; policies; and recent changes.
Release

The Politics of Nation Building and Citizenship in Singapore

Author: Michael Hill,Kwen Fee Lian

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134855990

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 2175

Since independence in 1965 Singapore has strengthened its own national identity through a conscious process of nation-building and promoting the active role of the citizen within society. Singapore is a state that has firmly rejected welfarism but whose political leaders have maintained that collective values, instead of those of autonomous individuals, are essential to its very survival. The book begins by examining basic concepts of citizenship, nationality and the state in the context of Singapore's arrival at independence. The theme of nation-building is explored and how the creation of a national identity, through building new institutions, has been a central feature of political and social life in Singapore. Of great importance has been education, and a system of multilingual education that is part of a broader government strategy of multiculturalism and multiracialism; both have served the purpose of building a new national identity. Other areas covered by the authors include family planning, housing policy, the creation of parapolitical structures and the imporatnce of shared `Asian values' amongst Singapore's citizens.
Release

The Impossible State

Islam, Politics, and Modernity's Moral Predicament

Author: Wael B. Hallaq

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231530862

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 4577

Wael B. Hallaq boldly argues that the "Islamic state," judged by any standard definition of what the modern state represents, is both impossible and inherently self-contradictory. Comparing the legal, political, moral, and constitutional histories of premodern Islam and Euro-America, he finds the adoption and practice of the modern state to be highly problematic for modern Muslims. He also critiques more expansively modernity's moral predicament, which renders impossible any project resting solely on ethical foundations. The modern state not only suffers from serious legal, political, and constitutional issues, Hallaq argues, but also, by its very nature, fashions a subject inconsistent with what it means to be, or to live as, a Muslim. By Islamic standards, the state's technologies of the self are severely lacking in moral substance, and today's Islamic state, as Hallaq shows, has done little to advance an acceptable form of genuine Shari'a governance. The Islamists' constitutional battles in Egypt and Pakistan, the Islamic legal and political failures of the Iranian Revolution, and similar disappointments underscore this fact. Nevertheless, the state remains the favored template of the Islamists and the ulama (Muslim clergymen). Providing Muslims with a path toward realizing the good life, Hallaq turns to the rich moral resources of Islamic history. Along the way, he proves political and other "crises of Islam" are not unique to the Islamic world nor to the Muslim religion. These crises are integral to the modern condition of both East and West, and by acknowledging these parallels, Muslims can engage more productively with their Western counterparts.
Release

The Handbook of Global Media and Communication Policy

Author: Robin Mansell,Marc Raboy

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444395424

Category: Social Science

Page: 600

View: 6961

The Handbook of Global Media and Communication Policy offers insights into the boundaries of this field of study, assesses why it is important, who is affected, and with what political, economic, social and cultural consequences. Provides the most up to date and comprehensive collection of essays from top scholars in the field Includes contributions from western and eastern Europe, North and Central America, Africa and Asia Offers new conceptual frameworks and new methodologies for mapping the contours of emergent global media and communication policy Draws on theory and empirical research to offer multiple perspectives on the local, national, regional and global forums in which policy debate occurs
Release

Medieval Law and the Foundations of the State

Author: Alan Harding

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 019821958X

Category: Law

Page: 392

View: 4061

The state is the most powerful and contested of political ideas, loved for its promise of order but hated for its threat of coercion. In this broad-ranging new study, Alan Harding challenges the orthodoxy that there was no state in the Middle Ages, arguing instead that it was precisely then that the concept acquired its force. He explores how the word 'state' was used by medieval rulers and their ministers and connects the growth of the idea of the state with the development of systemsfor the administration of justice and the enforcement of peace. He shows how these systems provided new models for government from the centre, successfully in France and England but less so in Germany. The courts and legislation of French and English kings are described establishing public order, defining rights to property and liberty, and structuring commonwealths by 'estates'. In the final chapters the author reveals how the concept of the state was taken up by political commentators inthe wars of the later Middle Ages and the Reformation Period, and how the law-based 'state of the king and the kingdom' was transformed into the politically dynamic 'modern state'.
Release

Poverty and Governance in South Asia

Author: Syeda Naushin Parnini

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317584643

Category: Political Science

Page: 164

View: 9202

Across South Asia in the last two decades, there has been widespread emphasis on governance reforms aiming to reduce poverty through Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The recent development agenda has had great impact over the region , and this book finds that it largely widens the gap between the rich and poor, which combined with rising inflation, contributes to political instability. The book analyses the discourses of development agenda and governance crisis and provides a survey of the region by not only focusing on India, Pakistan and Bangladesh but also on the smaller countries in the region, such as Bhutan. Explaining three components of the development agenda as criteria for economic development – poverty reduction, governance reforms and civil society participation through liberal democracy – this book explores the consequences of the neo-liberal democracy and recent development agenda coupled with governance reforms. This work argues that the political economy of South Asia is largely derived from experiences of historical colonialism and recent changes driven by contemporary rise of India as a global power after the triumph of new-liberal democracy and market capitalism in the post-cold war era. It proposes a strengthening of the instruments of endogenous governance and people's participation in South Asian countries to reduce poverty through MDGs and other development goals in combination with top-down and bottom up approaches. Offering an understanding of governance and development in the context of the South Asia, this book will be of interest to academics in the fields of Political Economics, International Development Studies, Political Science, and Governance Studies, as well as policy makers.
Release

On Global Justice

Author: Mathias Risse

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400845505

Category: Philosophy

Page: 480

View: 2397

Debates about global justice have traditionally fallen into two camps. Statists believe that principles of justice can only be held among those who share a state. Those who fall outside this realm are merely owed charity. Cosmopolitans, on the other hand, believe that justice applies equally among all human beings. On Global Justice shifts the terms of this debate and shows how both views are unsatisfactory. Stressing humanity's collective ownership of the earth, Mathias Risse offers a new theory of global distributive justice--what he calls pluralist internationalism--where in different contexts, different principles of justice apply. Arguing that statists and cosmopolitans seek overarching answers to problems that vary too widely for one single justice relationship, Risse explores who should have how much of what we all need and care about, ranging from income and rights to spaces and resources of the earth. He acknowledges that especially demanding redistributive principles apply among those who share a country, but those who share a country also have obligations of justice to those who do not because of a universal humanity, common political and economic orders, and a linked global trading system. Risse's inquiries about ownership of the earth give insights into immigration, obligations to future generations, and obligations arising from climate change. He considers issues such as fairness in trade, responsibilities of the WTO, intellectual property rights, labor rights, whether there ought to be states at all, and global inequality, and he develops a new foundational theory of human rights.
Release

The State

Its History and Development Viewed Sociologically

Author: Franz Oppenheimer

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9781412839143

Category: Political Science

Page: 302

View: 2256

The State represents the epitome of Franz Oppenheimer's thinking. It integrates political and historical philosophy on the one hand, with economic philosophy on the other. Oppenheimer believed the future progress of nations would be in the direction of liberal socialism. He foresaw a society free from all monopolistic tendencies through unfettered competition. According to Oppenheimer, competition is restrained by a powerful class monopoly, created not through economic differentiation, but through political power. This class monopoly stands between the masses and the land. The laboring class is subject to the will of the upper classes because it does not control the means of production necessary to work in its own interest. Oppenheimer asserts that the right to hold more land than one can properly work through his own efforts and the efforts of his family cannot exist without political control, and is the single most important explanation for the formation of monopolies in human society. He proves his theory in an original analysis. Paul Gottfried writes in the new introduction that The State sums up and illustrates Oppenheimer's general theory of the origin, development, and expected transformation of the state, central political institution of the modern world. Much of Oppenheimer's work embodies the same independent spirit reflected in his way of life. The State provides a wealth of information for economists, political theorists, and sociologists. Franz Oppenheimer was professor of economics and sociology at the University of Frankfurt in Germany until he retired in 1929. In 1933 he was forced to flee the Nazi regime and eventually came to the United States, where he died in 1943. Paul Gottfried is professor of political science at Elizabethtown College in Pennsylvania. He is the author of The Search for Historical Meaning; Carl Schmitt: Politics and Theory; Conservative Millenarians: The Romantic Experience in Bavaria; and After Liberalism (forthcoming from Princeton University Press). He is general editor of Religion and Public Life.
Release

Introduction to Politics and Society

Author: Shaun Best

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761971313

Category: Social Science

Page: 275

View: 9798

Introduction to Politics and Society draws on examples from popular political culture in order to convey how politics operates in the contemporary world. Examples illustrate the meaning of theories and show the relevance of central theoretical debates. Planned and developed with an eye to the needs of students, the book is an extraordinary resource for undergraduate teaching and study needs. It will be required reading for undergraduate students in sociology, politics and social policy.
Release

The Nation-State and Violence

Volume 2 of A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism

Author: Anthony Giddens

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520060395

Category: Social Science

Page: 408

View: 1206

The social sciences have long been based upon contrasts drawn between the 'militaristic' societies of the past, and the 'capitalist' or 'industrial' societies of the present. But how valid are such contrasts, given that the current era is one stamped by the impact of war and by the intensive development of sophisticated weaponry? In setting out to address this and similar questions, this book investigates issues that have been substantially neglected by those working in sociology and social theory. Anthony Giddens offers a sociological analysis of the nature of the modern nation-state and its association with the means of waging war. His analysis is connected in a detailed way to problems that have traditionally preoccupied sociologists - the impact of capitalism and industrialism upon social development in the modern period. The result is a theory both of the institutional parameters of modernity and of the nature of international relations. The book is a sequel to the author's much discussed Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism. The framework of social theory outlined in that work is here elucidated in a systematic and thorough-going fashion. The novel and provocative ideas which the author develops will interest those working in a wide variety of disciplines: sociology, politics, geography and international affairs.
Release

Mythos 1648

Klassen, Geopolitik und die Entstehung des europäischen Staatensystems

Author: Benno Teschke

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783896911223

Category: State, The

Page: 307

View: 5990

Release

Constitutionalism in the Global Realm

A Sociological Approach

Author: Poul F. Kjaer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317804813

Category: Law

Page: 178

View: 1061

This book develops a sociologically informed theory of constitutionalism in the global realm, addressing both national and transnational forms of constitutional ordering. The book begins with the argument that current approaches to constitutionalism remain tied to a state-based conception of constitutions, and overlooks underlying structural transformations that trigger the emergence of constitutional forms of ordering. Poul F. Kjaer aims to address this shortcoming by offering a sociological and historically informed analysis of the evolution of constitutionalism in the face of globalisation. The analysis contextualises on-going constitutional developments through the use of a long-term historical perspective, which is capable of highlighting the impact of deeper structural transformations unfolding within society. The book looks at the ways in which national and transnational legal forms have evolved alongside one another. It demonstrates that the formation of global constitutions has not resulted in a corresponding decrease in the power of nation states, but instead, legal and political aspects of both the nation state and the transnational have been reconfigured and intensified in a mutually supportive manner. In combining insights from a range of fields, this interdisciplinary book will be of great interest to students and scholars of constitutional law, sociology, global governance studies, and legal, social and political theory.
Release

Criminology

A Sociological Introduction

Author: Eamonn Carrabine,Paul Iganski,Maggy Lee

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415281676

Category: Law

Page: 428

View: 9429

Covering all the major areas of the subject, this introduction to criminology features specific topics such as the history and theory of criminology and categories of crime.
Release

Max Weber's Theory of the Modern State

Origins, structure and Significance

Author: A. Anter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137364904

Category: Political Science

Page: 249

View: 5218

Andreas Anter reconstructs Max Weber's theory of the modern state, showing its significance to contemporary political science. He reveals the ambivalence of Weber's political thought: the oscillation between an étatiste position, mainly oriented to the reason of state, and an individualistic one, focussed on the freedom of individuals
Release

The Court and Court Society in Ancient Monarchies

Author: A. J. S. Spawforth

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139466631

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 6492

Monarchy was widespread as a political system in the ancient world. This volume offers a substantial discussion of ancient monarchies from the viewpoint of the ruler's court. The monarchies treated are Achaemenid and Sassanian Persia, the empire of Alexander, Rome under both the early and later Caesars, the Han rulers of China and Egypt's Eighteenth Dynasty. A comparative approach is adopted to major aspects of ancient courts, including their organisation and physical setting, their role as a vehicle for display, and their place in monarchial structures of power and control. This approach is broadly inspired by work on courts in later periods of history, especially early-modern France. The case studies confirm that ancient monarchies created the conditions for the emergence of a court and court society. The culturally specific conditions in which these monarchies functioned meant variety in the character of the ruler's court from one society to another.
Release

Identifying the English

A History of Personal Identification 1500 to the Present

Author: Edward Higgs

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1441138013

Category: History

Page: 296

View: 3443

Personal identification is very much a live political issue in Britain and this book looks at why this is the case, and why, paradoxically, the theft of identity has become ever more common as the means of identification have multiplied. Identifying the English looks not only at how criminals have been identified - branding, fingerprinting, DNA - but also at the identification of the individual with seals and signatures, of the citizen by means of passports and ID cards, and of the corpse. Beginning his history in the medieval period, Edward Higgs reveals how it was not the Industrial Revolution that brought the most radical changes in identification techniques, as many have assumed, but rather the changing nature of the State and commerce, and their relationship with citizens and customers. In the twentieth century the very different historical techniques have converged on the holding of information on databases, and increasingly on biometrics, and the multiplication of these external databases outside the control of individuals has continued to undermine personal identity security.
Release