The Cultural Logic of Computation

Author: David Golumbia

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674053885

Category: Computers

Page: 272

View: 8130

In The Cultural Logic of Computation, David Golumbia, who worked as a software designer for more than ten years, argues that computers are cultural "all the way down" - that there is no part of the apparent technological transformation that is not shaped by historical and cultural processes, or that escapes existing cultural politics. The Cultural Logic of Computation provides a needed corrective to the uncritical enthusiasm for computers common today in many parts of our culture.
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The Cultural Logic of Computation

Author: David Golumbia

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674032927

Category: Computers

Page: 257

View: 3160

In The Cultural Logic of Computation, David Golumbia, who worked as a software designer for more than ten years, argues that computers are cultural "all the way down" - that there is no part of the apparent technological transformation that is not shaped by historical and cultural processes, or that escapes existing cultural politics. The Cultural Logic of Computation provides a needed corrective to the uncritical enthusiasm for computers common today in many parts of our culture.
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Control

Digitality as Cultural Logic

Author: Seb Franklin

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262331144

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 240

View: 6277

Is there a cultural logic of what we have come to call the information age? Have the technologies and techniques centered on the computer provided not only tools but also the metaphors through which we now understand the social and economic formation of our world? In Control, Seb Franklin addresses the conditions of knowledge that make the concept of the "information economy" possible while at the same time obscuring its deleterious effects on material social spaces. In so doing, Franklin traces three intertwined threads: the relationships among information, labor, and social management that emerged in the nineteenth century; the mid-twentieth-century diffusion of computational metaphors; and the appearance of informatic principles in certain contemporary socioeconomic and cultural practices.Drawing on critical theory, media theory, and the history of science, Franklin names control as the episteme grounding late capitalism. Beyond any specific device or set of technically mediated practices, digitality functions within this episteme as the logical basis for reshaped concepts of labor, subjectivity, and collectivity, as well as for the intensification of older modes of exclusion and dispossession. In tracking the pervasiveness of this logical mode into the present, Franklin locates the cultural traces of control across a diverse body of objects and practices, from cybernetics to economic theory and management styles, and from concepts of language and subjectivity to literary texts, films, and video games.
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The Politics of Bitcoin

Software as Right-Wing Extremism

Author: David Golumbia

Publisher: U of Minnesota Press

ISBN: 1452953813

Category: Computers

Page: 100

View: 9455

Since its introduction in 2009, Bitcoin has been widely promoted as a digital currency that will revolutionize everything from online commerce to the nation-state. Yet supporters of Bitcoin and its blockchain technology subscribe to a form of cyberlibertarianism that depends to a surprising extent on far-right political thought. The Politics of Bitcoin exposes how much of the economic and political thought on which this cryptocurrency is based emerges from ideas that travel the gamut, from Milton Friedman, F.A. Hayek, and Ludwig von Mises to Federal Reserve conspiracy theorists. Forerunners: Ideas First is a thought-in-process series of breakthrough digital publications. Written between fresh ideas and finished books, Forerunners draws on scholarly work initiated in notable blogs, social media, conference plenaries, journal articles, and the synergy of academic exchange. This is gray literature publishing: where intense thinking, change, and speculation take place in scholarship.
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What Algorithms Want

Imagination in the Age of Computing

Author: Ed Finn

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262035928

Category: Computers

Page: 257

View: 704

The gap between theoretical ideas and messy reality, as seen in Neal Stephenson, Adam Smith, and Star Trek. We depend on—we believe in—algorithms to help us get a ride, choose which book to buy, execute a mathematical proof. It's as if we think of code as a magic spell, an incantation to reveal what we need to know and even what we want. Humans have always believed that certain invocations—the marriage vow, the shaman's curse—do not merely describe the world but make it. Computation casts a cultural shadow that is shaped by this long tradition of magical thinking. In this book, Ed Finn considers how the algorithm—in practical terms, “a method for solving a problem”—has its roots not only in mathematical logic but also in cybernetics, philosophy, and magical thinking. Finn argues that the algorithm deploys concepts from the idealized space of computation in a messy reality, with unpredictable and sometimes fascinating results. Drawing on sources that range from Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash to Diderot's Encyclopédie, from Adam Smith to the Star Trek computer, Finn explores the gap between theoretical ideas and pragmatic instructions. He examines the development of intelligent assistants like Siri, the rise of algorithmic aesthetics at Netflix, Ian Bogost's satiric Facebook game Cow Clicker, and the revolutionary economics of Bitcoin. He describes Google's goal of anticipating our questions, Uber's cartoon maps and black box accounting, and what Facebook tells us about programmable value, among other things. If we want to understand the gap between abstraction and messy reality, Finn argues, we need to build a model of “algorithmic reading” and scholarship that attends to process, spearheading a new experimental humanities.
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Mathematics and Art

A Cultural History

Author: Lynn Gamwell

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 0691165289

Category: Art

Page: 576

View: 7424

This is a cultural history of mathematics and art, from antiquity to the present. Mathematicians and artists have long been on a quest to understand the physical world they see before them and the abstract objects they know by thought alone. Taking readers on a tour of the practice of mathematics and the philosophical ideas that drive the discipline, Lynn Gamwell points out the important ways mathematical concepts have been expressed by artists. Sumptuous illustrations of artworks and cogent math diagrams are featured in Gamwell’s comprehensive exploration. Gamwell begins by describing mathematics from antiquity to the Enlightenment, including Greek, Islamic, and Asian mathematics. Then focusing on modern culture, Gamwell traces mathematicians’ search for the foundations of their science, such as David Hilbert’s conception of mathematics as an arrangement of meaning-free signs, as well as artists’ search for the essence of their craft, such as Aleksandr Rodchenko’s monochrome paintings. She shows that self-reflection is inherent to the practice of both modern mathematics and art, and that this introspection points to a deep resonance between the two fields: Kurt Gödel posed questions about the nature of mathematics in the language of mathematics and Jasper Johns asked “What is art?” in the vocabulary of art. Throughout, Gamwell describes the personalities and cultural environments of a multitude of mathematicians and artists, from Gottlob Frege and Benoît Mandelbrot to Max Bill and Xu Bing. Mathematics and Art demonstrates how mathematical ideas are embodied in the visual arts and will enlighten all who are interested in the complex intellectual pursuits, personalities, and cultural settings that connect these vast disciplines.
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Cultural Software

A Theory of Ideology

Author: J. M. Balkin

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 9780300084504

Category: Law

Page: 335

View: 6792

In this book J. M. Balkin offers a strikingly original theory of cultural evolution, a theory that explains shared understandings, disagreement, and diversity within cultures. Drawing on many fields of study--including anthropology, evolutionary theory, cognitive science, linguistics, sociology, political theory, philosophy, social psychology, and law--the author explores how cultures grow and spread, how shared understandings arise, and how people of different cultures can understand and evaluate each other's views. Cultural evolution occurs through the transmission of cultural information and know-how--"cultural software"--in human minds, Balkin says. Individuals embody cultural software and spread it to others through communication and social learning. Ideology, the author contends, is neither a special nor a pathological form of thought but an ordinary product of the evolution of cultural software. Because cultural understanding is a patchwork of older imperfect tools that are continually adapted to solve new problems, human understanding is partly adequate and partly inadequate to the pursuit of justice. Balkin presents numerous examples that illuminate the sources of ideological effects and their contributions to injustice. He also enters the current debate over multiculturalism, applying his theory to problems of mutual understanding between people who hold different worldviews. He argues that cultural understanding presupposes transcendent ideals and shows how both ideological analysis of others and ideological self-criticism are possible.
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Taking Care of Youth and the Generations

Author: Bernard Stiegler

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 0804762724

Category: Philosophy

Page: 238

View: 8145

The book presents a powerful reminder of adults' responsibility for the development of long-term attention (and thus of maturity) in children, particularly in the face of the techniques of attention-destruction practiced by the programming industries.
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The Culture of Connectivity

A Critical History of Social Media

Author: Jose van Dijck

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199970793

Category: Music

Page: 240

View: 5589

Social media penetrate our lives: Facebook, YouTube, Twitter and many other platforms define daily habits of communication and creative production. This book studies the rise of social media, providing both a historical and a critical analysis of the emergence of major platforms in the context of a rapidly changing ecosystem of connective media. Author Jos? van Dijck offers an analytical prism that can be used to view techno-cultural as well as socio-economic aspects of this transformation as well as to examine shared ideological principles between major social media platforms. This fascinating study will appeal to all readers interested in social media.
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Cultures without Culturalism

The Making of Scientific Knowledge

Author: Karine Chemla,Evelyn Fox Keller

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822373092

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 2631

Cultural accounts of scientific ideas and practices have increasingly come to be welcomed as a corrective to previous—and still widely held—theories of scientific knowledge and practices as universal. The editors caution, however, against the temptation to overgeneralize the work of culture, and to lapse into a kind of essentialism that flattens the range and variety of scientific work. The book refers to this tendency as culturalism. The contributors to the volume model a new path where historicized and cultural accounts of scientific practice retain their specificity and complexity without falling into the traps of culturalism. They examine, among other issues, the potential of using notions of culture to study behavior in financial markets; the ideology, organization, and practice of earthquake monitoring and prediction during China's Cultural Revolution; the history of quadratic equations in China; and how studying the "glass ceiling" and employment discrimination became accepted in the social sciences. Demonstrating the need to understand the work of culture as a fluid and dynamic process that directly both shapes and is shaped by scientific practice, Cultures without Culturalism makes an important intervention in science studies. Contributors. Bruno Belhoste, Karine Chemla, Caroline Ehrhardt, Fa-ti Fan,Kenji Ito, Evelyn Fox Keller, Guillaume Lachenal, Donald MacKenzie, Mary S. Morgan, Nancy J. Nersessian, David Rabouin, Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Claude Rosental, Koen Vermeir
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Logic, Construction, Computation

Author: Ulrich Berger,Hannes Diener,Peter Schuster,Monika Seisenberger

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 311032492X

Category: Philosophy

Page: 542

View: 4267

Over the last few decades the interest of logicians and mathematicians in constructive and computational aspects of their subjects has been steadily growing, and researchers from disparate areas realized that they can benefit enormously from the mutual exchange of techniques concerned with those aspects. A key figure in this exciting development is the logician and mathematician Helmut Schwichtenberg to whom this volume is dedicated on the occasion of his 70th birthday and his turning emeritus. The volume contains 20 articles from leading experts about recent developments in Constructive set theory, Provably recursive functions, Program extraction, Theories of truth, Constructive mathematics, Classical vs. intuitionistic logic, Inductive definitions, and Continuous functionals and domains.
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The Message Is Murder

Substrates of Computational Capital

Author: Jonathan Beller

Publisher: Pluto Press (UK)

ISBN: 9780745337319

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 6654

Written as a wake-up call to the field of media studies, The Message is Murder analyses the violence bound up in the everyday functions of digital media. At its core is the concept of 'computational capital' - the idea that capitalism itself is a computer, turning qualities into quantities, and that the rise of digital culture and technologies under capitalism should be seen as an extension of capitalism's bloody logic.Engaging with Borges, Turing, Claude Shannon, Hitchcock and Marx, this book tracks computational capital to reveal the lineages of capitalised power as it has restructured representation, consciousness and survival in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, It argues that the global intensification of inequality relies on the discursive, informatic and screen-mediated production of social differenceUltimately The Message is Murder makes the case for recognising media communications across all platforms - books, films, videos, photographs and even language itself - as technologies of political economy, entangled with the social contexts of a capitalism that is inherently racial, gendered and genocidal.
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Mathematics Across Cultures

The History of Non-Western Mathematics

Author: Helaine Selin

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401143013

Category: Mathematics

Page: 479

View: 8187

Mathematics Across Cultures: A History of Non-Western Mathematics consists of essays dealing with the mathematical knowledge and beliefs of cultures outside the United States and Europe. In addition to articles surveying Islamic, Chinese, Native American, Aboriginal Australian, Inca, Egyptian, and African mathematics, among others, the book includes essays on Rationality, Logic and Mathematics, and the transfer of knowledge from East to West. The essays address the connections between science and culture and relate the mathematical practices to the cultures which produced them. Each essay is well illustrated and contains an extensive bibliography. Because the geographic range is global, the book fills a gap in both the history of science and in cultural studies. It should find a place on the bookshelves of advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and scholars, as well as in libraries serving those groups.
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Plain Text

The Poetics of Computation

Author: Dennis Tenen

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 1503602346

Category: Social Science

Page: 280

View: 9663

This book challenges the ways we read, write, store, and retrieve information in the digital age. Computers—from electronic books to smart phones—play an active role in our social lives. Our technological choices thus entail theoretical and political commitments. Dennis Tenen takes up today's strange enmeshing of humans, texts, and machines to argue that our most ingrained intuitions about texts are profoundly alienated from the physical contexts of their intellectual production. Drawing on a range of primary sources from both literary theory and software engineering, he makes a case for a more transparent practice of human–computer interaction. Plain Text is thus a rallying call, a frame of mind as much as a file format. It reminds us, ultimately, that our devices also encode specific modes of governance and control that must remain available to interpretation.
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Postdigital Aesthetics

Art, Computation And Design

Author: D. Berry,M. Dieter

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137437200

Category: Art

Page: 320

View: 931

Postdigital Aesthetics is a contribution to questions raised by our newly computational everyday lives and the aesthetics which reflect both the postdigital nature of this age, but also critical perspectives of a post-internet world.
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The Routledge Handbook of the Computational Mind

Author: Mark Sprevak,Matteo Colombo

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317286715

Category: Philosophy

Page: 510

View: 4723

Computational approaches dominate contemporary cognitive science, promising a unified, scientific explanation of how the mind works. However, computational approaches raise major philosophical and scientific questions. In what sense is the mind computational? How do computational approaches explain perception, learning, and decision making? What kinds of challenges should computational approaches overcome to advance our understanding of mind, brain, and behaviour? The Routledge Handbook of the Computational Mind is an outstanding overview and exploration of these issues and the first philosophical collection of its kind. Comprising thirty-five chapters by an international team of contributors from different disciplines, the Handbook is organised into four parts: History and future prospects of computational approaches Types of computational approach Foundations and challenges of computational approaches Applications to specific parts of psychology. Essential reading for students and researchers in philosophy of mind, philosophy of psychology, and philosophy of science, The Routledge Handbook of the Computational Mind will also be of interest to those studying computational models in related subjects such as psychology, neuroscience, and computer science.
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10 Books that Screwed Up the World

And 5 Others That Didn't Help

Author: Benjamin Wiker

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 159698063X

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 260

View: 744

You've heard of the "Great Books"? These are their evil opposites. From Machiavelli's The Prince to Karl Marx's The Communist Manifesto to Alfred Kinsey's Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, these "influential" books have led to war, genocide, totalitarian oppression, family breakdown, and disastrous social experiments. And yet these authors' bad ideas are still popular and pervasive--in fact, they might influence your own thinking without your realizing it. Here with the antidote is Professor Benjamin Wiker. In his scintillating new book, 10 Books That Screwed Up the World (And 5 Others That Didn't Help), he seizes each of these evil books by its malignant heart and exposes it to the light of day.
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Computational Neuroscience and Cognitive Modelling

A Student's Introduction to Methods and Procedures

Author: Britt Anderson

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446297373

Category: Psychology

Page: 240

View: 4888

"For the neuroscientist or psychologist who cringes at the sight of mathematical formulae and whose eyes glaze over at terms like differential equations, linear algebra, vectors, matrices, Bayes’ rule, and Boolean logic, this book just might be the therapy needed." - Anjan Chatterjee, Professor of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania "Anderson provides a gentle introduction to computational aspects of psychological science, managing to respect the reader’s intelligence while also being completely unintimidating. Using carefully-selected computational demonstrations, he guides students through a wide array of important approaches and tools, with little in the way of prerequisites...I recommend it with enthusiasm." - Asohan Amarasingham, The City University of New York This unique, self-contained and accessible textbook provides an introduction to computational modelling neuroscience accessible to readers with little or no background in computing or mathematics. Organized into thematic sections, the book spans from modelling integrate and firing neurons to playing the game Rock, Paper, Scissors in ACT-R. This non-technical guide shows how basic knowledge and modern computers can be combined for interesting simulations, progressing from early exercises utilizing spreadsheets, to simple programs in Python. Key Features include: Interleaved chapters that show how traditional computing constructs are simply disguised versions of the spread sheet methods. Mathematical facts and notation needed to understand the modelling methods are presented at their most basic and are interleaved with biographical and historical notes for contex. Numerous worked examples to demonstrate the themes and procedures of cognitive modelling. An excellent text for postgraduate students taking courses in research methods, computational neuroscience, computational modelling, cognitive science and neuroscience. It will be especially valuable to psychology students.
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Agent-Based Computational Economics

How the idea originated and where it is going

Author: Shu-Heng Chen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317560922

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 508

View: 6240

This book aims to answer two questions that are fundamental to the study of agent-based economic models: what is agent-based computational economics and why do we need agent-based economic modelling of economy? This book provides a review of the development of agent-based computational economics (ACE) from a perspective on how artificial economic agents are designed under the influences of complex sciences, experimental economics, artificial intelligence, evolutionary biology, psychology, anthropology and neuroscience. This book begins with a historical review of ACE by tracing its origins. From a modelling viewpoint, ACE brings truly decentralized procedures into market analysis, from a single market to the whole economy. This book also reviews how experimental economics and artificial intelligence have shaped the development of ACE. For the former, the book discusses how ACE models can be used to analyse the economic consequences of cognitive capacity, personality and cultural inheritance. For the latter, the book covers the various tools used to construct artificial adaptive agents, including reinforcement learning, fuzzy decision rules, neural networks, and evolutionary computation. This book will be of interest to graduate students researching computational economics, experimental economics, behavioural economics, and research methodology.
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Computational Intelligence in Archaeology

Author: Barcelo, Juan A.

Publisher: IGI Global

ISBN: 1599044919

Category: Computers

Page: 436

View: 7718

Provides analytical theories offered by innovative artificial intelligence computing methods in the archaeological domain.
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