The Chemistry of Explosives

Author: Jacqueline Akhavan

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1782626298

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 4297

This concise, easy-to-read book outlines the basic principles needed to understand the chemical mechanisms of explosion. Covering detonation, deflagration, initiation, the latest theories on the production of ""hotspots"", thermochemistry, thermodynamics and kinetics, the text includes detailed formulations and reactions presented with thermochemical calculations to aid understanding. The history, theory and chemical types of explosives are introduced, along with propellants, pyrotechnics and the most up-to-date information on energetic binders for explosive compositions. Covering all aspects of explosive chemistry from history to manufacturing techniques and formulation, The Chemistry of Explosives is a unique text which introduces difficult subjects in a readable manner. Ideal for A-level students and new graduates with no previous knowledge of explosive materials, it will also be useful to anyone needing succinct information on the subject.
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The Chemistry of Powder And Explosives

Author: Dr. Tenney L. Davis

Publisher: Pickle Partners Publishing

ISBN: 178625896X

Category: Science

Page: 338

View: 6504

The present volume contains in one binding the whole contents of Volume I, first published in May, 1941, and the whole contents of Volume II which was published in March, 1943. The book was primarily for chemists. The writing of it was commenced in order that a textbook might be available for the use of students in the course in powder and explosives which the author gave for about twenty years (nearly every year since the first World War) to fourth-year and graduate students of chemistry and of chemical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.[...] The aim of the book has been to describe as clearly and interestingly as possible, and as fully as seemed profitable the modes of behavior, both physical and chemical, of explosive substances, whether these modes find practical application or not. Historical material has been included where it was thought that it contributed to this end, and has not been included elsewhere or for any other reason. It is a fact that a knowledge of the history of ideas, of persons, or of things produces something of the same sympathetic understanding of them that living with them and working with them does.-Print ed.
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Organic Chemistry of Explosives

Author: Jai Prakash Agrawal,Robert Hodgson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470059357

Category: Science

Page: 414

View: 7077

Organic Chemistry of Explosives is the first text to bring together the essential methods and routes used for the synthesis of organic explosives in a single volume. Assuming no prior knowledge, the book discusses everything from the simplest mixed acid nitration of toluene, to the complex synthesis of highly energetic caged nitro compounds. Reviews laboratory and industrial methods, which can be used to introduce aliphatic C-nitro, aromatic C-nitro, N-nitro, and nitrate ester functionality into organic compounds Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each synthetic method or route, with scope, limitations, substrate compatibility and other important considerations Features numerous examples in the form of text, reaction diagrams, and tables.
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Introduction to the Technology of Explosives

Author: Paul W. Cooper,Stanley R. Kurowski

Publisher: VCH Publishers

ISBN: 9781560819264

Category: Explosives

Page: 204

View: 1473

Introduction to the Technology of Explosives Paul W. Cooper and Stanley R. Kurowski Introduction to the Technology of Explosives is a clear and concise survey of the technologies and physical processes involved in explosive phenomena. The book is intended to provide the worker new to the field with sufficient background to understand problems that may arise and to interact intelligently with specialists in the field. The book covers the fundamentals of the chemistry of explosives; the mechanics of burning; sound, shock, and detonation; initiation and initiators; scaling in design and analysis; and off-the-shelf explosive devices. It provides the basic calculational skills needed to solve simple, first-order engineering design problems, and emphasizes the crucial importance of safety considerations. The book contains a broad range of data on explosive materials, and their properties and behavior, along with extensive lists of useful references. Example problems with solutions are provided in each technical area, as are descriptions and analysis of a wide variety of explosive devices. The book concludes with a thorough and comprehensive description of regulatory requirements for the classification, transportation, and storage of explosives, and an extensive guide to explosives safety in plant and test facilities. This book will be of interest to explosives technicians and engineers, government regulators, crime and accident scene investigators, and instructors in military, police, and FBI bomb schools.
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Boom!

The Chemistry and History of Explosives

Author: Simon Quellen Field

Publisher: Chicago Review Press

ISBN: 1613738080

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 6034

Black powder, the world's first chemical explosive, was originally developed during the Tang dynasty in China.It was a crude mixture at first, but over time chemists discovered the optimum proportion of sulfur, charcoal, and nitrates, as well as the best way to mix them for a complete and powerful reaction. Author and chemistry buff Simon Quellen Field takes readers on a decades-long journey through the history of things that go boom, from the early days of black powder to today's modern plastic explosives. Not just the who, when, and why, but also the how. How did Chinese alchemists come to create black powder? What accidents led to the discovery of high explosives? How do explosives actually work on a molecular scale? Boom! The Chemistry and History of Explosives reviews the original papers and patents written by the chemists who invented them, to shed light on their development, to explore the consequences of their use for good and ill, and to give the reader a basic understanding of the chemistry that makes them possible.
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Trace Chemical Sensing of Explosives

Author: Ronald L. Woodfin

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470085193

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 496

View: 7644

This timely book covers the most recent developments in the chemical detection of explosives in a variety of environments. Beginning with a broad view of the need for and the potential applications of chemical sensing, the book considers the issue of how to effectively include chemical sensing into systems designed to find hidden explosives devices. Offering a firsthand look at the latest technologies direct from those who are actively developing them, the book features: A look at the history of the field, including the contributions of recent programs A brief explanation of the chemistry of various explosives and differences in the place where they may be detected An introduction to the problems presented by trace element sensing An overview and comparison of the technologies currently being used and developed Case studies of field experiences with chemical sensors A look at the emerging threat of non-traditional explosives This book is an important reference for explosives engineers, systems engineers involved in the development of related devices, government agencies and NGOs involved in demining efforts, military and law enforcement specialists in mines and explosive ordinance disposal (EOD), as well as environmental scientists and chemists involved in explosives research. In addition to providing field workers with knowledge that will help them decide where and how to search for explosives using chemical sensors. It will provide them with an understanding of the potential and the limitations of chemical sensing in their search for and identification of dangerous devices.
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The Basics of Explosives

The Chemistry of Explosive Compounds

Author: Paul F. Kisak

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781539447702

Category:

Page: 214

View: 769

Explosives are used around the world for both productive purposes such as building hydroelectric dams and mining and destructive purposes, primarily by the military. Explosives are usually divided into two classes those that burn and those that detonate. Detonated explosives typically produce a shock front or shock wave that results from an exothermic chemical reaction. This chemical reaction usually results in a relatively stable compound being exposed to a concentrated source of energy such as a blasting cap or other type of detonation device. The solid explosive will phase shift to a high temperature expanding gas in approximately one-millionth of a second (a nanosecond) with pressures exceeding several million pounds per square inch. For one example we can examine 'Det Cord', also known as Primacord which is usually produced in rolled up or coiled section of cord. This cord is then unwound and when detonated will produce an explosive front along the length of the cord that travels at the speed of 5 miles per second. In other words, if you laid out 5 miles of Det cord, and detonated it, the 5 miles of cord would be explosively spent in one second. Whereas if you burned or ignited the same amount cord it could take weeks to burn to completion. This 2 volume set explains the nature of the various industrial and military explosives and also discusses some of the chemistry involved in these explosives - particularly in the 2nd volume.
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The Analysis of Explosives

Pergamon Series in Analytical Chemistry

Author: Jehuda Yinon,Shmuel Zitrin

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483140059

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 322

View: 4362

The Analysis of Explosives surveys the principles of the various analytical methods, describes how these methods are used for the analysis of explosives, and reviews the major analytical work carried out in this field. Organized into 15 chapters, this book begins with the classification of explosives. Subsequent chapters discuss the different methods for the analysis of explosives. The detection and identification of explosive residues and hidden explosives are also explained. This monograph will be useful as a reference book for chemists in analytical and forensic laboratories, as well as a textbook for graduate students in analytical chemistry and forensic sciences.
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Aspects of Explosives Detection

Author: Maurice Marshall,Jimmie C. Oxley

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080923147

Category: Science

Page: 302

View: 2055

Detection and quantification of trace chemicals is a major thrust of analytical chemistry. In recent years much effort has been spent developing detection systems for priority pollutants. Less mature are the detections of substances of interest to law enforcement and security personnel:in particular explosives. This volume will discuss the detection of these, not only setting out the theoretical fundamentals, but also emphasizing the remarkable developments in the last decade. Terrorist events—airplanes blown out of the sky (PanAm 103 over Lockerbie) and attacks on U.S. and European cities (Trade Center in New York and the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, railways in London and Madrid)--emphasize the danger of concealed explosives. However, since most explosives release little vapor, it was not possible to detect them by technology used on most organic substances. After PanAm 103 was downed over Scotland, the U.S. Congress requested automatic explosive detection equipment be placed in airports. This volume outlines the history of explosive detection research, the developments along the way, present day technologies, and what we think the future holds. - Written by experts in the field who set out both the scientific issues and the practical context with authority - Discusses and describes the threat - Describes the theoretical background and practical applications of both trace and bulk explosives detection
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Explosive Effects and Applications

Author: Jonas A. Zukas,William Walters

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461205891

Category: Science

Page: 433

View: 1040

This is a broad-based text on the fundamentals of explosive behavior and the application of explosives in civil engineering, industrial processes, aerospace applications, and military uses.
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Explosives Engineering

Author: Paul W. Cooper

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119537134

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 480

View: 4881

This graduate text, and Cooper's companion introductory text('Introduction to the Technology of Explosives'), serve the samemarkets as the successful explosives reference by Meyer, now in its4th edition. VCH also published the International Journal ofPropellants, Explosives, and Pyrotechnics. The resulting packagewould give VCH the major presence in the field. This text presents the basic technologies used in the engineeringof explosives and explosive systems, i.e., chemistry, burning,detonation, shock waves, initiation theories, scaling. The book iswritten for upper-division undergraduate or graduate-levelscientists and engineers, and assumes a good grasp of basicphysics, chemistry, mechanics and mathematic through calculus. Itis based on lecture notes used for graduate courses at the Dept. ofEnergy Laboratories, and could serve as a core text for a course atschools of mining or military engineering. The intent of the bookis to provide the engineer or scientist in the field with anunderstanding of the phenomena involved and the engineering toolsneeded to solve/ design/ analyze a broad range of real problems.
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Chemistry of Pyrotechnics

Basic Principles and Theory, Second Edition

Author: John A. Conkling,Chris Mocella

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420018097

Category: House & Home

Page: 245

View: 1229

Primarily driven by advancing technology and concerns for safety, advancement in the world of pyrotechnics and high-energy materials has exploded in the past 25 years. The promulgation of new government regulations places new and more stringent restrictions on the materials that may be used in energetic mixtures. These regulations now mandate numerous training programs, and initiate other actions, such as OSHA’s Process Safety Management standard, intended to eliminate accidents and incidents. Unfortunately, the US lacks an organized, broad-range academic program to cover the science and use of energetic materials and educate the next generation of pyrotechnicians. Designed as a bridge to allow a smooth and confident transition for personnel coming from a chemistry background into the practical world of explosives, Chemistry of Pyrotechnics: Basic Principles and Theory, Second Edition emphasizes basic chemical principles alongside practical, hands-on knowledge in the preparation of energetic mixtures. It examines the interactions between and adaptations of pyrotechnics to changing technology in areas such as obscuration science and low-signature flame emission. Much more than a simple how-to guide, the book discusses chemical and pyrotechnic principles, components of high-energy mixtures, and elements of ignition, propagation, and sensitivity. It offers heat compositions, including ignition mixes, delays, thermites, and propellants and investigates the production of smoke and sound as well as light and color. Promoting the growth and expansion of pyrotechnics as a science, Chemistry of Pyrotechnics: Basic Principles and Theory, Second Edition provides practitioners with the ability to apply chemical principles and logic to energetic materials and thereby make the field as productive, useful, and safe as possible.
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Explosives

Author: Rudolf Meyer,Josef Köhler,Axel Homburg

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527689613

Category: Science

Page: 212

View: 8794

The unrivaled, definitive reference for almost 40 years, this classic work on explosives is now in its seventh, completely revised and updated edition. Some 500 monographic entries, arranged alphabetically, consider the physicochemical properties, production methods, and safe applications of over 120 explosive chemicals. In addition, 70 fuels, additives, and oxidizing agents are discussed as well as the corresponding test methods. Trade, company, and military short names are provided for many of the materials listed, while further key features include a combined index and glossary with terms and abbreviations in English, French, and German, as well as conversion tables and many literature references. Finally, this indispensable source also contains safety data and transport regulations.
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Chemistry of High-Energy Materials

Author: Thomas M. Klapötke

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 311053679X

Category: Science

Page: 385

View: 4062

The 4th revised edition expands on the basic chemistry of high energy materials of the precious editions and examines new research developments, including hydrodynamics and ionic liquids. Applications in military and civil fields are discussed. This work is of interest to advanced students in chemistry, materials science and engineering, as well as to all those working in defense technology.
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The Chemistry of Fireworks

Author: Michael S. Russell

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 0854041273

Category: Science

Page: 169

View: 6872

"Aimed A level students, this book discusses the theory of fireworks in terms of well-known scientific concepts wherever possible, in a concise and easy to understand style."
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Demystifying Explosives

Concepts in High Energy Materials

Author: Sethuramasharma Venugopalan

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0128017562

Category: Science

Page: 252

View: 869

Demystifying Explosives: Concepts in High Energy Materials explains the basic concepts of and the science behind the entire spectrum of high energy materials (HEMs) and gives a broad perspective about all types of HEMs and their interrelationships. Demystifying Explosives covers topics ranging from explosives, deflagration, detonation, and pyrotechnics to safety and security aspects of HEMS, looking at their aspects, particularly their inter-relatedness with respect to properties and performance. The book explains concepts related to the molecular structure of HEMs, their properties, performance parameters, detonation and shock waves including explosives and propellants. The theory-based title also deals with important (safety and security) and interesting (constructive applications) aspects connected with HEMs and is of fundamental use to students in their introduction to these materials and applications. Explains the concept of high energy materials in simple language and down-to-earth examples Worked examples and problems are given wherever required Demystifies the concept of explosives Limited use of big and complex equations Questions and Suggested Reading are given at the end of each chapter
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Primary Explosives

Author: Robert Matyáš,Jiří Pachman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642284361

Category: Science

Page: 338

View: 7618

This is the first comprehensive overview of this topic. It serves as a single source for information about the properties, preparation, and uses of all relevant primary explosives. The first chapter provides background such as the basics of initiation and differences between requirements on primary explosives used in detonators and igniters. The authors then clarify the influence of physical characteristics on explosive properties, focusing on those properties required for primary explosives. Furthermore, the issue of sensitivity is discussed. All the chapters on particular groups of primary explosives are structured in the same way, including introduction, physical and chemical properties, explosive properties, preparation and documented use. The authors thoroughly verified all data and information. A unique feature of this book are original microscopic images of some explosives.
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Forensic Investigation of Explosions, Second Edition

Author: Alexander Beveridge

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420087258

Category: Law

Page: 830

View: 7811

Now in its second edition, Forensic Investigation of Explosions draws on the editor’s 30 years of explosives casework experience, including his work on task forces set up to investigate major explosives incidents. Dr. Alexander Beveridge provides a broad, multidisciplinary approach, assembling the contributions of internationally recognized experts who present the definitive reference work on the subject. Topics discussed include: The physics and chemistry of explosives and explosions The detection of hidden explosives The effect of explosions on structures and persons Aircraft sabotage investigations Explosion scene investigations Casework management The role of forensic scientists Analysis of explosives and their residues Forensic pathology as it relates to explosives Presentation of expert testimony With nearly 40 percent more material, this new edition contains revised chapters and several new topics, including: A profile of casework management in the UK Forensic Explosives Laboratory, one of the world’s top labs, with a discussion of their management system, training procedures, and practical approaches to problem solving Properties and analysis of improvised explosives An examination of the Bali bombings and the use of mobile analytical techniques and mobile laboratories The collection, analysis, and presentation of evidence in vehicle-borne improvised explosive device cases, as evidenced in attacks on US overseas targets This volume offers valuable information to all members of prevention and post-blast teams. Each chapter was written by an expert or experts in a specific field and provides well-referenced information underlying best practices that can be used in the field, laboratory, conference room, classroom, or courtroom.
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Electronic Noses & Sensors for the Detection of Explosives

Author: J. Gardner,Jehuda Yinon

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1402028008

Category: Science

Page: 308

View: 2491

This book examines both the potential application of electronic nose technology, and the current state of development of chemical sensors for the detection of vapours from explosives, such as those used in landmines. The two fields have developed, somewhat in parallel, over the past decade and so one of the purposes of this workshop, on which the book is based, was to bring together scientists from the two fields in order to challenge the two communities and, mutually, stimulate both fields. It begins with a review of the basic principles of an electronic nose and explores possible ways in which the detection limit of conventional electronic nose technology can be reduced to the level required for the trace levels observed for many explosive materials. Next are reviews of the use of several different types of solid-state chemical sensors: polymer-based sensors, i.e. chemiluminescent, fluorescent and optical, to detect explosive materials; metal oxide semiconducting resistive sensors; and then electrochemical sensors. Next, different pattern recognition techniques are presented to enhance the performance of chemical sensors. Then biological systems are considered as a possible blue-print for chemical sensing. The biology can be employed either to understand the way insects locate odorant sources, or to understand the signal processing neural pathways. Next is a discussion of some of the new types of electronic noses; namely, a fast GC column with a SAW detector and a micromechanical sensor. Finally, the important issues of sampling technologies and the design of the microfluidic systems are considered. In particular, the use of pre-concentrators and solid phase micro extractors to boost the vapour concentration before it is introduced to the chemical sensor or electronic nose.
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