The Crusades, 1095-1204

Author: N.A

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317755871

Category: History

Page: 294

View: 4381

This new and considerably expanded edition of The Crusades, 1095-1204 couples vivid narrative with a clear and accessible analysis of the key ideas that prompted the conquest and settlement of the Holy Land between the First and the Fourth Crusade. This edition now covers the Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople, along with greater coverage of the Muslim response to the Crusades from the capture of Jerusalem in 1099 to Saladin’s leadership of the counter-crusade, culminating in his struggle with Richard the Lionheart during the Third Crusade. It also examines the complex motives of the Italian city states during the conquest of the Levant, as well as relations between the Frankish settlers and the indigenous population, both Eastern Christian and Muslim, in times of war and peace. Extended treatment of the events of the First Crusade, the failure of the Second Crusade, and the prominent role of female rulers in the Latin East feature too. Underpinned by the latest research, this book also features: - a ‘Who’s Who’, a Chronology, a discussion of the Historiography, maps, family trees, and numerous illustrations. - a strong collection of contemporary documents, including previously untranslated narratives and poems. - A blend of thematic and narrative chapters also consider the Military Orders, kingship, warfare and castles, and pilgrimage. This new edition provides an illuminating insight into one of the most famous and compelling periods of history.
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The League of Nations and the Organization of Peace

Author: Martyn Housden

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131786221X

Category: History

Page: 200

View: 2768

The League of Nations - pre-cursor to the United Nations - was founded in 1919 as a response to the First World War to ensure collective security and prevent the outbreak of future wars. It was set up to facilitate diplomacy in the face of future international conflict, but also to work towards eradicating the very causes of war by promoting social and economic justice. The philosophy behind much of the League's fascinating and varied roles was to help create satisfied populations who would reject future threats to the peace of their world. In this new volume for Seminar Studies, Martyn Housden sets out to balance the League's work in settling disputes, international security and disarmament with an analysis of its achievements in social and economic fields. He explores the individual contributions of founding members of the League, such as Fridtjof Nansen, Ludwik Rajchman, Rachel Crowdy, Robert Cecil and Jan Smuts, whose humanitarian work laid the foundations for the later successes of the United Nations in such areas as: the welfare of vulnerable people, especially prisoners of war and refugees dealing with epidemic diseases and promoting good health anti-drugs campaigns Supported by previously unpublished documents and photographs, this book illustrates how an understanding of the League of Nations, its achievements and its ultimate failure to stop the Second World War, is central to our understanding of diplomacy and international relations in the Inter-War period.
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Europe

A Cultural History

Author: Peter Rietbergen

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317606302

Category: History

Page: 618

View: 8296

This third, revised and augmented edition of Peter Rietbergen’s highly acclaimed Europe: A Cultural History provides a major and original contribution to the study of Europe. From ancient Babylonian law codes to Pope Urban’s call to crusade in 1095, and from Michelangelo on Italian art in 1538 to Sting’s songs in the late twentieth century, the expressions of the culture that has developed in Europe are diverse and wide-ranging. This exceptional text expertly connects this variety, explaining them to the reader in a thorough and yet highly readable style. Presented chronologically, Europe: A Cultural History examines the many cultural building blocks of Europe, stressing their importance in the formation of the continent’s ever-changing cultural identities. Starting with the beginnings of agricultural society and ending with the mass culture of the early twenty-first century, the book uses literature, art, science, technology and music to examine Europe’s cultural history in terms of continuity and change. Rietbergen looks at how societies developed new ways of surviving, believing, consuming and communicating throughout the period. His book is distinctive in paying particular attention to the ways early Europe has been formed through the impact of a variety of cultures, from Celtic and German to Greek and Roman. The role of Christianity is stressed, but as a contested variable, as are the influences from, for example, Asia in the early modern period and from American culture and Islamic immigrants in more recent times. Since anxieties over Europe's future mount, this third edition text has been thoroughly revised for the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Moreover, it now also includes a 'dossier' of some seventeen essay-like vignettes that highlight cultural phenomena said to be characteristic of Europe: social solidarity, capitalism, democracy and so forth. With a wide selection of illustrations, maps, excerpts of sources and even lyrics from contemporary songs to support the arguments, this book both serves the general reader as well as students of historical and cultural studies.
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Infidel Kings and Unholy Warriors

Faith, Power, and Violence in the Age of Crusade and Jihad

Author: Brian A. Catlos

Publisher: Farrar, Straus and Giroux

ISBN: 0374712050

Category: History

Page: 416

View: 9556

An in-depth portrait of the Crusades-era Mediterranean world, and a new understanding of the forces that shaped it In Infidel Kings and Unholy Warriors, the award-winning scholar Brian Catlos puts us on the ground in the Mediterranean world of 1050–1200. We experience the sights and sounds of the region just as enlightened Islamic empires and primitive Christendom began to contest it. We learn about the siege tactics, theological disputes, and poetry of this enthralling time. And we see that people of different faiths coexisted far more frequently than we are commonly told. Catlos's meticulous reconstruction of the era allows him to stunningly overturn our most basic assumption about it: that it was defined by religious extremism. He brings to light many figures who were accepted as rulers by their ostensible foes. Samuel B. Naghrilla, a self-proclaimed Jewish messiah, became the force behind Muslim Granada. Bahram Pahlavuni, an Armenian Christian, wielded power in an Islamic caliphate. And Philip of Mahdia, a Muslim eunuch, rose to admiral in the service of Roger II, the Christian "King of Africa." What their lives reveal is that, then as now, politics were driven by a mix of self-interest, personality, and ideology. Catlos draws a similar lesson from his stirring chapters on the early Crusades, arguing that the notions of crusade and jihad were not causes of war but justifications. He imparts a crucial insight: the violence of the past cannot be blamed primarily on religion.
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Holy Warriors

Author: Jonathan Phillips

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1588369757

Category: History

Page: 464

View: 9794

From an internationally renowned expert, here is an accessible and utterly fascinating one-volume history of the Crusades, thrillingly told through the experiences of its many players—knights and sultans, kings and poets, Christians and Muslims. Jonathan Phillips traces the origins, expansion, decline, and conclusion of the Crusades and comments on their contemporary echoes—from the mysteries of the Templars to the grim reality of al-Qaeda. Holy Warriors puts the past in a new perspective and brilliantly sheds light on the origins of today’s wars. Starting with Pope Urban II’s emotive, groundbreaking speech in November 1095, in which he called for the recovery of Jerusalem from Islam by the First Crusade, Phillips traces the centuries-long conflict between two of the world’s great faiths. Using songs, sermons, narratives, and letters of the period, he reveals how the success of the First Crusade inspired generations of kings to campaign for their own vainglory and set down a marker for the knights of Europe, men who increasingly blurred the boundaries between chivalry and crusading. In the Muslim world, early attempts to call a jihad fell upon deaf ears until the charisma of the Sultan Saladin brought the struggle to a climax. Yet the story that emerges has other dimensions—as never before, Phillips incorporates the holy wars within the story of medieval Christendom and Islam and shines new light on many truces, alliances, and diplomatic efforts that have been forgotten over the centuries. Holy Warriors also discusses how the term “crusade” survived into the modern era and how its redefinition through romantic literature and the drive for colonial empires during the nineteenth century gave it an energy and a resonance that persisted down to the alliance between Franco and the Church during the Spanish Civil War and right up to George W. Bush’s pious “war on terror.” Elegantly written, compulsively readable, and full of stunning new portraits of unforgettable real-life figures—from Richard the Lionhearted to Melisende, the formidable crusader queen of Jerusalem—Holy Warriors is a must-read for anyone interested in medieval Europe, as well as for those seeking to understand the history of religious conflict. From the Hardcover edition.
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The Second Crusade

Extending the Frontiers of Christendom

Author: Jonathan Phillips

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300168365

Category: History

Page: 336

View: 1295

The Second Crusade (1145-1149) was an extraordinarily bold attempt to overcome unbelievers on no less than three fronts. Crusader armies set out to defeat Muslims in the Holy Land and in Iberia as well as pagans in northeastern Europe. But, to the shock and dismay of a society raised on the triumphant legacy of the First Crusade, only in Iberia did they achieve any success. This book, the first in 140 years devoted to the Second Crusade, fills a major gap in our understanding of the Crusades and their importance in medieval European history. Historian Jonathan Phillips draws on the latest developments in Crusade studies to cast new light on the origins, planning, and execution of the Second Crusade, some of its more radical intentions, and its unprecedented ambition. With original insights into the legacy of the First Crusade and the roles of Pope Eugenius III and King Conrad III of Germany, Phillips offers the definitive work on this neglected Crusade that, despite its failed objectives, exerted a profound impact across Europe and the eastern Mediterranean.
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Byzantium and Venice

A Study in Diplomatic and Cultural Relations

Author: Donald M. Nicol

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521428941

Category: History

Page: 465

View: 8066

This book traces the diplomatic, cultural, and commercial links between Constantinople and Venice from the foundation of the Venetian Republic to the Fall of the Byzantine Empire. It aims to show how, with the encouragement of the Fourth Crusade in 1204, the Venetians came to dominate first the Genoese and thereafter the whole Byzantine economy. At the same time, the author points to those important cultural and, above all, political reasons why the relationship between the two states was always inherently unstable.
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The Fourth Crusade and the Sack of Constantinople

Author: Jonathan Phillips

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101127724

Category: History

Page: 400

View: 307

In 1202, zealous Western Christians gathered in Venice determined to liberate Jerusalem from the grip of Islam. But the crusaders never made it to the Holy Land. Steered forward by the shrewd Venetian doge, they descended instead on Constantinople, wreaking terrible devastation. The crusaders spared no one: They raped and massacred thousands, plundered churches, and torched the lavish city. By 1204, one of the great civilizations of history had been shattered. Here, on the eight hundredth anniversary of the sack, is the extraordinary story of this epic catastrophe, told for the first time outside of academia by Jonathan Phillips, a leading expert on the crusades. Knights and commoners, monastic chroniclers, courtly troubadours, survivors of the carnage, and even Pope Innocent III left vivid accounts detailing the events of those two fateful years. Using their remarkable letters, chronicles, and speeches, Phillips traces the way in which any region steeped in religious fanaticism, in this case Christian Europe, might succumb to holy war.
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Trotsky and the Russian Revolution

Author: Geoffrey Swain

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317812786

Category: History

Page: 172

View: 5030

Supporters of Stalin saw Trotsky as a traitor and renegade. Trotsky’s own supporters saw him as the only true Leninist. In Trotsky and the Russian Revolution, Geoffrey Swain restores Trotsky to his real and central role in the Russian Revolution. In this succinct and comprehensive study, Swain contests that: In the years between 1903 and 1917, it was the ideas of Trotsky, rather than Lenin, which shaped the nascent Bolshevik Party and prepared it for the overthrow of the Tsar. During the autumn of 1917 workers supported Trotsky’s idea of an insurrection carried out by the soviet, rather than Lenin’s demand for a party orchestrated coup d’etat. During the Russian Civil War, Trotsky persuaded a sceptical Lenin that the only way to victory was through the employment of officers trained in the Tsar’s army. As well as examining Trotsky’s critique of Stalin’s Russia in the 1930s, this seminar reader probes deeper to explore the ideas which drove Trotsky forward during his years of influence over Russia’s revolutionary politics, exploring such key concepts as how to construct a revolutionary party, how to stage a successful insurrection, how to fight a revolutionary war, and how to build a socialist state.
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The Crusades, C.1071-c.1291

Author: Jean Richard

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521625661

Category: History

Page: 516

View: 9091

A concise history of the crusades - whose chief goal was the liberation and preservation of the 'holy places' of the middle east - from the first calls to arms in the later twelfth century to the fall of the last crusader strongholds in Syria and Palestine in 1291. This is the ideal introductory textbook for all students of the crusades. Professor Richard considers the consequences of the crusades, such as the establishment of the Latin east, and its organisation into a group of feudal states, as well as crusading contacts with the Muslim world, eastern Christians, Byzantines, and Mongols. Also considered are the organisation of expeditions, the financing of such expeditionary forces, and the organisation of operations and supply. Jean Richard is one of the world's great crusader historians and this work, the distillation of over forty years' research and contemplation, is the only one of its kind in English.
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The Avignon Papacy and the Crusades, 1305-1378

Author: Norman Housley

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 348

View: 4367

The crusading movement of the fourteenth century, and the support given to it by the Popes at Avignon, is the central theme of this study. By focusing on the crusading policy of the papal Curia it also illuminates other fields of Avignonese activity.
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The Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades

Author: Jonathan Riley-Smith

Publisher: Oxford Paperbacks

ISBN: 9780192854285

Category: History

Page: 436

View: 2754

A comprehensive history of the Crusades ranges from the eleventh century to modern times, and includes commentary on the art and architecture associated with the Crusades and insights into the history of the knightly orders.
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The Origins of the First World War

Author: James Joll,Gordon Martel

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317875362

Category: History

Page: 360

View: 6882

James Joll's study is not simply another narrative, retracing the powder trail that was finally ignited at Sarajevo. It is an ambitious and wide-ranging analysis of the historical forces at work in the Europe of 1914, and the very different ways in which historians have subsequently attempted to understand them. The importance of the theme, the breadth and sympathy of James Joll's scholarship, and the clarity of his exposition, have all contributed to the spectacular success of the book since its first appearance in 1984. Revised by Gordon Martel, this new 3rd edition accommodates recent research and an expanded further reading section.
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Byzantium's Balkan Frontier

A Political Study of the Northern Balkans, 900-1204

Author: Paul Stephenson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521770170

Category: History

Page: 352

View: 9545

A history of the relations between Byzantium and the Balkan peoples, 900-1204.
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Crusading and the Crusader States

Author: Andrew Jotischky

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 135198392X

Category: History

Page: 324

View: 9348

Crusading and the Crusader States explores how the idea of holy war emerged from the troubled society of the eleventh century, and why Jerusalem and the Holy Land were so important to Europeans. It follows the progress of the major crusading expeditions, offering insights into initial success and subsequent failure, charts the development of new attitudes towards Islam and its followers, and shows the effects of the Crusades on society and culture in the Near East. Providing analysis and discussion of this vital period of medieval history, Andrew Jotischky discusses key questions such as how crusading evolved in theory and practice, how crusading expeditions were planned and carried out, why they were considered such an essential part of medieval society, and why their popularity endured despite military failures. This new edition takes into account the wealth of rich and varied recent research to show why crusading should be seen as central to the European experience in the Middle Ages. It engages with key historiographical debates of the past decade, including how Crusades were formed, the political culture and social networks of crusading, and the effects of crusading on western religious and aristocratic culture. It now extends into the fifteenth century to discuss the lasting ramifications of the Crusades, and illustrate their legacy into the early modern period. It is essential reading for all students of the Crusades and medieval history.
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The Crusades

Conflict and Controversy, 1095-1291

Author: Michael Riley,Jamie Byrom

Publisher: Hodder Education

ISBN: 9781444144512

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 144

View: 8217

Think more deeply and work more independently at A level History through a carefully thought-out enquiry approach from SHP. Enquiring History: It makes you think! The OFSTED report on school history suggests that the current generation of A Level students have been poorly served by exam-based textbooks which spoon-feed students while failing to enthuse them or develop deeper understandings of studying History The Schools History Project has risen to this challenge with a new series for the next generation. Enquiring History is SHP's fresh approach to Advanced Level History that aims: - To motivate and engage readers - To help readers think and gain independence as learners - To encourage enquiry, and deeper understanding of periods and the people of the past - To engage with current scholarship - To prepare A Level students for university Key features of each Student book - Clear compelling narrative - books are designed to be read cover to cover - Structured enquiries - that explore the core content and issues of each period - 'Insight' panels between enquiries provide context, overview, and extension - Full colour illustrations throughout The Crusades: Conflict and controversy 1095-1291 There has never been a more important time to study the Crusades. Religious conflict is a fact of life in the twenty-first century no less than it was in the medieval world. And yet the world of the Crusades is so different from ours that it takes a massive leap of imagination to make sense of these events. This book takes on that challenge: opening a window onto the 12th and 13th century worlds to understand what on earth was going on. It examines the Crusades themselves; the controversies surrounding them; and the past and current re-interpretations of the period. Web-based support includes - lesson planning tools and guidance for teachers available from the SHP website http://www.schoolshistoryproject.org.uk/Publishing/BooksSHP/BooksALvlEHS.html - eBooks for whole class teaching or individual student reading available from eBook retailers
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The Crusades

Critical Concepts in Historical Studies

Author: Andrew Jotischky

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780415401074

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 7219

Bringing together a representative selection of the most important research on crusading, this four volume collection features a group of carefully chosen articles which, taken together, develop themes and problematics in crusading history and provide a valuable research resource for both students and scholars.
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OCR a Level History As

The First Crusade and the Crusader States, 1073-1192

Author: Toby Purser

Publisher: Heinemann Secondary

ISBN: 9780435312695

Category: Crusades

Page: 168

View: 7554

This accessible guide is packed with activities to build the skills required. It gives students a motivating way to prepare thoroughly for their exams.
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The Fringes of Power

Downing Street Diaries, 1939-1955

Author: John Colville

Publisher: Orion

ISBN: 9781842126264

Category: Civil service

Page: 738

View: 8642

At the outset of the Second World War, John Colville, a young diplomat, was seconded from the foreign office to Number 10 Downing Street. For nine of the next sixteen years, he served three prime ministers - briefly Neville Chamberlain and Clement Attlee - but for much of that time as Private Secretary to Winston Churchill. During those momentous years Colville kept a diary, though this was forbidden by wartime regulations, locking it nightly into his desk at Number 10. Colville seldom left Churchill's side and the insights and observations he records paint an invaluable portrait of the nation's most famous leader both in times of war and peace. Transcribed and edited by Colville before his death, this new edition includes new material, both from the war period and from the time when he was private secretary to the then Princess Elizabeth when she became engaged and then married Prince Philip.
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