The Archaeology of Animals

Author: Simon J. M. Davis

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135106592

Category: Science

Page: 228

View: 7630

Ever since the discovery of fossil remains of extinct animals associated with flint implements, bones and other animal remains have been providing invaluable information to the archaeologist. In the last 20 years many archaeologists and zoologists have taken to studying such "archaeofaunal" remains, and the science of "zoo-archaeology" has come into being. What was the nature of the environment in which our ancestors lived? In which season were sites occupied? When did our earliest ancestors start to hunt big game, and how efficient were they as hunters? Were early humans responsible for the extinction of so many species of large mammals 10-20,000 years ago? When, where and why were certain animals first domesticated? When did milking and horse-riding begin? Did the Romans influence our eating habits? What were sanitary conditions like in medieval England? And could the terrible pestilence which afflicted the English in the seventh century AD have been plague? These are some of the questions dealt with in this book. The book also describes the nature and development of bones and teeth, and some of the methods used in zoo-archaeology.
Release

The Archaeology of Animal Bones

Author: Terence Patrick O'Connor,Terry O'Connor

Publisher: Texas A&M University Press

ISBN: 9781603440844

Category: Social Science

Page: 206

View: 2272

Animal ecologists can observe the present and reconstruct the last one or two centuries from historical sources, but the study of animal bones adds valuable insight into the peoples and landscapes of the past while telling much about the evolution of human-animal relationships. In this standard work, now available in paperback, O’Connor offers a detailed overview of the study of animal bones. He analyzes bone composition and structure and the archaeological evidence left by the processes of life, death, and decomposition. He goes on to look at how bone is excavated, examined, described, identified, measured, and reassembled into skeletons. The bulk of the book is devoted to the interpretation of bone fragments, which tell much about the animals themselves—their health, growth, diet, injuries, and age at death.
Release

The Archaeology of Mesoamerican Animals

Author: Kitty F. Emery,Christopher M. Gotz

Publisher: ISD LLC

ISBN: 1937040151

Category: Science

Page: 780

View: 4584

Recognition of the role of animals in ancient diet, economy, politics, and ritual is vital to understanding ancient cultures fully, while following the clues available from animal remains in reconstructing environments is vital to understanding the ancient relationship between humans and the world around them. In response to the growing interest in the field of zooarchaeology, this volume presents current research from across the many cultures and regions of Mesoamerica, dealing specifically with the most current issues in zooarchaeological literature. Geographically, the essays collected here index the different aspects of animal use by the indigenous populations of the entire area between the northern borders of Mexico and the southern borders of lower Central America. This includes such diverse cultures as the north Mexican hunter-gatherers, the Olmec, Maya, Mixtec, Zapotec, and Central American Indians. The time frame of the volume extends from the earliest human occupation, the Preclassic, Classic, Postclassic, and Colonial manifestations, to recent times. The book's chapters, written by experts in the field of Mesoamerican zooarchaeology, provide important general background on the domestic and ritual use of animals in early and classic Mesoamerica and Central America, but deal also with special aspects of human-animal relationships such as early domestication and symbolism of animals, and important yet otherwise poorly represented aspects of taphonomy and zooarchaeological methodology. Spanish-language version also available (ISBN 978-1-937040-12-3).
Release

Shuffling Nags, Lame Ducks

The Archaeology of Animal Disease

Author: László Bartosiewicz,Erika Gal

Publisher: Oxbow Books

ISBN: 1782971947

Category: Social Science

Page: 264

View: 694

The analysis of animal bone assemblages from archaeological sites provides much valuable data concerning economic and husbandry practices in the past, as well as insights into cultural and symbolic or ritual activity. Animal palaeopathology can identify diseases in archaeozoological assemblages but little interest has been expressed in investigating and understanding the cultural aspects of the diseases identified. Such assemblages represent the cumulative effects of human attitudes, decisions and influences regarding the keeping, care, treatment, neglect and exploitation of animals which result in a range of conditions, non-infectious diseases and injuries that can be recognised on ancient skeletal material. Additionally, ever since the domestication of a handful of animal species around 10,000 years ago, close physical proximity has been a mutual source of infectious disease and traumatic injury for humans and animals alike. Shuffling Nags, Lame Ducks provides an invaluable guide to the investigation of trauma and disease in archaeozoological assemblages. It provides a clear methodological approach, and describes and explains the wide range of traumatic lesions, infections, diseases, inherited disorders and other pathological changes and anomalies that can be identified. In so doing, it explores the impact that “man-made” decisions have had on animals, including special aspects of culture that may be reflected in the treatment of diseased or injured animals often incorporating powerful symbolic or religious roles, and seeks to enhance our understanding of the relationship between man and beast in the past. Chapters include: · History of studying pathological animal remains · Differences between human and animal palaeopathology · Methodology · Growth, development and ageing · Traumatic lesions · Inflammatory diseases and bone · Pathological lesions in working animals · Diseases connected to the environment
Release

Animals and Humans

Recurrent Symbiosis in Archaeology and Old Norse Religion

Author: Kristina Jennbert

Publisher: Nordic Academic Press

ISBN: 918550937X

Category: Religion

Page: 272

View: 2315

Animals have always been an important part of the human life-world, and they stand out as significant forces in the Old Norse mythology -- here they became imaginary creatures with strong characters. In Animals and Humans archaeologist Kristina Jennbert explores the relationship between animals and humans in Scandinavia from the Roman Iron Age to the Viking Period. Real animals and fantastical creatures in Midgard became mouthpieces for human characteristics and reflections of peoples social position. Animals were of great importance in everyday life and in rituals, and as metaphors in social identity and power relations. In the course of time, however, the human view has changed, and nature has increasingly been subjected to humans. Through her detailed analysis, Jennbert raises questions about the boundary between human and animal, as well as about our ethical and moral precedence.
Release

Voyages of Discovery

The Archaeology of Islands

Author: Scott M. Fitzpatrick

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 9780275979478

Category: History

Page: 309

View: 8490

Synthesizes the major issues in island archaeological research including human impacts on island ecosystems, island colonization, exchange systems, and theoretical and methodological concerns.
Release

The Archaeology of Africa

Food, Metals and Towns

Author: Bassey Andah,Alex Okpoko,Thurstan Shaw,Paul Sinclair

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134679424

Category: Social Science

Page: 896

View: 1141

Africa has a vibrant past. It emerges from this book as the proud possessor of a vast and highly complicated interweaving of peoples and cultures, practising an enormous diversity of economic and social strategies in an 2xtraordinary range of environmental situations. At long last the archaeology of Africa has revealed enough of Africa's unwritten past to confound preconceptions about this continent and to upset the picture inferred from historic written records. Without an understanding of its past complexities, it is impossible to grasp Africa's present, let alone its future.
Release

Insect Media

An Archaeology of Animals and Technology

Author: Jussi Parikka

Publisher: U of Minnesota Press

ISBN: 9780816667390

Category: Science

Page: 281

View: 3745

Since the early nineteenth century, when entomologists first popularized the unique biological and behavioral characteristics of insects, technological innovators and theorists have proposed insects as templates for a wide range of technologies. In Insect Media, Jussi Parikka analyzes how insect forms of social organization-swarms, hives, webs, and distributed intelligence-have been used to structure modern media technologies and the network society, providing a radical new perspective on the interconnection of biology and technology. Through close engagement with the pioneering work of insect ethologists, including Jakob von Uexküll and Karl von Frisch, posthumanist philosophers, media theorists, and contemporary filmmakers and artists, Parikka develops an insect theory of media, one that conceptualizes modern media as more than the products of individual human actors, social interests, or technological determinants. They are, rather, profoundly nonhuman phenomena that both draw on and mimic the alien lifeworlds of insects. Deftly moving from the life sciences to digital technology, from popular culture to avant-garde art and architecture, and from philosophy to cybernetics and game theory, Parikka provides innovative conceptual tools for exploring the phenomena of network society and culture. Challenging anthropocentric approaches to contemporary science and culture, Insect Media reveals the possibilities that insects and other nonhuman animals offer for rethinking media, the conflation of biology and technology, and our understanding of, and interaction with, contemporary digital culture.
Release

The Archaeology of People

Dimensions of Neolithic Life

Author: Alisdair Whittle

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134409826

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 7891

Alasdair Whittle's new work argues powerfully for the complexity and fluidity of life in the Neolithic, through a combination of archaeological and anthropological case studies and current theoretical debate. The book ranges from the sixth to the fourth millennium BC, and from the Great Hungarian Plain, central and western Europe and the Alpine foreland to parts of southern Britain. Familiar terms such as individuals, agency, identity and structure are dealt with, but Professor Whittle emphasises that they are too abstract to be truly useful. Instead, he highlights the multiple dimensions which constituted Neolithic existence: the web of daily routines, group and individual identities, relations with animals, and active but varied attitudes to the past. The result is a vivid, original and perceptive understanding of the early Neolithic which will offer insights to readers at every level.
Release

The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Contemporary World

Author: Paul Graves-Brown,Rodney Harrison,Angela Piccini

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191663956

Category: Social Science

Page: 864

View: 6596

It has been clear for many years that the ways in which archaeology is practised have been a direct product of a particular set of social, cultural, and historical circumstances - archaeology is always carried out in the present. More recently, however, many have begun to consider how archaeological techniques might be used to reflect more directly on the contemporary world itself: how we might undertake archaeologies of, as well as in the present. This Handbook is the first comprehensive survey of an exciting and rapidly expanding sub-field and provides an authoritative overview of the newly emerging focus on the archaeology of the present and recent past. In addition to detailed archaeological case studies, it includes essays by scholars working on the relationships of different disciplines to the archaeology of the contemporary world, including anthropology, psychology, philosophy, historical geography, science and technology studies, communications and media, ethnoarchaeology, forensic archaeology, sociology, film, performance, and contemporary art. This volume seeks to explore the boundaries of an emerging sub-discipline, to develop a tool-kit of concepts and methods which are applicable to this new field, and to suggest important future trajectories for research. It makes a significant intervention by drawing together scholars working on a broad range of themes, approaches, methods, and case studies from diverse contexts in different parts of the world, which have not previously been considered collectively.
Release

The Archaeology of Personhood

An Anthropological Approach

Author: Chris Fowler

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415317221

Category: Social Science

Page: 184

View: 9903

Bringing together a wealth of research in social and cultural anthropology, philosophy and related fields, this is the first book to address the contribution that an understanding of personhood can make to our interpretations of the past Applying an anthropological approach to detailed case studies from European prehistoric archaeology, the book explores the connection between people, animals, objects, their societies and environments and investigates the relationship that jointly produces bodies, persons, communities and artefacts. The Archaeology of Personhood examines the characteristics that define a person as a category of being, highlights how definitions of personhood are culturally variable and explores how that variation is connected to human uses of material culture.
Release

Beastly Questions

Animal Answers to Archaeological Issues

Author: Naomi Sykes

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1472514947

Category: Social Science

Page: 208

View: 1070

Zooarchaeology, or the study of ancient animals, is a frequently side-lined subject in archaeology. This is bizarre given that the archaeological record is composed largely of debris from human?animal relationships (be they in the form of animal bones, individual artifacts or entire landscapes) and that many disciplines, including anthropology, sociology, and geography, recognise human?animal interactions as a key source of information for understanding cultural ideology. By integrating knowledge from archaeological remains with evidence from texts, iconography, social anthropology and cultural geography, Beastly Questions: Animal Answers to Archaeological Issues seeks to encourage archaeological students, researchers and those working in the commercial sector to offer more engaging interpretations of the evidence at their disposal. Going beyond the simple confines of 'what people ate', this accessible but in-depth study covers a variety of high-profile topics in European archaeology and provides novel interpretations of mainstream archaeological questions. This includes cultural responses to wild animals, the domestication of animals and its implications on human daily practice, experience and ideology, the transportation of species and the value of incorporating animals into landscape research, the importance of the study of foodways for understanding past societies and how animal studies can help us to comprehend issues of human identity and ideology: past, present and future.
Release

The Archaeology of Shamanism

Author: Neil Price

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134527705

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 8967

In this timely collection, Neil Price provides a general introduction to the archaeology of shamanism by bringing together recent archaeological thought on the subject. Blending theoretical discussion with detailed case studies, the issues addressed include shamanic material culture, responses to dying and the dead, shamanic soundscapes, the use of ritual architecture and shamanism in the context of other belief systems such as totemism. Following an intial orientation reviewing shamanism as an anthropological construct, the volume focuses on the Northern hemisphere with case studies from Greenland to Nepal, Siberia to Kazakhstan. The papers span a chronological range from Upper Palaeolithic to the present and explore such cross-cutting themes as gender and the body, identity, landscape, architecture, as well as shamanic interpretations of rock art and shamanism in the heritage and cultural identity of indigenous peoples. The volume also addresses the interpretation of shamanic beliefs in terms of cognitive neuroscience and the modern public perception of prehistoric shamanism.
Release

A Guide to the Measurement of Animal Bones from Archaeological Sites

As Developed by the Institut Für Palaeoanatomie, Domestikationsforschung und Geschichte Der Tiermedizin of the University of Munich

Author: Angela von den Driesch

Publisher: Peabody Museum Press

ISBN: 0873659503

Category: Social Science

Page: 149

View: 6446

Von den Driesch's handbook is the standard tool used by faunal analysts working on animal and bird assemblages from around the world. Developed for the instruction of students working on osteoarchaeological theses at the University of Munich, the guide has standardized how animal bones recovered from prehistoric and early historic sites are measured.
Release

Visions from the Past

The Archaeology of Australian Aboriginal Art

Author: M. J. Morwood

Publisher: Allen & Unwin

ISBN: 9781741150049

Category: History

Page: 347

View: 6015

Visions from the Past is a clear and comprehensive examination of Aboriginal rock art. It also provides a practical overview of precisely how and why archaeologist study prehistoric art.
Release

A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East

Author: D. T. Potts

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405189886

Category: History

Page: 1500

View: 3330

A comprehensive and authoritative overview of ancient material culture from the late Pleistocene to Late Antiquity Features up–to–date surveys and the latest information from major new excavations such as Qatna (Syria), Göbekli Tepe (Turkey) Includes a diverse range of perspectives by senior, mid–career and junior scholars in Europe, USA, Britain, Australia, and the Middle East for a truly international group Includes major reviews of the origins of agriculture, animal domestication, and archaeological landscapes Includes chapters dealing with periods after the coming of Alexander the Great, including studies of the Seleucid, Arsacid, Sasanian, Roman and Byzantine empires in the Near East, as well as early Christianity in both the Levant and Mesopotamia Fills a gap in literature of the Ancient Near East, dealing with topics often overlooked, including ethical and legal issues in antiquities markets and international scholarship
Release

A Companion to the Archaeology of the Roman Republic

Author: Jane DeRose Evans

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118557166

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 752

View: 7940

A Companion to the Archaeology of the Roman Republic offers a diversity of perspectives to explore how differing approaches and methodologies can contribute to a greater understanding of the formation of the Roman Republic. Brings together the experiences and ideas of archaeologists from around the world, with multiple backgrounds and areas of interest Offers a vibrant exploration of the ways in which archaeological methods can be used to explore different elements of the Roman Republican period Demonstrates that the Republic was not formed in a vacuum, but was influenced by non-Latin-speaking cultures from throughout the Mediterranean region Enables archaeological thinking in this area to be made accessible both to a more general audience and as a valuable addition to existing discourse Investigates the archaeology of the Roman Republican period with reference to material culture, landscape, technology, identity and empire
Release

Giant Sloths and Sabertooth Cats

Extinct Mammals and the Archaeology of the Ice Age Great Basin

Author: Donald K. Grayson

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781607814696

Category: Nature

Page: 320

View: 4849

Release

The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals

Author: G. W. Dimbleby

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351483420

Category: Social Science

Page: 607

View: 527

The domestication of plants and animals was one of the greatest steps forward taken by mankind. Although it was first achieved long ago, we still need to know what led to it and how, and even when, it took place. Only when we have this understanding will we be able to appreciate fully the important social and economic consequences of this step. Even more important, an understanding of this achievement is basic to any insight into modern man's relationship to his habitat. In the last decade or two a change in methods of investigating these events has taken place, due to the mutual realization by archaeologists and natural scientists that each held part of the key and neither alone had the whole. Inevitably, perhaps, the floodgate that was opened has resulted in a spate of new knowledge, which is scattered in the form of specialist reports in diverse journals. This volume results from presentations at the Institute of Archaeology, London University, discussing the domestication and exploitation of plants and animals. Workers in the archaeological, anthropological, and biological fields attempted to bridge the gap between their respective disciplines through personal contact and discussion. Modern techniques and the result of their application to the classical problems of domestication, selection, and spread of cereals and of cattle were discussed, but so were comparable problems in plants and animals not previously considered in this context. Although there were differing opinions on taxonomic classification, the editors have standardized and simplified the usage throughout this book. In particular, they have omitted references to authorities and adopted the binomial classification for both botanical and zoological names. They followed this procedure in all cases except where sub-specific differences are discussed and also standardized orthography of sites.
Release