The Art of Military Coercion

Why the West's Military Superiority Scarcely Matters

Author: Rob de Wijk

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789089646743

Category: Political Science

Page: 325

View: 5294

The United States spends more on its military than the rest of the world combined, and Western nations in general spend far more than developing nations around the globe. Yet when Western nations have found themselves in conflicts in recent decades, their military performance has been mixed at best. In this fully updated new edition of The Art of Military Coercion, Rob de Wijk explains this discrepancy through a theory on the use of force. He argues that the key is a failure to use force decisively and to understand properly the dynamics of conflict and balance, means and ends. Without that ability, even a superiority of dollars, numbers, and weaponry will not necessarily translate to victory.
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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization

The Enduring Alliance

Author: Julian Lindley-French

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317623738

Category: History

Page: 200

View: 5602

Continuing to provide a concise approach to this crucial organization, the second edition of The North Atlantic Treaty Organization: The Enduring Alliance is fully updated to take in the developments since 2007, with key additions including: Discussion of NATO’s place in a changing world Consideration of recent operations on the alliance Evaluation of the impact of the financial crisis Reconsideration of the NATO-EU relationship Discussion of the US pivot to Asia-Pacific and its impact on NATO The implications for NATO of Russia’s action in Ukraine The rise of emerging security challenges, including Islamic State A new chapter looking to the future of NATO in light of the recent developments Highlighting the continued importance of NATO in the international arena, this accessible guide details the origins, institutions, workings and activities of the organization, as well as contributing valuable insights to the debate surrounding the future of the alliance.
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Russia–EU Relations and the Common Neighborhood

Coercion vs. Authority

Author: Irina Busygina

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315443945

Category: Political Science

Page: 250

View: 7202

Examining Russia–EU relations in terms of the forms and types of power tools they use, this book argues that the deteriorating relations between Russia and the EU lie in the deep differences in their preferences for the international status quo. These different approaches, combined with economic interdependence and geographic proximity, means both parties experience significant difficulties in shaping strategy and formulating agendas with regards to each other. The Russian leadership is well aware of the EU’s "authority orientation" but fails to reliably predict foreign policy at the EU level, whilst the EU realizes Russia’s "coercive orientation" in general, but cannot predict when and where coercive tools will be used next. Russia is gradually realizing the importance of authority, while the EU sees the necessity of coercion tools for coping with certain challenges. The learning process is ongoing but the basic distinction remains unchanged and so their approaches cannot be reconciled as long as both actors exist in their current form. Using a theoretical framework and case studies including Belarus, Georgia and Ukraine, Busygina examines the possibilities and constraints that arise when the "power of authority" and the "power of coercion" interact with each other, and how this interaction affects third parties.
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Between the Rule of Power and the Power of Rule

In Search of an Effective World Order

Author: A. van Staden

Publisher: Hotei Publishing

ISBN: 9789004157033

Category: Political Science

Page: 250

View: 8111

The book discusses different models of world order, traditional and modern. Any practical application of the concept at issue will be affected by the prevailing power structure, and to some degree, reflect it. The reality of American preeminence in the world today needs to be reconciled with the demand for international legitimacy.
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Power Politics

Author: Rob de Wijk

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789462980525

Category: Political Science

Page: 212

View: 8153

We tend to think of ourselves as living in a time when nations, for the most part, obey the rule of law--and where they certainly don't engage in the violent grabs for territory that have characterized so much of human history. But as Rob de Wijk shows in this book, power politics remains very much a force on the international scene. Offering analyses of such actions as Putin's annexation of the Crimea and China's attempts to claim large parts of the South China Sea, de Wijk explains why power politics never truly went away--and why, as the West's position weakens, it's likely to play a bigger and bigger role on the global stage in the coming years.
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Carnage and Culture

Landmark Battles in the Rise to Western Power

Author: Victor Davis Hanson

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 9780307425188

Category: History

Page: 544

View: 9986

Examining nine landmark battles from ancient to modern times--from Salamis, where outnumbered Greeks devastated the slave army of Xerxes, to Cortes’s conquest of Mexico to the Tet offensive--Victor Davis Hanson explains why the armies of the West have been the most lethal and effective of any fighting forces in the world. Looking beyond popular explanations such as geography or superior technology, Hanson argues that it is in fact Western culture and values–the tradition of dissent, the value placed on inventiveness and adaptation, the concept of citizenship–which have consistently produced superior arms and soldiers. Offering riveting battle narratives and a balanced perspective that avoids simple triumphalism, Carnage and Culture demonstrates how armies cannot be separated from the cultures that produce them and explains why an army produced by a free culture will always have the advantage. From the Trade Paperback edition.
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Saturday Review0

Politics, Literature, Science and Art

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 6264

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Battling to the End

Conversations with Benoit Chantre

Author: René Girard

Publisher: MSU Press

ISBN: 1609171330

Category: Philosophy

Page: 256

View: 3585

In Battling to the End René Girard engages Carl von Clausewitz (1780–1831), the Prussian military theoretician who wrote On War. Clausewitz, who has been critiqued by military strategists, political scientists, and philosophers, famously postulated that "War is the continuation of politics by other means." He also seemed to believe that governments could constrain war. Clausewitz, a firsthand witness to the Napoleonic Wars, understood the nature of modern warfare. Far from controlling violence, politics follows in war's wake: the means of war have become its ends. René Girard shows us a Clausewitz who is a fascinated witness of history's acceleration. Haunted by the French-German conflict, Clausewitz clarifies more than anyone else the development that would ravage Europe. Battling to the End pushes aside the taboo that prevents us from seeing that the apocalypse has begun. Human violence is escaping our control; today it threatens the entire planet.
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War by Other Means

Author: Robert D. Blackwill,Jennifer M. Harris

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674545982

Category: Political Science

Page: 376

View: 5832

Nations carry out geopolitical combat through economic means. Yet America often reaches for the gun over the purse to advance its interests abroad. Robert Blackwill and Jennifer Harris show that if U.S. policies are left uncorrected, the price in blood and treasure will only grow. Geoeconomic warfare requires a new vision of U.S. statecraft.
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Strategy

A History

Author: Lawrence Freedman

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190229233

Category: History

Page: 768

View: 1890

Selected as a Financial Times Best Book of 2013 In Strategy: A History, Sir Lawrence Freedman, one of the world's leading authorities on war and international politics, captures the vast history of strategic thinking, in a consistently engaging and insightful account of how strategy came to pervade every aspect of our lives. The range of Freedman's narrative is extraordinary, moving from the surprisingly advanced strategy practiced in primate groups, to the opposing strategies of Achilles and Odysseus in The Iliad, the strategic advice of Sun Tzu and Machiavelli, the great military innovations of Baron Henri de Jomini and Carl von Clausewitz, the grounding of revolutionary strategy in class struggles by Marx, the insights into corporate strategy found in Peter Drucker and Alfred Sloan, and the contributions of the leading social scientists working on strategy today. The core issue at the heart of strategy, the author notes, is whether it is possible to manipulate and shape our environment rather than simply become the victim of forces beyond one's control. Time and again, Freedman demonstrates that the inherent unpredictability of this environment-subject to chance events, the efforts of opponents, the missteps of friends-provides strategy with its challenge and its drama. Armies or corporations or nations rarely move from one predictable state of affairs to another, but instead feel their way through a series of states, each one not quite what was anticipated, requiring a reappraisal of the original strategy, including its ultimate objective. Thus the picture of strategy that emerges in this book is one that is fluid and flexible, governed by the starting point, not the end point. A brilliant overview of the most prominent strategic theories in history, from David's use of deception against Goliath, to the modern use of game theory in economics, this masterful volume sums up a lifetime of reflection on strategy.
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Perilous Glory

The Rise of Western Military Power

Author: John France

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300120745

Category: History

Page: 456

View: 5385

This expansive book surveys the history of warfare from ancient Mesopotamia to the Gulf War in search of a deeper understanding of the origins of Western warfare and the reasons for its eminence today. Historian John France explores the experience of war around the globe, in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. His bold conclusions cast doubt on well-entrenched attitudes about the development of military strength, the impact of culture on warfare, the future of Western dominance, and much more. Taking into account wars waged by virtually all civilizations since the beginning of recorded history, France finds that despite enormous cultural differences, war was conducted in distinctly similar ways right up to the Military Revolution and the pursuit of technological warfare in the nineteenth century. Since then, European and American culture has shaped warfare, but only because we have achieved a sense of distance from it, France argues. He warns that the present eminence of U.S. power is much more precarious and accidental than commonly believed. The notion that war is a distant phenomenon is only an illusion, and our cultural attitudes must change accordingly.
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Coercion, Survival, and War

Why Weak States Resist the United States

Author: Phil Haun

Publisher: Stanford University Press

ISBN: 080479507X

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 2642

In asymmetric interstate conflicts, great powers have the capability to coerce weak states by threatening their survival—but not vice versa. It is therefore the great power that decides whether to escalate a conflict into a crisis by adopting a coercive strategy. In practice, however, the coercive strategies of the U.S. have frequently failed. In Coercion, Survival and War Phil Haun chronicles 30 asymmetric interstate crises involving the US from 1918 to 2003. The U.S. chose coercive strategies in 23 of these cases, but coercion failed half of the time: most often because the more powerful U.S. made demands that threatened the very survival of the weak state, causing it to resist as long as it had the means to do so. It is an unfortunate paradox Haun notes that, where the U.S. may prefer brute force to coercion, these power asymmetries may well lead it to first attempt coercive strategies that are expected to fail in order to justify the war it desires. He concludes that, when coercion is preferred to brute force there are clear limits as to what can be demanded. In such cases, he suggests, U.S. policymakers can improve the chances of success by matching appropriate threats to demands, by including other great powers in the coercive process, and by reducing a weak state leader's reputational costs by giving him or her face-saving options.
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The Spectator

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 9738

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On Killing

The Psychological Cost of Learning to Kill in War and Society

Author: Dave Grossman

Publisher: Open Road Media

ISBN: 1497629209

Category: Social Science

Page: 416

View: 962

A controversial psychological examination of how soldiers’ willingness to kill has been encouraged and exploited to the detriment of contemporary civilian society. Psychologist and US Army Ranger Dave Grossman writes that the vast majority of soldiers are loath to pull the trigger in battle. Unfortunately, modern armies, using Pavlovian and operant conditioning, have developed sophisticated ways of overcoming this instinctive aversion. The mental cost for members of the military, as witnessed by the increase in post-traumatic stress, is devastating. The sociological cost for the rest of us is even worse: Contemporary civilian society, particularly the media, replicates the army’s conditioning techniques and, Grossman argues, is responsible for the rising rate of murder and violence, especially among the young. Drawing from interviews, personal accounts, and academic studies, On Killing is an important look at the techniques the military uses to overcome the powerful reluctance to kill, of how killing affects the soldier, and of the societal implications of escalating violence.
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