The Architecture of Modern Mathematics

Essays in History and Philosophy

Author: José Ferreirós Domínguez,Jeremy Gray

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0198567936

Category: Mathematics

Page: 442

View: 5165

Aimed at both students and researchers in philosophy, mathematics and the history of science, this edited volume, authored by leading scholars, highlights foremost developments in both the philosophy and history of modern mathematics.

New Perspectives on Mathematical Practices

Essays in Philosophy and History of Mathematics

Author: Bart Van Kerkhove

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812812237

Category: Electronic books

Page: 248

View: 3530

This volume focuses on the importance of historical enquiry for the appreciation of philosophical problems concerning mathematics. It contains a well-balanced mixture of contributions by internationally established experts, such as Jeremy Gray and Jens Hoyrup; upcoming scholars, such as Erich Reck and Dirk Schlimm; and young, promising researchers at the beginning of their careers. The book is situated within a relatively new and broadly naturalistic tradition in the philosophy of mathematics. In this alternative philosophical current, which has been dramatically growing in importance in the last few decades, unlike in the traditional schools, proper attention is paid to scientific practices as informing for philosophical accounts.

Music and the Making of Modern Science

Author: Peter Pesic

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262027275

Category: Music

Page: 360

View: 5751

In the natural science of ancient Greece, music formed the meeting place between numbers and perception; for the next two millennia, Pesic tells us in Music and the Making of Modern Science, "liberal education" connected music with arithmetic, geometry, and astronomy within a fourfold study, the quadrivium. Peter Pesic argues provocatively that music has had a formative effect on the development of modern science -- that music has been not just a charming accompaniment to thought but a conceptual force in its own right. Pesic explores a series of episodes in which music influenced science, moments in which prior developments in music arguably affected subsequent aspects of natural science. He describes encounters between harmony and fifteenth-century cosmological controversies, between musical initiatives and irrational numbers, between vibrating bodies and the emergent electromagnetism. He offers lively accounts of how Newton applied the musical scale to define the colors in the spectrum; how Euler and others applied musical ideas to develop the wave theory of light; and how a harmonium prepared Max Planck to find a quantum theory that reengaged the mathematics of vibration. Taken together, these cases document the peculiar power of music -- its autonomous force as a stream of experience, capable of stimulating insights different from those mediated by the verbal and the visual. An innovative e-book edition available for iOS devices will allow sound examples to be played by a touch and shows the score in a moving line.

The Historical Turn in Analytic Philosophy

Author: E. Reck

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137304871

Category: Philosophy

Page: 372

View: 2399

During the last 25 years, a large number of publications on the history of analytic philosophy have appeared, significantly more than in the preceding period. As most of these works are by analytically trained authors, it is tempting to speak of a 'historical turn' in analytic philosophy. The present volume constitutes both a contribution to this body of work and a reflection on what is, or might be, achieved in it. The twelve new essays, by an international group of contributors, range from case studies on individual philosophers (Russell, Carnap, Quine, and Ryle) through discussions of broader themes in the history of analytic philosophy (in logic and philosophy of language, philosophy of mathematics, epistemology, philosophy of mind and psychology) to related methodological reflections (on the relationship between doing analytic philosophy and studying the history of philosophy, on various forms of philosophical history, and on their respective benefits).

Nuclear Forces

The Making of the Physicist Hans Bethe

Author: Silvan S. Schweber,S. S Schweber

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674065530

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 518

View: 5128

What drove Nobel-winning physicist Hans Bethe, head of Theoretical Physics at Los Alamos during the Manhattan Project, to later renounce the weaponry he had worked so tirelessly to create? That is one of the questions answered by Nuclear Forces, a riveting biography of Bethe’s early life and development as both a scientist and a man of principle.

Russell's Unknown Logicism

A Study in the History and Philosophy of Mathematics

Author: S. Gandon

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137024658

Category: Mathematics

Page: 263

View: 5375

In this excellent book Sebastien Gandon focuses mainly on Russell's two major texts, Principa Mathematica and Principle of Mathematics , meticulously unpicking the details of these texts and bringing a new interpretation of both the mathematical and the philosophical content. Winner of The Bertrand Russell Society Book Award 2013.

Carnap, Tarski, and Quine at Harvard

Conversations on Logic, Mathematics, and Science

Author: Greg Frost-Arnold

Publisher: Open Court

ISBN: 0812698371

Category: Philosophy

Page: 270

View: 6185

During the academic year 1940-1941, several giants of analytic philosophy congregated at Harvard: Bertrand Russell, Alfred Tarski, Rudlof Carnap, W. V. Quine, Carl Hempel, and Nelson Goodman were all in residence. This group held regular private meetings, with Carnap, Tarski, and Quine being the most frequent attendees. Carnap, Tarski, and Quine at Harvard allows the reader to act as a fly on the wall for their conversations. Carnap took detailed notes during his year at Harvard. This book includes both a German transcription of these shorthand notes and an English translation in the appendix section. Carnap’s notes cover a wide range of topics, but surprisingly, the most prominent question is: if the number of physical items in the universe is finite (or possibly finite), what form should scientific discourse, and logic and mathematics in particular, take? This question is closely connected to an abiding philosophical problem, one that is of central philosophical importance to the logical empiricists: what is the relationship between the logico-mathematical realm and the material realm studied by natural science? Carnap, Tarski, and Quine’s attempts to answer this question involve a number of issues that remain central to philosophy of logic, mathematics, and science today. This book focuses on three such issues: nominalism, the unity of science, and analyticity. In short, the book reconstructs the lines of argument represented in these Harvard discussions, discusses their historical significance (especially Quine’s break from Carnap), and relates them when possible to contemporary treatments of these issues. Nominalism. The founding document of twentieth-century Anglophone nominalism is Goodman and Quine’s 1947 “Steps Toward a Constructive Nominalism.” In it, the authors acknowledge that their project’s initial impetus was the conversations of 1940-1941 with Carnap and Tarski. Frost-Arnold's exposition focuses upon the rationales given for and against the nominalist program at its inception. Tarski and Quine’s primary motivation for nominalism is that mathematical sentences will be ‘unintelligible’ or meaningless, and thus perniciously metaphysical, if (contra nominalism) their component terms are taken to refer to abstract objects. Their solution is to re-interpret mathematical language so that its terms only refer to concrete entities—and if the number of concreta is finite, then portions of classical mathematics will be considered meaningless. Frost-Arnold then identifies and reconstructs Carnap’s two most forceful responses to Tarski and Quine’s view: (1) all of classical mathematics is meaningful, even if the number of concreta is finite, and (2) nominalist strictures lead to absurd consequences in mathematics and logic. The second is familiar from modern debates over nominalism, and its force is proportional to the strength of one’s commitment to preserving all of classical mathematics. The first, however, has no direct correlate in the modern debate, and turns upon the question of whether Carnap’s technique for partially interpreting a language can confer meaningfulness on the whole language. Finally, the author compares the arguments for and against nominalism found in the discussion notes to the leading arguments in the current nominalist debate: the indispensability argument and the argument from causal theories of reference and knowledge. Analyticity. Carnap, Tarski, and Quine’s conversations on finitism have a direct connection to the tenability of the analytic-synthetic distinction: under a finitist-nominalist regime, portions of arithmetic—a supposedly analytic enterprise—become empirical. Other portions of the 1940-41 notes address analyticity directly. Interestingly, Tarski’s criticisms are more sustained and pointed than Quine’s. For example, Tarski suggests that Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem furnishes evidence against Carnap’s conception of analyticity. After reconstructing this argument, Frost-Arnold concludes that it does not tell decisively against Carnap—provided that language is not treated fundamentally proof-theoretically. Quine’s points of disagreement with Carnap in the discussion notes are primarily denials of Carnap’s premises without argument. They do, however, allow us new and more precise characterizations of Carnap and Quine’s differences. Finally, the author forwards two historical conjectures concerning the radicalization of Quine’s critique of analyticity in the period between “Truth by Convention” and “Two Dogmas.” First, the finitist conversations could have shown Quine how the apparently analytic sentences of arithmetic could be plausibly construed as synthetic. Second, Carnap’s shift during his semantic period toward intensional analyses of linguistic concepts, including synonymy, perhaps made Quine, an avowed extensionalist, more skeptical of meaning and analyticity. Unity of Science. The unity of science movement originated in Vienna in the 1920s, and figured prominently in the transplantation of logical empiricism into North America in the 1940s. Carnap, Tarski, and Quine’s search for a total language of science that incorporates mathematical language into that of the natural and social sciences is a clear attempt to unify the language of science. But what motivates the drive for such a unified science? Frost-Arnold locates the answer in the logical empiricists’ antipathy towards speculative metaphysics, in contrast with meaningful scientific claims. I present evidence that, for logical empiricists over several decades, an apparently meaningful assertion or term is metaphysical if and only if that assertion or term cannot be incorporated into a language of unified science. Thus, constructing a single language of science that encompasses the mathematical and natural domains would ensure that mathematical entities are not on par with entelechies and Platonic Forms. The author explores various versions of this criterion for overcoming metaphysics, focusing on Carnap and Neurath. Finally, I consider an obstacle facing their strategy for overcoming metaphysics: there is no effective procedure to show that a given claim or term cannot be incorporated within a language.

The Oxford Handbook of the History of Mathematics

Author: Eleanor Robson,Jacqueline Stedall

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191607444

Category: Mathematics

Page: 926

View: 4136

This Handbook explores the history of mathematics under a series of themes which raise new questions about what mathematics has been and what it has meant to practise it. It addresses questions of who creates mathematics, who uses it, and how. A broader understanding of mathematical practitioners naturally leads to a new appreciation of what counts as a historical source. Material and oral evidence is drawn upon as well as an unusual array of textual sources. Further, the ways in which people have chosen to express themselves are as historically meaningful as the contents of the mathematics they have produced. Mathematics is not a fixed and unchanging entity. New questions, contexts, and applications all influence what counts as productive ways of thinking. Because the history of mathematics should interact constructively with other ways of studying the past, the contributors to this book come from a diverse range of intellectual backgrounds in anthropology, archaeology, art history, philosophy, and literature, as well as history of mathematics more traditionally understood. The thirty-six self-contained, multifaceted chapters, each written by a specialist, are arranged under three main headings: 'Geographies and Cultures', 'Peoples and Practices', and 'Interactions and Interpretations'. Together they deal with the mathematics of 5000 years, but without privileging the past three centuries, and an impressive range of periods and places with many points of cross-reference between chapters. The key mathematical cultures of North America, Europe, the Middle East, India, and China are all represented here as well as areas which are not often treated in mainstream history of mathematics, such as Russia, the Balkans, Vietnam, and South America. A vital reference for graduates and researchers in mathematics, historians of science, and general historians.

Mathematical Knowledge and the Interplay of Practices

Author: José Ferreirós

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400874009

Category: Science

Page: 360

View: 3043

This book presents a new approach to the epistemology of mathematics by viewing mathematics as a human activity whose knowledge is intimately linked with practice. Charting an exciting new direction in the philosophy of mathematics, José Ferreirós uses the crucial idea of a continuum to provide an account of the development of mathematical knowledge that reflects the actual experience of doing math and makes sense of the perceived objectivity of mathematical results. Describing a historically oriented, agent-based philosophy of mathematics, Ferreirós shows how the mathematical tradition evolved from Euclidean geometry to the real numbers and set-theoretic structures. He argues for the need to take into account a whole web of mathematical and other practices that are learned and linked by agents, and whose interplay acts as a constraint. Ferreirós demonstrates how advanced mathematics, far from being a priori, is based on hypotheses, in contrast to elementary math, which has strong cognitive and practical roots and therefore enjoys certainty. Offering a wealth of philosophical and historical insights, Mathematical Knowledge and the Interplay of Practices challenges us to rethink some of our most basic assumptions about mathematics, its objectivity, and its relationship to culture and science.

The Oxford Book of Children's Verse in America

Author: Donald Hall

Publisher: Oxford Books of Verse

ISBN: 0195067614

Category: Juvenile Nonfiction

Page: 319

View: 6388

A collection of American poems written for children or traditionally enjoyed by children, by such authors as Longfellow, Poe, Eugene Field, Langston Hughes, Dr. Seuss, and Jack Prelutsky.

Hermeneutic Philosophy of Science, Van Gogh’s Eyes, and God

Essays in Honor of Patrick A. Heelan, S.J.

Author: B.E. Babich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401717672

Category: Science

Page: 500

View: 8285

This richly textured book bridges analytic and hermeneutic and phenomenological philosophy of science. It features unique resources for students of the philosophy and history of quantum mechanics and the Copenhagen Interpretation, cognitive theory and the psychology of perception, the history and philosophy of art, and the pragmatic and historical relationships between religion and science.

Felix Hausdorff - Gesammelte Werke

Band IV: Analysis, Algebra und Zahlentheorie

Author: Felix Hausdorff

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540417606

Category: Mathematics

Page: 554

View: 1436

Felix Hausdorff gehört zu den herausragenden Mathematikern der ersten Hälfte des 20. Jahrhunderts. Eine Gesamtausgabe seiner Werke galt lange als Desideratum. Die auf 8 Bände veranschlagte Edition wird Hausdorffs gesamtes publiziertes Opus enthalten, ferner eine Reihe bemerkenswerter Stücke aus dem umfangreichen wissenschaftlichen Nachlaß. Alle Texte werden von Fachleuten auf den einzelnen Gebieten sorgfältig kommentiert; an dieser Arbeit sind mehr als 20 Mathematiker, Mathematikhistoriker, Astronomen, Philosophen und Literaturwissenschaftler aus vier Staaten beteiligt. Der vorliegende Band IV enthält Hausdorffs Arbeiten zur Analysis, Algebra und Zahlentheorie, darunter die klassischen auch heute noch vielzitierten Texte zu Hausdorff-Maß und Hausdorff-Dimension und zum Hausdorffschen Kugelparadoxon. Aus dem Nachlaß werden 19 Faszikel publiziert, ferner einige interessante Briefe.

Physics, Philosophy, and the Scientific Community

Essays in the Philosophy and History of the Natural Sciences and MathematicsIn Honor of Robert S. Cohen

Author: Kostas Gavroglu,J.J. Stachel,Marx W. Wartofsky

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780792329916

Category: Science

Page: 383

View: 9042

In three volumes, a distinguished group of scholars from a variety of disciplines in the natural and social sciences, the humanities and the arts contribute essays in honor of Robert S. Cohen, on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The range of the essays, as well as their originality, and their critical and historical depth, pay tribute to the extraordinary scope of Professor Cohen's intellectual interests, as a scientist-philosopher and a humanist, and also to his engagement in the world of social and political practice. The essays presented in Physics, Philosophy, and the Scientific Community (Volume I of Essays in Honor of Robert S. Cohen) focus on philosophical and historical issues in contemporary physics: on the origins and conceptual foundations of quantum mechanics, on the reception and understanding of Bohr's and Einstein's work, on the emergence of quantum electrodynamics, and on some of the sharp philosophical and scientific issues that arise in current scientific practice (e.g. in superconductivity research). In addition, several essays deal with critical issues within the philosophy of science, both historical and contemporary: e.g. with Cartesian notions of mechanism in the philosophy of biology; with the language and logic of science - e.g. with new insights concerning the issue of a `physicalistic' language in the arguments of Neurath, Carnap and Wittgenstein; with the notion of `elementary logic'; and with rational and non-rational elements in the history of science. Two original contributions to the history of mathematics and some studies in the comparative sociology of science round off this outstanding collection.

Felix Hausdorff - Gesammelte Werke Band VII

Philosophisches Werk. "Sant' Ilario. Gedanken aus der Landschaft Zarathustras" "Das Chaos in kosmischer Auslese" Essays zu Nietzsche

Author: Felix Hausdorff,Werner Stegmaier,Egbert Brieskorn

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783540208365

Category: Mathematics

Page: 920

View: 9034

Wahrend einer Konferenz zum "Jiidischen Nietzscheanismus" 1995 in Greifs­ wald hatte mich EGBERT BRIESKORN eingeladen, in der Edition der Gesam­ melten Werke FELIX HAUSDORFFS dessen philosophische Schriften mit einer Einleitung herauszugeben. FELIX HAUSDORFF hatte darin eng an NIETZSCHE angeschlossen, und er hatte in Greifswald sein erstes Ordinariat fUr Mathematik erhalten - ich sagte spontan und, wie sich bald herausstellen soUte, leichtsinnig ja. Statt nur mit einer kurzen Einleitung hatte ich es bald auch mit langwieri­ gen Erschlief&ungen des Werks und seiner Kommentierung zu tun. Doch je mehr ich mich in FELIX HAUSDORFFS Schriften einarbeitete, desto mehr notigten sie mir Respekt ab: in ihrer Klarheit, ihrer Redlichkeit, ihrer vornehmen Beschei­ denheit, ihrer gedanklichen Selbstandigkeit und vor allem in ihrer erstaunlichen Aktualitat. Vielleicht ist nach iiber hundert Jahren nun die Zeit gekommen, in der sie fiir die philosophische Orientierung so fruchtbar werden konnen, wie sie es verdienen. Bei der Kommentierung haben viele helfende Hande mitgewirkt. Mein Dank gilt zuerst den studentischen und wissenschaftlichen Hilfskraften: MIRKO GRON­ DER und KATRIN STELTER haben die Hauptarbeit in der Recherchierung der Belege iibernommen, JUDITH KARLA und TANJA SCHMIDT eine Vielzahl von Nachweisen beigesteuert, WOLFGANG SCHNEIDER und RALF WITZLER an den Vorarbeiten mitgewirkt. Doz. Dr. REINHARD PESTER (friiher Greifswald, jetzt Berlin) hat uns bei den Nachweisen zu LOTZE, Prof. Dr. MARTIN HOSE (frii­ her Greifswald, jetzt Miinchen) bei Zitaten aus der griechischen Literatur, Prof. Dr. GISELA FEBEL (friiher Stuttgart, jetzt Bremen) bei Zitaten aus der franzosischen Literatur, Prof. Dr. WALTER ERHART, Prof. Dr.

Visualization, Explanation and Reasoning Styles in Mathematics

Author: Paolo Mancosu,Klaus Frovin Jørgensen,S.A. Pedersen,Stig Andur Pedersen

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402033346

Category: Mathematics

Page: 300

View: 6416

This book contains groundbreaking contributions to the philosophical analysis of mathematical practice. Several philosophers of mathematics have recently called for an approach to philosophy of mathematics that pays more attention to mathematical practice. Questions concerning concept-formation, understanding, heuristics, changes in style of reasoning, the role of analogies and diagrams etc. have become the subject of intense interest. The historians and philosophers in this book agree that there is more to understanding mathematics than a study of its logical structure. How are mathematical objects and concepts generated? How does the process tie up with justification? What role do visual images and diagrams play in mathematical activity? What are the different epistemic virtues (explanatoriness, understanding, visualizability, etc.) which are pursued and cherished by mathematicians in their work? The reader will find here systematic philosophical analyses as well as a wealth of philosophically informed case studies ranging from Babylonian, Greek, and Chinese mathematics to nineteenth century real and complex analysis.

New Essays on Umberto Eco

Author: Peter Bondanella

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521852099

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 188

View: 3405

An introduction to Eco's contributions to a wide range of academic disciplines, as well as to his literary works.