The Archaeology of Human Bones

Author: Simon Mays

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136971777

Category: Science

Page: 432

View: 2452

The Archaeology of Human Bones provides an up to date account of the scientific analysis of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites. This completely revised edition reflects the latest developments in scientific techniques for studying human skeletons and the latest applications of those techniques in archaeology. In particular, the sections on ancient DNA and bone stable isotopes have been comprehensively updated, and two completely new chapters have been introduced, covering metric study of the postcranial skeleton and ethical dimensions of the study of human remains. The Archaeology of Human Bones introduces students to the anatomy of bones and teeth, utilising a large number of images. It analyzes the biasing effects of decay and incomplete recovery on burial data from archaeological sites, and discusses what we may learn about burial rites from human remains. Subsequent chapters focus on demographic analysis of earlier populations, normal skeletal variation, disease and injury, isotopic and DNA analysis of bone, the study of cremated bone and ethical aspects of working with ancient human remains. Current scientific methods are explained, alongside a critical discussion of their strengths and weaknesses. The ways in which scientific analyses of human skeletal remains can contribute to tackling major archaeological or historical issues is illustrated by means of examples drawn from studies from around the world. Technical jargon is kept to a minimum, and each chapter contains a summary of the main points that a student should grasp and a list of further reading targeted to enable students to follow up major issues covered in the book. Featuring case studies from around the world and with copious illustrations, The Archaeology of Human Bones continues to be a crucial work for students of archaeology.
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The Archaeology of Animal Bones

Author: Terence Patrick O'Connor,Terry O'Connor

Publisher: Texas A&M University Press

ISBN: 9781603440844

Category: Social Science

Page: 206

View: 5607

Animal ecologists can observe the present and reconstruct the last one or two centuries from historical sources, but the study of animal bones adds valuable insight into the peoples and landscapes of the past while telling much about the evolution of human-animal relationships. In this standard work, now available in paperback, O’Connor offers a detailed overview of the study of animal bones. He analyzes bone composition and structure and the archaeological evidence left by the processes of life, death, and decomposition. He goes on to look at how bone is excavated, examined, described, identified, measured, and reassembled into skeletons. The bulk of the book is devoted to the interpretation of bone fragments, which tell much about the animals themselves—their health, growth, diet, injuries, and age at death.
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Advances in Human Palaeopathology

Author: Ron Pinhasi,Simon Mays

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 047072417X

Category: Social Science

Page: 408

View: 5476

This volume presents a truly integrated methodological and biocultural approach to the expanding discipline of human palaeopathology. The book provides researchers and practitioners with a comprehensive guide to the main methods and techniques that are currently available for studying diseases and related conditions from human skeletal remains. It also describes the ways in which these methods can be applied to the reconstruction of health and disease in the past. The first part of the book deals with the survival of palaeopathological evidence and provides an up-to-date account of some of the latest techniques for studying disease in ancient remains. These include imaging techniques, such as radiography and CT scanning, and biochemical and histological analyses. Part two discusses the diagnosis and interpretation of particular classes of disease. The emphasis here is on what can be learnt by taking a biocultural or holistic approach to the study of disease frequencies at a population level. Combines theoretical, methodological and diagnostic aspects with key biocultural approaches. Includes overviews of the latest applicable techniques from molecular biology, biochemistry, histopathology and medical imaging. Written by an international team of experts. This book is an invaluable resource for biological anthropologists and archaeologists who study health and disease in past populations. It is also of interest to medical researchers dealing with epidemiological, diagnostic and pathophysiological aspects of diseases, who need a perspective upon the ways in which particular diseases affected earlier generations. Praise from the reviews: “... This book offers an impressive amount of information for both students and more advanced researchers. Its value lies in the vast expertise the contributors have to offer, with all of them being experts with long-standing careers in their respective fields, as well as the geographical distribution of examples that are given to illustrate specific diseases... outstanding and it truly is an important resource for anyone interested in palaeopathology.” PALEOPATHOLOGY NEWSLETTER “The strengths of the book are numerous, but I am especially impressed with the clarity of presentation... I strongly recommend the book, and plan on using it in my classes as assigned reading to emphasize the very complex nature of diagnosis and its essential role of providing baseline information for interpreting health profiles of ancient populations.” THE QUARTERLY REVIEW OF BIOLOGY “It may be asked if we really need yet another book on paleopathology, especially because there are many acclaimed sources available. In this case, the answer must be a resounding ‘‘Yes!’’...Visually and textually, this volume is of exceptional value for guiding future generations of paleopathologists.” AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY "Pinhasi and Mays have produced an excellent, balanced compilation that reflects what is currently happening in paleopathology research and that nicely addresses paleopathology as both discipline and tool, highlighting technical advanced and schooling us on how disease manifests in the human skeleton. This is valuable resource that students and professionals interested in human paloepathology should consider adding to their libraries." AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HUMAN BIOLOGY
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New Directions in the Skeletal Biology of Greece

Author: Lynne Alison Schepartz,Sherry C. Fox,Chryssi Bourbou

Publisher: ASCSA

ISBN: 0876615434

Category: Nature

Page: 284

View: 5357

Physical anthropology, the study of human skeletal remains, has assumed an increasingly important role in the archaeology of Greece over the past 30 years, both in the field and in interpretive research. In addition to including stimulating case studies, ranging in date from the Palaeolithic to modern periods, the 17 chapters in this book provide an overview of bioarchaeological research across Greece and Cyprus. The volume is the first in a series of monographs from the Wiener Laboratory at the ASCSA that demonstrates the impact of archaeological science on Mediterranean archaeology.
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The Archaeology of Cremation

Burned Human Remains in Funerary Studies

Author: Tim Thompson

Publisher: Oxbow Books

ISBN: 1782978496

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 9278

Human societies have disposed of their dead in a variety of ways. However, while considerable attention has been paid to bodies that were buried, comparatively little work has been devoted to understanding the nature of cremated remains, despite their visibility through time. It has been argued that this is the result of decades of misunderstanding regarding the potential information that this material holds, combined with properties that make burned bone inherently difficult to analyse. As such, there is a considerable body of knowledge on the concepts and practices of inhumation yet our understanding of cremation ritual and practice is by comparison, woefully inadequate. This timely volume therefore draws together the inventive methodology that has been developed for this material and combines it with a fuller interpretation of the archaeological funerary context. It demonstrates how an innovative methodology, when applied to a challenging material, can produce new and exciting interpretations of archaeological sites and funerary contexts. The reader is introduced to the nature of burned human remains and the destructive effect that fire can have on the body. Subsequent chapters describe important cremation practices and sites from around the world and from the Neolithic period to the modern day. By emphasising the need for a robust methodology combined with a nuanced interpretation, it is possible to begin to appreciate the significance and wide-spread adoption of this practice of dealing with the dead.
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The Archaeology of Animals

Author: Simon J. M. Davis

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135106592

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 9028

Ever since the discovery of fossil remains of extinct animals associated with flint implements, bones and other animal remains have been providing invaluable information to the archaeologist. In the last 20 years many archaeologists and zoologists have taken to studying such "archaeofaunal" remains, and the science of "zoo-archaeology" has come into being. What was the nature of the environment in which our ancestors lived? In which season were sites occupied? When did our earliest ancestors start to hunt big game, and how efficient were they as hunters? Were early humans responsible for the extinction of so many species of large mammals 10-20,000 years ago? When, where and why were certain animals first domesticated? When did milking and horse-riding begin? Did the Romans influence our eating habits? What were sanitary conditions like in medieval England? And could the terrible pestilence which afflicted the English in the seventh century AD have been plague? These are some of the questions dealt with in this book. The book also describes the nature and development of bones and teeth, and some of the methods used in zoo-archaeology.
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Stone Tools and Fossil Bones

Debates in the Archaeology of Human Origins

Author: Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107022924

Category: History

Page: 362

View: 2375

International archaeologists examine early Stone Age tools and bones to present the most holistic view to date of the archaeology of human origins.
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The Bioarchaeology of Metabolic Bone Disease

Author: Megan Brickley,Rachel Ives

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080557915

Category: Social Science

Page: 350

View: 5609

The Bioarchaeology of Metabolic Bone Disease provides a comprehensive and invaluable source of information on this important group of diseases. It is an essential guide for those engaged in either basic recording or in-depth research on human remains from archaeological sites. The range of potential tools for investigating metabolic diseases of bone are far greater than for many other conditions, and building on clinical investigations, this book will consider gross, surface features visible using microscopic examination, histological and radiological features of bone, that can be used to help investigate metabolic bone diseases. Clear photographs and line drawings illustrate gross, histological and radiological features associated with each of the conditions Covers a range of issues pertinent to the study of metabolic bone disease in archaeological skeletal material, including the problems that frequent co-existence of these conditions in individuals living in the past raises, the preservation of human bone and the impact this has on the ability to suggest a diagnosis of a condition Includes a range of conditions that can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis, including previous investigations of these conditions in archaeological bone
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Human bones and archeology

Author: Douglas H. Ubelaker,United States. Interagency Archeological Services Division

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Medical

Page: 30

View: 1778

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Aller Heiligen Fluch

Author: Elly Griffiths

Publisher: Rowohlt Verlag GmbH

ISBN: 3644216614

Category: Fiction

Page: 352

View: 5076

Ruth Galloway, forensische Archäologin und alleinerziehende Mutter, will nur bei der feierlichen Öffnung des Sarges des legendären Bischofs Augustin im Museum von King’s Lynn dabei sein. Doch als sie ein wenig vor der Zeit den Ausstellungsraum betritt, findet sie neben dem Sarg eine Leiche: den Museumskurator. Wurde er ermordet? Schon steckt Ruth, die eigentlich die Geburtstagsparty für ihre kleine Tochter organisieren muss, mitten in den Ermittlungen. Da ist es wirklich keine Hilfe, dass auch ihre große Liebe DCI Harry Nelson auf den Fall angesetzt ist, den sie nach dem Willen seiner Frau eigentlich gar nicht mehr treffen darf. Bald verstricken sich die beiden in einem undurchdringlichen Geflecht aus Intrigen, Seilschaften und Legenden. Und Ruth muss sich einmal mehr für oder gegen Harry entscheiden – nur dass diesmal ihr Überleben davon abhängt ...
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Human Osteology

Author: Timothy D. White,Pieter A. Folkens

Publisher: Gulf Professional Publishing

ISBN: 9780127466125

Category: Medical

Page: 563

View: 1822

Human Osteology, Second Edition is designed for students and professionals who wish to advance their osteological skills in terms of accurately identifying human skeletal remains, however isolated and fragmentary. These remains can then be used to deduce information about the original lives of the deceased individuals. This book will continue to be an essential text for courses on the human skeleton, as well as a basic reference and field manual for professional osteologists and anatomists, forensic scientists, paleontologists, and archaeologists. Human Osteology, Second Edition includes nearly a decade of advances in osteological research since the first edition. Each chapter has been strengthened and updated, including a new chapter on molecular osteology and four new case studies drawn from more recent research. This edition also includes a valuable guide to electronic resources in osteology. Key Features * Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of exceptional photographs and drawings specifically designed to show a maximum amount of anatomical information * Based on nearly 25 years of teaching human osteology * Skeletal parts shown life-size for ease of study and use * Four new case studies emphasize the correct and positive identification of human bones and teeth, which is fundamental in paleontology, archaeology, and forensic science
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The Archaeology of Human Origins

Papers by Glynn Isaac

Author: Glynn Isaac,Barbara Isaac

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521365734

Category: Social Science

Page: 447

View: 2209

A collection of the most influential papers of the late Glynn Isaac.
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Shadows in the Soil

Human Bones and Archaeology

Author: Tony Waldron

Publisher: Tempus Pub Limited

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 158

View: 3894

In explaining just what the archaeologist can reliably deduce about past societies from the study of bones and other human remains, Dr Waldron carefully avoids over-technical jargon. At the same time, however he does not over-simplify: he points out that too many previous studies have been based on insufficiently rigorous clinical and epidemiological methods.
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The Archaeology of Early China

From Prehistory to the Han Dynasty

Author: Gideon Shelach-Lavi

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316194019

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 7087

This volume aims to satisfy a pressing need for an updated account of Chinese archaeology. It covers an extended time period from the earliest peopling of China to the unification of the Chinese Empire some two thousand years ago. The geographical coverage includes the traditional focus on the Yellow River basin but also covers China's many other regions. Among the topics covered are the emergence of agricultural communities; the establishment of a sedentary way of life; the development of sociopolitical complexity; advances in lithic technology, ceramics, and metallurgy; and the appearance of writing, large-scale public works, cities, and states. Particular emphasis is placed on the great cultural variations that existed among the different regions and the development of interregional contacts among those societies.
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The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial

Author: Sarah Tarlow,Liv Nilsson Stutz

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191650390

Category: Social Science

Page: 872

View: 4403

The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of Death and Burial reviews the current state of mortuary archaeology and its practice, highlighting its often contentious place in the modern socio-politics of archaeology. It contains forty-four chapters which focus on the history of the discipline and its current scientific techniques and methods. Written by leading, international scholars in the field, it derives its examples and case studies from a wide range of time periods, such as the middle palaeolithic to the twentieth century, and geographical areas which include Europe, North and South America, Africa, and Asia. Combining up-to-date knowledge of relevant archaeological research with critical assessments of the theme and an evaluation of future research trajectories, it draws attention to the social, symbolic, and theoretical aspects of interpreting mortuary archaeology. The volume is well-illustrated with maps, plans, photographs, and illustrations and is ideally suited for students and researchers.
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Human Osteology

In Archaeology and Forensic Science

Author: Margaret Cox,Simon Mays

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521691468

Category: Medical

Page: 548

View: 6563

This advanced textbook provides the reader with an up-to-date account of recent developments and future potential in the study of human skeletons from both an archaeological and forensic context. It is well-illustrated, comprehensive in its coverage and is divided into six sections for ease of reference, encompassing such areas as palaeodemography, juvenile health and growth, disease and trauma, normal skeletal variation, biochemical and microscopic analyses and facial reconstruction. Each chapter is written by a recognised specialist in the field, and includes in-depth discussion of the reliability of methods, with appropriate references, and current and future research directions. It is essential reading for all students undertaking osteology as part of their studies and will also prove a valuable reference for forensic scientists, both in the field and the laboratory.
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The Routledge Handbook of Archaeological Human Remains and Legislation

An International Guide to Laws and Practice in the Excavation and Treatment of Archaeological Human Remains

Author: Nicholas Marquez-Grant,Linda Fibiger

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1136879560

Category: Social Science

Page: 800

View: 4970

Methodologies and legislative frameworks regarding the archaeological excavation, retrieval, analysis, curation and potential reburial of human skeletal remains differ throughout the world. As work forces have become increasingly mobile and international research collaborations are steadily increasing, the need for a more comprehensive understanding of different national research traditions, methodologies and legislative structures within the academic and commercial sector of physical anthropology has arisen. The Routledge Handbook of Archaeological Human Remains and Legislation provides comprehensive information on the excavation of archaeological human remains and the law through 62 individual country contributions from Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America and Australasia. More specifically, the volume discusses the following: What is the current situation (including a brief history) of physical anthropology in the country? What happens on discovering human remains (who is notified, etc.)? What is the current legislation regarding the excavation of archaeological human skeletal remains? Is a license needed to excavate human remains? Is there any specific legislation regarding excavation in churchyards? Any specific legislation regarding war graves? Are physical anthropologists involved in the excavation process? Where is the cut-off point between forensic and archaeological human remains (e.g. 100 years, 50 years, 25 years...)? Can human remains be transported abroad for research purposes? What methods of anthropological analysis are mostly used in the country? Are there any methods created in that country which are population-specific? Are there particular ethical issues that need to be considered when excavating human remains, such as religious groups or tribal groups? In addition, an overview of landmark anthropological studies and important collections are provided where appropriate. The entries are contained by an introductory chapter by the editors which establish the objectives and structure of the book, setting it within a wider archaeological framework, and a conclusion which explores the current European and world-wide trends and perspectives in the study of archaeological human remains. The Routledge Handbook of Archaeological Human Remains and Legislation makes a timely, much-needed contribution to the field of physical anthropology and is unique as it combines information on the excavation of human remains and the legislation that guides it, alongside information on the current state of physical anthropology across several continents. It is an indispensible tool for archaeologists involved in the excavation of human remains around the world.
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The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Contemporary World

Author: Paul Graves-Brown,Rodney Harrison,Angela Piccini

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191663956

Category: Social Science

Page: 864

View: 8896

It has been clear for many years that the ways in which archaeology is practised have been a direct product of a particular set of social, cultural, and historical circumstances - archaeology is always carried out in the present. More recently, however, many have begun to consider how archaeological techniques might be used to reflect more directly on the contemporary world itself: how we might undertake archaeologies of, as well as in the present. This Handbook is the first comprehensive survey of an exciting and rapidly expanding sub-field and provides an authoritative overview of the newly emerging focus on the archaeology of the present and recent past. In addition to detailed archaeological case studies, it includes essays by scholars working on the relationships of different disciplines to the archaeology of the contemporary world, including anthropology, psychology, philosophy, historical geography, science and technology studies, communications and media, ethnoarchaeology, forensic archaeology, sociology, film, performance, and contemporary art. This volume seeks to explore the boundaries of an emerging sub-discipline, to develop a tool-kit of concepts and methods which are applicable to this new field, and to suggest important future trajectories for research. It makes a significant intervention by drawing together scholars working on a broad range of themes, approaches, methods, and case studies from diverse contexts in different parts of the world, which have not previously been considered collectively.
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