The Basics of Crystallography and Diffraction

Author: Christopher Hammond

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 019156771X

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 2178

This book provides a clear introduction to topics which are essential to students in a wide range of scientific disciplines but which are otherwise only covered in specialised and mathematically detailed texts. It shows how crystal structures may be built up from simple ideas of atomic packing and co-ordination, it develops the concepts of crystal symmetry, point and space groups by way of two dimensional examples of patterns and tilings, it explains the concept of the reciprocal lattice in simple terms and shows its importance in an understanding of light, X-ray and electron diffraction. Practical examples of the applications of these techniques are described and also the importance of diffraction in the performance of optical instruments. The book is also of value to the general reader since it shows, by biographical and historical references, how the subject has developed and thereby indicates some of the excitement of scientific discovery.

On the Power of Fuzzy Markup Language

Author: Giovanni Acampora,Vincenzo Loia,Chang-Shing Lee,Mei-Hui Wang

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642354882

Category: Computers

Page: 188

View: 426

One of the most successful methodology that arose from the worldwide diffusion of Fuzzy Logic is Fuzzy Control. After the first attempts dated in the seventies, this methodology has been widely exploited for controlling many industrial components and systems. At the same time, and very independently from Fuzzy Logic or Fuzzy Control, the birth of the Web has impacted upon almost all aspects of computing discipline. Evolution of Web, Web2.0 and Web 3.0 has been making scenarios of ubiquitous computing much more feasible; consequently information technology has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. What happens when Fuzzy Logic meets Web technology? Interesting results might come out, as you will discover in this book. Fuzzy Mark-up Language is a son of this synergistic view, where some technological issues of Web are re-interpreted taking into account the transparent notion of Fuzzy Control, as discussed here. The concept of a Fuzzy Control that is conceived and modeled in terms of a native web wisdom represents another step towards the last picture of Pervasive Web Intelligence.

X-ray Microscopy

Instrumentation and Biological Applications

Author: Ping-chin Cheng,Gwo-jen Jan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642728812

Category: Science

Page: 415

View: 9178

In 1979, a conference on x-ray microscopy was organized by the New York Academy of Sciences, and in 1983, the Second Interna tional Symposium on X-ray Imaging was organized by the Akademie der Wissenschaften in Gottingen, Federal Republic of Germany. This volume contains the contributions to the symposium "X-ray Microscopy '86", held in Taipei, Taiwan, the Republic of China in August 1986. This is the first volume which intends to provide up-to date information on x-ray imaging to biologists, therefore, emphasis was given to specimen preparation techniques and image interpreta tion. Specimen preparation represents a major part of every microscopy work, therefore, it should be strongly emphasized in this emerging field of x-ray microscopy. Theoretically, x-ray microscopy offers the potential for the study of unfixed, hydrated biological ma terials. Since very few biological system can be directly observed without specimen preparation, we would like to emphasize that new information on biological specimens can only be obtained if the speci men is properly prepared. In the past decade, many of the published x-ray images were obtained from poorly prepared biological speci mens, mainly air-dried materials. Therefore, one of the goals of this conference is to bring the importance of specimen preparation to the attention of x-ray microscopy community. X-ray microscopy can be subdivided into several major areas. They are the classic x-ray projection microscope, x-ray contact imag ing (microradiography) and the more recent x-ray scanning micro scope, x-ray photoelectron microscope and x-ray imaging microscope.

Tetracyclines in Biology, Chemistry and Medicine

Author: M. Nelson,W. Hillen,R.A. Greenwald

Publisher: Birkhäuser

ISBN: 3034883064

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 2834

The tetracyclines have an illustrious history as therapeutic agents which dates back over half a century. Initially discovered as an antibiotic in 1947, the four ringed molecule has captured the fancy of chemists and biologists over the ensuing decades. Of further interest, as described in the chapter by George Armelagos, tetracyclines were already part of earlier cultures, 1500-1700 years ago, as revealed in traces of drug found in Sudanese Nubian mummies. The diversity of chapters which this book presents to the reader should illus trate the many disciplines which have examined and seen benefits from these fascinating natural molecules. From antibacterial to anti-inflammatory to anti autoimmunity to gene regulation, tetracyclines have been modified and redesigned for various novel properties. Some have called this molecule a biol ogist's dream because of its versatility, but others have seen it as a chemist's nightmare because of the synthetic chemistry challenges and "chameleon-like" properties (see the chapter by S. Schneider).

Noise in Physical Systems

Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Noise, Bad Nauheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany, March 13–16, 1978

Author: D. Wolf

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642876404

Category: Science

Page: 340

View: 5677

Noise in physical systems - as a consequence of the corpuscular nature of matter - conveys information about microscopic mechanisms determining the macroscopic behavior of the system. Besides being a source of information, noise also represents a source of annoying disturbances which affect information transMission along a physical system. Therefore, noise analysis can promote our insight into the behavior of a physical system, as well as our knowledge of the natural constraints imposed upon physical-information transmission channels and devices. In recent years the continuous scientific and technical interest in noise problems has led to a remarkable progress in the understanding of noise phenomena. This progress is reflected by the rich material presented at the Fifth International Conference on Noise in Physical Systems. The conference papers originally published in these proceedings cover the various aspects of today's noise research in the fields of solid-state devices, l/f-noise, magnetic and superconducting materials, measuring methods, and theory of fluctuations. Each session of the conference was introduced by one or two invited review lectures which are included in these proceedings in full length. The 12 invited papers and more than 40 contributed papers on specific topics (only three of them have been omitted from the proceedings since they will be published elsewhere) provide a comprehensive survey of the current state-of-the-art and recent advances of noise analysis.

Surface Forces

Author: Nikolai V. Churaev,B.V. Derjaguin,V.M. Muller

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475766394

Category: Science

Page: 440

View: 2106

This monograph is devoted to long-range surface forces sig nificant far beyond a single monolayer and felt over tens or even hundreds of molecular layers adjacent to an interface. The transi tion from the concept of short-range effects that reigned earlier to the concept of long-range forces simultaneously signified the transition from a two-dimensional world to a three-dimensional one, incomparably richer in physicochemical phenomena. This transition took many years and evolved through many steps. It began with the Gouy-Chapman theory of diffuse ionic atmospheres, which together with London's theory of molecular forces was used as a basis for the development (beginning in 1937) of the DLVO theory of stability of lyophobic colloids. Further elaboration of the theory involved the introduction of new types of force, and a generalization (in 1954) to the case of interaction between unlike particles (hetero coagulation). This theory is fundamental in such large-scale prac tical problems as flotation, water treatment, dyeing, soil science, microbiology, and interaction between biological cells. This book is the first comprehensive monograph devoted to sur face forces. This fact makes it easier to attract the reader's interest; yet, the reader's demands become all the more difficult to satisfy completely. Indeed, the research that we review and analyze here covers about 50 years of work. Much data has been amassed, so that the main problem was a careful selection and an alysis.

Personal Identity

Complex Or Simple?

Author: Georg Gasser,Matthias Stefan

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107014441

Category: Philosophy

Page: 259

View: 5459

This book addresses whether personal identity is analyzable, with innovative discussion of 'complex' and 'simple' theories.

Reflections on Symmetry

In Chemistry ... and Elsewhere. Copublished with VHCA Publishers, Basel.

Author: Edgar Heilbronner,Jack D. Dunitz

Publisher: Wiley-VCH

ISBN: 9783527284887

Category: Science

Page: 160

View: 2534

What do Schrödinger's wave functions, Escher's intricate tiling patterns and chemistry's latest marvel, buckminsterfullerene, have in common? This stunning book, written by two world-famous scientists, introduces the reader to one of nature's most fundamental, and ubiquitous, phenomena: Symmetry. Enormous in scope, this scientific tour-de-force covers topics as diverse as quantum mechanics, stereochemistry, Penrose tilings and Raphael's Madonna. The authors connect these apparently unrelated fields in a completely non-mathematical fashion, which should appeal to the general and specialist reader alike. Lucidly written and beautifully illustrated, this book provides an eminently readable discussion of the omnipresent concept of symmetry, its application in all branches of science, and its perception in nature, art and elsewhere.

Understanding and Controlling the Microstructure of Complex Foods

Author: D. Julian McClements

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1845693671

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 792

View: 9943

It is widely accepted that the creation of novel foods or improvement of existing foods largely depends on a strong understanding and awareness of the intricate interrelationship between the nanoscopic, microscopic and macroscopic features of foods and their bulk physiochemical properties, sensory attributes and healthfulness. With its distinguished editor and array of international contributors, Understanding and controlling the microstructure of complex foods provides a review of current understanding of significant aspects of food structure and methods for its control. Part one focuses on the fundamental structural elements present in foods such as polysaccharides, proteins and fats and the forces which hold them together. Part two discusses novel analytical techniques which can provide information on the morphology and behaviour of food materials. Chapters cover atomic force microscopy, image analysis, scattering techniques and computer analysis. Chapters in part three examine how the principles of structural design can be employed to improve performance and functionality of foods. The final part of the book discusses how knowledge of structural and physicochemical properties can be implemented to improve properties of specific foods such as ice-cream, spreads, protein-based drinks, chocolate and bread dough. Understanding and controlling the microstructure of complex foods is an essential reference for industry professionals and scientists concerned with improving the performance of existing food products and inventing novel food products. Reviews the current understanding of significant aspects of food structure and methods for its control Focuses on the fundamental structural elements present in foods such as proteins and fats and the forces that hold them together Discusses novel analytical techniques that provide information on the morphology and behaviour of food materials

Advanced Concepts in Photovoltaics

Author: Arthur J. Nozik,Gavin Conibeer,Matthew C Beard

Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry

ISBN: 1849739951

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 608

View: 3135

Photovoltaic systems enable the sun’s energy to be converted directly into electricity using semiconductor solar cells. The ultimate goal of photovoltaic research and development is to reduce the cost of solar power to reach or even become lower than the cost of electricity generated from fossil and nuclear fuels. The power conversion efficiency and the cost per unit area of the phototvoltaic system are critical factors that determine the cost of photovoltaic electricity. Until recently, the power conversion efficiency of single-junction photovoltaic cells has been limited to approximately 33% - the so-called Shockley-Queisser limit. This book presents the latest developments in photovoltaics which seek to either reach or surpass the Shockley-Queisser limit, and to lower the cell cost per unit area. Progress toward this ultimate goal is presented for the three generations of photovoltaic cells: the 1st generation based on crystalline silicon semiconductors; the 2nd generation based on thin film silicon, compound semiconductors, amorphous silicon, and various mesoscopic structures; and the 3rd generation based on the unique properties of nanoscale materials, new inorganic and organic photoconversion materials, highly efficient multi-junction cells with low cost solar concentration, and novel photovoltaic processes. The extent to which photovoltaic materials and processes can meet the expectations of efficient and cost effective solar energy conversion to electricity is discussed. Written by an international team of expert contributors, and with researchers in academia, national research laboratories, and industry in mind, this book is a comprehensive guide to recent progress in photovoltaics and essential for any library or laboratory in the field.

Geomaterials in Cultural Heritage

Author: Marino Maggetti,Bruno Messiga

Publisher: Geological Society of London

ISBN: 9781862391956

Category: Science

Page: 351

View: 7468

This volume gives a broad view of the application of geoscience techniques to the study of monuments and objects from excavations and museums, including their origin, technique of manufacture, age and conservation, and reaffirms the important contribution of geosciences in the interdisciplinary approach to the study of complex materials such as minerals, rocks, glass, metals, mortar, plaster, slags and pottery. The papers in this book cover three topics: the study of pottery, glass, stone and mortar; the application of Raman spectroscopy to a wide variety of objects; and the future of archaeometry. These interdisciplinary studies include field geology, geophysics, microscopy, textural analysis, physical methods and geochemistry. These studies unlock information from the ancient materials, such as the provenance of raw materials, the firing technology, the ancient recipes and the alteration pathways.

Biomechanics and Biomaterials in Orthopedics

Author: Dominique G. Poitout

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1848826648

Category: Medical

Page: 547

View: 9550

With the constant evolution of implant technology, and improvement in the production of allograft and bone substitutes, the armamentarium of the orthopaedic surgeon has significantly expanded. In particular, the recent involvement of nanotechnologies opens up the possibilities of new approaches in the interactive interfaces of implants. With many important developments occurring since the first edition of this well-received book, this updated resource informs orthopaedic practitioners on a wide range of biomechanical advances in one complete reference guide. Biomechanics and Biomaterials in Orthopedics, 2nd edition compiles the most prominent work in the discipline to offer newly-qualified orthopedic surgeons a summary of the fundamental skills that they will need to apply in their day-to-day work, while also updating the knowledge of experienced surgeons. This book covers both basic concepts concerning biomaterials and biomechanics as well as their clinical application and the experience from everyday practical use. This book will be of great value to specialists in orthopedics and traumatology, while also providing an important basis for graduate and postgraduate learning.

Pandora's Box

Social and Professional Issues of the Information Age

Author: Andrew A. Adams,Rachel McCrindle

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470065532

Category: Computers

Page: 666

View: 5037

Computing technology is constantly evolving and changing, developing and consolidating its position as a vital component of our lives. It no longer plays a minor part in society – it is embedded in, and affects, all aspects of life, from education to healthcare to war. Dealing with the implications of this is a major challenge, and one that can impact upon us, both personally and professionally. As a consequence, it is vital that all in the computing industry make wise decisions regarding their conduct. Using case studies and discussion topics drawn from entertaining real world examples, Pandora’s Box examines the background of a wide range of vital contemporary issues, encouraging readers to examine the social, legal and ethical challenges they will face in their own careers. Written in an engaging style and packed with international examples, this book addresses topics which have come to the forefront of public consciousness in recent years, such as online crime, piracy and peer to peer file sharing. Comprehensive coverage is provided of digital entertainment, censorship and privacy issues, presenting a rich source of context in which to consider ethical matters. Suitable for students on computer science degree programmes, as well as those taking IT related modules on other courses which consider the impact of technology on 21st century living, Pandora’s Box is an essential read and a unique and timely textbook.

Foundations of Electrodynamics

Author: Parry Hiram Moon,Domina Eberle Spencer

Publisher: Courier Corporation

ISBN: 0486497038

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 314

View: 4342

Electrodynamics involves the study of electric charges and their interaction with magnetic and electric fields. This advanced undergraduate text presupposes some knowledge of electricity and magnetism, making substantial use of vector analysis. The authors define their goal as "a serious attempt to develop electrodynamics on a postulational basis and to define each concept in the most general way." 1960 edition.

Proteomics Sample Preparation

Author: Jörg von Hagen

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527644695

Category: Science

Page: 485

View: 6260

This long-awaited first guide to sample preparation for proteomics studies overcomes a major bottleneck in this fast growing technique within the molecular life sciences. By addressing the topic from three different angles -- sample, method and aim of the study -- this practical reference has something for every proteomics researcher. Following an introduction to the field, the book looks at sample preparation for specific techniques and applications and finishes with a section on the preparation of sample types. For each method described, a summary of the pros and cons is given, as well as step-by-step protocols adaptable to any specific proteome analysis task.

Grain Boundaries and Crystalline Plasticity

Author: Louisette Priester

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118603109

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 344

View: 2831

This book explores the fundamental role of grain boundaries in the plasticity of crystalline materials, providing a multi-scale approach to plasticity to facilitate understanding. It starts with the atomic description of a grain boundary, moves on to the elemental interaction processes between dislocations and grain boundaries, and finally shows how the microscopic phenomena influence the macroscopic behaviors and constitutive laws. Drawing on topics from physical, chemical, and mechanical disciplines, this work also explains properties of deformation at low and high temperature, creep, fatigue, and rupture.

Advances in Theoretically Interesting Molecules

A Research Annual

Author: Randolph P. Thummel

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483285006

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 9655

Advances in Theoretically Interesting Molecules: A Research Annual, Volume 2 provides information pertinent to the dynamics of cyclooctatetraene ring inversion. This book deals with bridgehead olefins, which helps to shed light on structure-activity relationships for this most basic functional group. Organized into four chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the involvement of planar, delocalized transition states to account for bond shifting in cyclooctatetraenes, which faces explicit problems in rationalizing the universally low energy demands. This text then examines the carbon-carbon double bond, which is the most ubiquitous functional group in organic chemistry. Other chapters consider the condensed polycyclic benzenoid aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which is a subset of the multifarious class of polynuclear aromatics. This book discusses as well the problem of categorizing the molecular structures of PAHs. The final chapter deals with the reactions and synthesis of Dewar furan. This book is a valuable resource for organic chemists.

Crystal Growth Technology

Author: K. Byrappa,Tadashi Ohachi

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540003670

Category: Science

Page: 590

View: 6109

Crystals are the unacknowledged pillars of modern technology. The modern technological developments depend greatly on the availability of suitable single crystals, whether it is for lasers, semiconductors, magnetic devices, optical devices, superconductors, telecommunication, etc. In spite of great technological advancements in the recent years, we are still in the early stage with respect to the growth of several important crystals such as diamond, silicon carbide, PZT, gallium nitride, and so on. Unless the science of growing these crystals is understood precisely, it is impossible to grow them as large single crystals to be applied in modern industry. This book deals with almost all the modern crystal growth techniques that have been adopted, including appropriate case studies. Since there has been no other book published to cover the subject after the Handbook of Crystal Growth, Eds. DTJ Hurle, published during 1993-1995, this book will fill the existing gap for its readers. The book begins with "Growth Histories of Mineral Crystals" by the most senior expert in this field, Professor Ichiro Sunagawa. The next chapter reviews recent developments in the theory of crystal growth, which is equally important before moving on to actual techniques. After the first two fundamental chapters, the book covers other topics like the recent progress in quartz growth, diamond growth, silicon carbide single crystals, PZT crystals, nonlinear optical crystals, solid state laser crystals, gemstones, high melting oxides like lithium niobates, hydroxyapatite, GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy, superconducting crystals, morphology control, and more. For the first time, the crystal growth modeling has been discussed in detail with reference to PZT and SiC crystals.