Author: John A. Dredger
View: 306This book reveals the primary causes of Habsburg defeat both in the Austro-Prussian War and the First World War. The choice of offensive strategy and tactics against an enemy possessing superior weaponry in the Austro-Prussian War, and opponents with superior numbers and weapons in the Great War, resulted in catastrophe. The inferiority of the Habsburg forces in both conflicts stemmed from imprudent spending decisions during peacetime, rather than conservatism or parliamentary stinginess. The desire to restore the sunken prestige of Austria-Hungary and prove Habsburg’s great power status drove the military to waste money on an expensive fleet, and choose offensive tactics to win great victories. This study shows the civil-military interaction in regard to funding and procurement decisions as well as the deep intellectual debates within the army, which refute the idea that the Habsburg military remained opposed to technology or progress
Author: Joseph Redlich
Publisher: Read Books Ltd
Category: Biography & Autobiography
View: 5349EMPEROR FRANCIS JOSEPH OF AUSTRIA Biography by JOSEPH REDLICH. Originally published in 1929. INTRODUCTION: THE life of Emperor Francis Joseph can only be understood in close connection with the political transformation of Europe and the progressive shift in world power that went on during the century between the Congress of Vienna and the Treaty of Versailles. It is from that standpoint that it is here written. At the same time the specific content of this description is his human and political personality. On no other terms can any bounds be set or any form given to the vast mass of interconnected historical events covered by the period of Francis Josephs life and reign. Since, however, whether as man or ruler, he falls far short of being an embodiment of human greatness, it is in a somewhat limited sense only that he fills the conception of a historic personality. So comprehensive, on the other hand, is the range of countries and peoples over whom he reigned j so extensive is the period of his governance j so mighty and multifarious are the European issues influenced, and deeply influenced, by his action and his character, that, judged by the test of influence on great events, he must be said to have counted for more than any other European monarch of the nineteenth century. Compared with his, the singular and momentous career of Napoleon III is but an entracte in Europe. Guardian of an ancient line, inheritor and defender of rights that date far back into medieval times, natural foe of the modern struggle to transform Europe into a series of closed national states, Francis Joseph assumed and maintained for sixty years a position in the Europe that the war destroyed to which that of no other sovereign affords an analogue. What makes him all the more impressive is that there was in him, as in no other European monarch of the past century, a perfect correspondence between the man and his work. To Francis Joseph and to the Empire that came to an end in 1918 the saying certainly applies which is the veritable title deed of biographical history History is made by men. Even in a period preoccupied as is our own with research into the development and function of ideas and of institutions, economic, social and political, history cannot omit personality, since it is the instrument through which the will of a nation or a state has to be exercised. Least of all can this be done where, as with Francis Joseph, the idea of the ruler overpowers that of the man and makes his personal individuality its servant. This is the special note of the problem in biography here attempted. Its peculiarity lies in the sharpened contrast with which we have here to deal, between the limited mental and spiritual powers of the individual in his individual life, and unexampled pressure upon it of political and national, social and economic, ideas and tendencies in all their national and international complexity and all their permutations and combinations, affecting as they did, now this way, now that, the equilibrium of forces in Europe, The extent and difficulty o the task which fell to Francis Joseph in his early youth lends an interest and a special color to his purely personal story. Here the dominant note is given by the fact that, throughout nearly seventy-seven years of action and suffering, Francis Joseph maintained, unaltered, the position he took up on entering on his inheritance. The whole weight of the problems, internal and external, of his realm rested on him he stood firm. This is his distinguishing mark. Constitutional forms might and did alter, but the Emperor retained to the end his primitive conception of the ruler whose will is always the strongest political force in his realm...
Two Men at the Start of the Great War and the End of the Habsburg Empire
Author: Kenneth Janda
View: 5431 There was more to World War I than the Western Front. This history juxtaposes the experiences of a monarch and a peasant on the Eastern Front. Franz Josef I, emperor of Austria-Hungary, was the first European leader to declare war in 1914 and was the first to commence firing. Samuel Mozolák was a Slovak laborer who sailed to New York—and fathered twins, taken as babies (and U.S. citizens) to his home village—before being drafted into the Austro-Hungarian army and killed in combat. The author interprets the views of the war of Franz Josef and his contemporaries Kaiser Wilhelm II and Tsar Nicholas II. Mozolák’s story depicts the life of a peasant in an army staffed by aristocrats, and also illustrates the pattern of East European immigration to America.
Architect of the Apocalypse
Author: Lawrence Sondhaus
Category: Biography & Autobiography
View: 7158This first modern biography offers an explanation of how and why the Austro-Hungarian chief of the general staff earned a reputation for brilliance in the first place, and a reevaluation of why he failed so miserably during the First World War.
Jewish Military Chaplains and American History
Author: Albert I. Slomovitz
Publisher: NYU Press
View: 6356Rabbi Elkan Voorsanger received the Purple Heart for his actions during the Battle of Argonne. Chaplain Edgar Siskin, serving with the Marines on Pelilu Island, conducted Yom Kippur services in the midst of a barrage of artillery fire. Rabbi Alexander Goode and three fellow chaplains gave their own lifejackets to panicked soldiers aboard a sinking transport torpedoed by a German submarine, and then went down with the ship. American Jews are not usually associated with warfare. Nor, for that matter, are their rabbis. And yet, Jewish chaplains have played a significant and sometimes heroic role in our nation's defense. The Fighting Rabbis presents the compelling history of Jewish military chaplains from their first service during the Civil War to the first female Jewish chaplain and the rabbinic role in Korea, Vietnam, and Desert Storm. Rabbi Slomovitz, himself a Navy chaplain, opens a window onto the fieldwork, religious services, counseling, and dramatic battlefield experiences of Jewish military chaplains throughout our nation's history. From George Washington's early support for a religiously tolerant military to a Seder held in the desert sands of Kuwait, these rabbis have had a profound impact on Jewish life in America. Also striking are original documents which chronicle the ongoing care and concern by the Jewish community over the last 140 years for their follow Jews, including many new immigrants who entered the armed forces. Slomovitz refutes the common belief that the U.S. military itself has been a hostile place for Jews, in the process providing a unique perspective on American religious history.
Polyethnic Armed Forces from the Time of the Habsburgs to the Age of the Superpowers
Author: N.F. Dreisziger
Publisher: Wilfrid Laurier Univ. Press
View: 6644Ethnic Armies is a combination of essays focused on the subject of polyethnic armed forces from the time of the Habsburgs to the age of the superpowers and is a publication of the proceedings of the thirteenth Military History Symposium, held at the Royal Military College of Canada in March 1986. Multi-ethnic armed forces have existed since ancient times. The armies of the ancient empires of the Middle East, of the Roman Emperors, and the Mongol Khans, all tended to be conglomerations of diverse ethnic, religious, or racial groups. A fundamental reason for their existence in the past and present is that nations, from their earliest beginnings, tended to be polyethnic. The phenomenon of polyethnic armed forces is a complex one, however, and it is examined throughout this book by its contributors.
The Life and Times of Emperor Francis Joseph
Author: Alan Palmer
Publisher: Faber & Faber
View: 8306Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Jerusalem, King of Bohemia, King of Dalmatia, King of Transylvania, King of Croatia and Slovenia, King of Galicia and Illyria, Grand Duke of Tuscany and Cracow, Margrave of Moravia, Duke of Salzburg, Duke of Bukovina, Duke of Modena, Parma, and Piacenza and so on, another thirty or so titles could be added. Was ever a monarch so festooned as Emperor Francis Joseph? He ruled from the Year of the Revolutions, 1848 until his death in 1916. His empire was the most multi-national state ever. An ethnic map of 1910 shows there to be Germans, Magyars, Czechs, Slovaks, Poles, Ruthenes, Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Italians, Jews, Muslims, Ladins (in the Tyrol) and Roumanians. What is more, even together the Germans and the Magyars constituted a minority. And yet, as Alan Palmer observes no other European monarch 'exercised full sovereignty for so long.' Unlike Queen Victoria he ruled rather than merely reigned. That alone suggests he was something more than the humourless bureaucrat he is commonly thought to have been, and Alan Palmer is successful in providing a more rounded and sympathetic portrait of him both as head of an empire and head of a family. His personal life was punctuated with tragedy: his brother, Maximilian was executed y Mexican republicans; his only son, Rudolf shot himself and his mistress at Mayerling; his wife, Empress Elizabeth, was stabbed to death in Geneva, and his nephew and heir, Francis-Ferdinand was assassinated at Sarajevo. This was the first biography of Francis Joseph by an English writer and was acclaimed when originally published in 1994. 'With great skill Mr Palmer blends in the Emperor's private life with the story of the Empire. . . This is an important book; also an entrancing one.' Allan Massie, Daily Telegraph 'A compelling read' Lawrence James, Evening Standard
Der Erste Weltkrieg im Alpenraum und der bayerische Grenzschutz in Tirol
Author: Alexander Jordan
Publisher: Duncker & Humblot
View: 5152Der Krieg um die Alpen, der in den Jahren 1915 bis 1918 zwischen Italien und Österreich-Ungarn entbrannte, war der umfassendste Konflikt, der jemals im Alpenraum stattfand. Mitten im Ersten Weltkrieg waren tausende Soldaten dauerhaft in den Hochalpen versammelt, die im Sommer wie im Winter dort lebten und kämpften. Der Autor verfolgt die Besonderheiten und theoretischen Grundlagen des Hochgebirgskrieges und stellt die Anforderungen, mit denen die Soldaten in der Fels- und Eisregion konfrontiert wurden, heraus. Es werden nicht nur die komplizierten politischen Verwicklungen behandelt, die zum italienischen Kriegseintritt auf Seiten der Alliierten führten, sondern auch die Kampfhandlungen selbst sowie die Truppenformationen der beteiligten Mächte. Der geographische Schwerpunkt der militärhistorischen Untersuchung liegt auf Tirol und der Region von der Schweizer Grenze bis hin zu den Julischen Alpen.Erstmalig wird in diesem Buch der Einmarsch deutscher Truppen in Tirol im November 1918 anschaulich geschildert und wissenschaftlich bewertet. Es bestand die Gefahr, dass Truppen der Entente als Reaktion auf den österreichisch-italienischen Waffenstillstand 1918 von Tirol aus einen Stoßkeil in Bayerns Südflanke treiben könnten. Leitfragen der Analyse richten sich auf die Organisation des Grenzschutzes, auf die Entscheidungsträger und auf die militärstrategischen und politischen Beweggründe, die zum Einmarsch in Tirol führten.In der Studie wird die Erlebensebene der Frontsoldaten in die Darstellung der Ereignisse an der italienisch-österreichischen Front eingebettet. Bisher unbearbeitetes Quellenmaterial lässt neue Schlüsse zu. Etwa jenen, dass sich der Krieg in den Alpen keineswegs exakt nach den theoretischen Vorgaben und Erwartungen der Armeeführung entwickelte. Ein umfangreicher Dokumentenanhang sowie Karten- und Bildmaterial und eine ausführliche Bibliographie runden das Werk ab.
A Social and Political History of the Habsburg Officer Corps, 1848-1918
Author: Istvan Deak
Publisher: Oxford University Press
View: 8831In the last seventy years of its long and distinguished existence, the Habsburg monarchy was plagued by the forces of rising nationalism. Still, it preserved domestic peace and provided the conditions for social, economic, and cultural progress in a vast area inhabited by eleven major nationalities and almost as many confessional groups. This study investigates the social origin, education, training, code of honor, lifestyle, and political role of the Habsburg officers. Simultaneously conservative and liberal, the officer corps, originally composed mainly of noblemen, willingly coopted thousands of commoners--among them an extraordinary number of Jews. Even during World War I, the army and its officers endured, surviving the dissolution of the state in October 1918, if only by a few days. The end of the multinational Habsburg army also marked the end of confessional and ethnic tolerance in Central and East Central Europe.
Germany and Austria-Hungary 1914-1918
Author: Holger H. Herwig
Publisher: A&C Black
View: 6936The Great War toppled four empires, cost the world 24 million dead, and sowed the seeds of another worldwide conflict 20 years later. This is the only book in the English language to offer comprehensive coverage of how Germany and Austria-Hungary, two of the key belligerents, conducted the war and what defeat meant to them. This new edition has been thoroughly updated throughout, including new developments in the historiography and, in particular, addressing new work on the cultural history of the war. This edition also includes: - New material on the domestic front, covering Austria-Hungary's internal political frictions and ethnic fissures - More on Austria-Hungary and Germany's position within the wider geopolitical framework - Increased coverage of the Eastern front The First World War: Germany and Austria-Hungary, 1914-1918 offers an authoritative and well-researched survey of the role of the Central powers that will be an invaluable text for all those studying the First World War and the development of modern warfare.
Author: Stephen Morillo
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
View: 4987This clear, readable introduction to the popular field of military history is now available in a refreshed and updated second edition. It shows that military history encompasses not just accounts of campaigns and battles but includes a wide range of perspectives on all aspects of past military organization and activity. In concise chapters it explains the fundamental features of the field, including: The history of military history, showing how it has developed from ancient times to the present; The key ideas and concepts that shape analysis of military activity; it argues that military history is as methodologically and philosophically sophisticated as any field of history; The current controversies about which military historians argue, and why they are important; A survey of who does military history, where it is taught and published, and how it is practiced; A look at where military history is headed in the future. The new edition of What is Military History? provides an up-to-date bibliography and cutting edge new case studies, including counterinsurgency, and as such continues to be ideal for classes in military history and in historiography generally, as well as for anyone interested in learning more about the dynamics of a rich and growing area of study.
Author: William Simpson,Martin Jones
View: 1148Providing a comprehensive overview of Europe from the background of the French Revolution to the origins of the First World War, this book combines accounts of the most important countries with the wider political, economic, social and cultural themes which affected Europe as a whole.
Author: Laurence Cole
Publisher: OUP Oxford
View: 7292Military Culture and Popular Patriotism in Late Imperial Austria examines the interplay between popular patriotism and military culture in late imperial Austria. Laurence Cole suggests that two main questions should be asked regarding the western half of the Habsburg Monarchy during the period from the mid-nineteenth century to the outbreak of war in 1914. Firstly, how far did imperial Austrian society experience a process of militarization comparable to that of other European countries? Secondly, how far did the military sphere foster popular patriotism in the multinational state? Various manifestations of military culture, including hero cults and, above all, military veterans associations, provide the main subject for analysis in this volume. After exploring the historical development of military culture in the Habsburg Monarchy, Cole explains how the long reign of Emperor Franz Joseph I constituted a decisive phase in the militarization of Austrian society, with the dynasty and state emphasizing the military's role as the locus of loyalty. Popular manifestations of military culture, such as the hero cult surrounding Field Marshal Radetzky and military veterans associations, complemented the official agenda in many respects. However, veterans associations in particular constituted a political mobilization of the lower middle and lower classes, who asserted their own interests and position in civil society, as is shown by case studies of regions of the Austrian state with significant Italian-speaking populations (Trentino and the Littoral). State attempts to assert greater control of veterans activities led to national and political opposition at a time when tensions over 'militarism' and foreign policy increased. Military Culture and Popular Patriotism in Late Imperial Austria thus raises the question of whether the military was really a bulwark of the multinational state or rather a polarizing force in imperial Austrian society.
Author: Larry H. Addington
Publisher: Indiana University Press
View: 6591“This important work . . . synthesizes the evolution of warfare from 1775 to the present.” —Military Review A thorough revision of a highly successful text, the second edition of this classic work provides a comprehensive picture of the evolution of modern warfare. Addington discusses developments in strategies and tactics, logistics and weaponry, and provides detailed discussions of important battles and campaigns. His book is an excellent introduction for both students and the general reader. “There is nothing else in print that tells so much so concisely about how war has been conducted since the days of General George Washington.” —Russell F. Weigley, author of The American Way of War “A superior synthesis. Well written, nicely organized, remarkably comprehensive, and laced with facts.” —Military Affairs
Author: Hew Strachan
Publisher: OUP Oxford
View: 2523The First World War, now a century ago, still shapes the world in which we live, and its legacy lives on, in poetry, in prose, in collective memory and political culture. By the time the war ended in 1918, millions lay dead. Three major empires lay shattered by defeat, those of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and the Ottomans. A fourth, Russia, was in the throes of a revolution that helped define the rest of the twentieth century. The Oxford History of the First World War brings together in one volume many of the most distinguished historians of the conflict, in an account that matches the scale of the events. From its causes to its consequences, from the Western Front to the Eastern, from the strategy of the politicians to the tactics of the generals, they chart the course of the war and assess its profound political and human consequences. Chapters on economic mobilization, the impact on women, the role of propaganda, and the rise of socialism establish the wider context of the fighting at sea and in the air, and which ranged on land from the trenches of Flanders to the mountains of the Balkans and the deserts of the Middle East. First published for the 90th anniversary of the 1918 Armistice, this highly illustrated revised edition contains significant new material to mark the 100th anniversary of the war's outbreak.
The History of the First World War
Author: David Stevenson
Publisher: Penguin UK
View: 21431914-1918, David Stevenson's history of the First World War, has been acclaimed as the definitive one-volume account of the conflict In the summer of 1914 Europe exploded into a frenzy of mass violence. The war that followed had global repercussions, destroying four empires and costing millions of lives. Even the victorious countries were scarred for a generation, and we still today remain within the conflict's shadow. In this major analysis David Stevenson re-examines the causes, course and impact of this 'war to end war', placing it in the context of its era and exposing its underlying dynamics. His book provides a wide-ranging international history, drawing on insights from the latest research. It offers compelling answers to the key questions about how this terrible struggle unfolded: questions that remain disturbingly relevant for our own time. 'It's harder to imagine a better single-volume comprehensive history of the conflict than this superb study' Ian Kershaw 'Perhaps the best comprehensive one-volume history of the war yet written' New Yorker 'David Stevenson is the real deal ... His defining characteristic is his outstanding rigour as an historian ... tremendously clever' Niall Ferguson 'This history of the 1914-1918 conflict surpasses all others. It is tough, erudite and comprehensive' Independent