Targeted Sanctions

The Impacts and Effectiveness of United Nations Action

Author: Thomas J. Biersteker,Sue E. Eckert,Marcos Tourinho

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316531376

Category: Political Science

Page: 405

View: 8571

International sanctions have become the instrument of choice for policymakers dealing with a variety of different challenges to international peace and security. This is the first comprehensive and systematic analysis of all the targeted sanctions regimes imposed by the United Nations since the end of the Cold War. Drawing on the collaboration of more than fifty scholars and policy practitioners from across the globe (the Targeted Sanctions Consortium), the book analyzes two new databases, one qualitative and one quantitative, to assess the different purposes of UN targeted sanctions, the Security Council dynamics behind their design, the relationship of sanctions with other policy instruments, implementation challenges, diverse impacts, unintended consequences, policy effectiveness, and institutional learning within the UN. The book is organized around comparisons across cases, rather than country case studies, and introduces two analytical innovations: case episodes within country sanctions regimes and systematic differentiation among different purposes of sanctions.
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Targeted Sanctions

Author: Thomas J. Biersteker,Sue E. Eckert,Marcos Tourinho

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107134218

Category: Political Science

Page: 368

View: 3895

Systematically analyzes the impacts and the effectiveness of UN targeted sanctions over the past quarter century.
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Targeted Sanctions

The Impacts and Effectiveness of United Nations Action

Author: Thomas J. Biersteker,Sue E. Eckert,Marcos Tourinho

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781107593091

Category: Political Science

Page: 421

View: 2156

International sanctions have become the instrument of choice for policymakers dealing with a variety of different challenges to international peace and security. This is the first comprehensive and systematic analysis of all the targeted sanctions regimes imposed by the United Nations since the end of the Cold War. Drawing on the collaboration of more than fifty scholars and policy practitioners from across the globe (the Targeted Sanctions Consortium), the book analyzes two new databases, one qualitative and one quantitative, to assess the different purposes of UN targeted sanctions, the Security Council dynamics behind their design, the relationship of sanctions with other policy instruments, implementation challenges, diverse impacts, unintended consequences, policy effectiveness, and institutional learning within the UN. The book is organized around comparisons across cases, rather than country case studies, and introduces two analytical innovations: case episodes within country sanctions regimes and systematic differentiation among different purposes of sanctions.
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The Politics of Expertise in International Organizations

How International Bureaucracies Produce and Mobilize Knowledge

Author: Annabelle Littoz-Monnet

Publisher: Taylor & Francis

ISBN: 1134879717

Category: Political Science

Page: 228

View: 2891

This edited volume advances existing research on the production and use of expert knowledge by international bureaucracies. Given the complexity, technicality and apparent apolitical character of the issues dealt with in global governance arenas, ‘evidence-based’ policy-making has imposed itself as the best way to evaluate the risks and consequences of political action in global arenas. In the absence of alternative, democratic modes of legitimation, international organizations have adopted this approach to policy-making. By treating international bureaucracies as strategic actors, this volume address novel questions: why and how do international bureaucrats deploy knowledge in policy-making? Where does the knowledge they use come from, and how can we retrace pathways between the origins of certain ideas and their adoption by international administrations? What kind of evidence do international bureaucrats resort to, and with what implications? Which types of knowledge are seen as authoritative, and why? This volume makes a crucial contribution to our understanding of the way global policy agendas are shaped and propagated. It will be of great interest to scholars, policy-makers and practitioners in the fields of public policy, international relations, global governance and international organizations.
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Sanctions and the Search for Security

Challenges to UN Action

Author: David Cortright,George A. Lopez,Linda Gerber,International Peace Academy

Publisher: Lynne Rienner Publishers

ISBN: 9781588260789

Category: Political Science

Page: 249

View: 2317

Following on the publication of The Sanctions Decade - lauded as the definitive history and accounting of United Nations sanctions in the 1990s - David Cortright and George Lopez continue their collaboration to examine the changing context and meaning of sanctions and the security dilemmas that the Security Council now faces. Cortright and Lopez note that, despite widespread disagreement about the effectiveness of UN sanctions and the need for reform, the Security Council continues to impose sanctions, and it maintains ongoing measures in eight countries. Exploring the dynamics of recent developments, the authors assess a range of new multilateral approaches to sanctions and economic statecraft, review the heated debate over the humanitarian impact of sanctions, and consider the increasingly important role of NGOs in UN policymaking. They conclude with a framework for future policy, as well as specific recommendations for enhancing the viability of smart sanctions strategies.
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UN Sanctions and Conflict

Responding to Peace and Security Threats

Author: Andrea Charron

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136662960

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 5101

This book examines the application of the UN Security Council's mandatory sanctions since 1946, and, in particular, the regimes adopted for specific types of conflict. Beginning in the Cold War period with South Africa and Southern Rhodesia and continuing today, following the post-9/11 experience with Al Qaeda and the Taliban, sanctions are a key tool in the UN's efforts to deal with conflict. This book argues that the type of threat greatly influences the types of sanctions measures applied by the Security Council, who is targeted, as well as the objectives tied to the sanctions. The question of sanctions application is approached by classifying all 29 mandatory Security Council sanctions regimes into four conflict types: interstate; intrastate; international norm-breaking states; and support to terrorism. All of the sanctions regimes within each conflict type are analysed for: the objectives sought by the Council through the application of sanctions measures the targets chosen what measures are applied and in what sequence compared to other Security Council tools (such as peacekeeping missions or peace negotiations). The book sheds new light on how the Security Council approaches international peace and security beyond the application of force. Offering an excellent summary of the ins-and-outs of UN sanctions, and useful summary tables of UN sanctions regimes by conflict type, this book will be of great interest to students of international organisations, peace and conflict studies, conflict resolution, security studies and international relations or politics in general.
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The Sanctions Decade

Assessing UN Strategies in the 1990s

Author: David Cortright,George A. Lopez

Publisher: Lynne Rienner Pub

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 274

View: 9566

Since the end of the Cold War, economic sanctions have been a frequent instrument of UN authority. Based on more than 200 interviews with officials from both sides, this book aims to provide a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of UN sanctions in the 1990s.
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Combating Criminalized Power Structures

A Toolkit

Author: Michael Dziedzic

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 144226635X

Category: Political Science

Page: 190

View: 2691

Criminalized power structures (CPS) are illicit networks that profit from transactions in black markets and from criminalized state institutions while perpetuating a culture of impunity. These criminalized power structures are the predominant spoilers of peace settlements and stability operations. This volume focuses on the means available to practitioners to cope with the challenges posed by CPS along with recommendations for improving their efficacy and an enumeration of the conditions essential for their success. The means range from economic sanctions and border controls to the use of social media and criminal intelligence-led operations. Each step of this toolkit is detailed, explaining what each tool is, how it can be used, which type of CPS it is best suited to address, and what is necessary to ensure success of the peace operations. The effectiveness of the tool is also assessed and its use is illustrated through real life situations, such as international supply chain controls to prevent the looting of natural resources in Western Africa or the intervention of international judges and prosecutors in Kosovo. A companion volume, Criminalized Power Structures: The Overlooked Enemies of Peace, articulates a typology for assessing the threats of CPS illustrated by many case studies.
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Research Handbook on UN Sanctions and International Law

Author: Larissa van den Herik

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1784713031

Category:

Page: 544

View: 3712

The 1990s have been labeled the ‘Sanctions Decade’, since they witnessed an unprecedented intensification of the use of collective non-military enforcement measures, and in particular sanctions, by the post-Cold War reactivated Security Council. This Research Handbook studies the current practice of UN sanctions in international law, their interrelationship with other regimes and substantive areas of law, as well as issues arising from their implementation and application at the domestic level.
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Economic Sanctions Reconsidered

Author: Gary Clyde Hufbauer,Jeffrey J Schott,Kimberly Ann Elliott,Barbara Oegg

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0881324825

Category: Political Science

Page: 248

View: 7258

Economic sanctions continue to play an important role in the response to terrorism, nuclear proliferation, military conflicts, and other foreign policy crises. But poor design and implementation of sanctions policies often mean that they fall short of their desired effects. This landmark study, first published in 1985, delves into the rich experience of sanctions in the 20th century to harvest lessons on how to use sanctions more effectively. This volume is the updated third edition of this widely cited study. It chronicles and examines 170 cases of economic sanctions imposed since World War I. Fifty of these cases were launched in the 1990s and are new to this edition. Special attention is paid to new developments arising from the end of the Cold War and increasing globalization of the world economy. Analyzing a range of economic and political factors that can influence the success of a sanctions episode, the authors distill a set of commandments to guide policymakers in the effective use of sanctions.
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Smart Sanctions

Targeting Economic Statecraft

Author: David Cortright,George A. Lopez

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9780742501430

Category: Political Science

Page: 259

View: 4397

Smart Sanctions explores the emerging concept of targeted sanctions and provides a comprehensive framework for new sanctions strategies for the 21st century. It includes essays by experts and analysts from the United Nations community, the European Union, the United States Government, and the academic community. Visit our website for sample chapters!
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Invisible War

The United States and the Iraq Sanctions

Author: Joy Gordon

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674035713

Category: History

Page: 359

View: 9182

The economic sanctions imposed on Iraq from 1990 to 2003 were the most comprehensive and devastating of any established in the name of international governance. In a sharp indictment of U.S. policy, Joy Gordon examines the key role the nation played in shaping the sanctions, whose harsh strictures resulted in part from U.S. definitions of dual use and weapons of mass destruction, and claims that everything from water pipes to child vaccines could produce weapons. Provocative and sure to stir debate, this book lays bare the damage that can be done by unchecked power in our institutions of international governance."
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The Parliament of Man

Author: Paul Kennedy

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 9780307387608

Category: Political Science

Page: 384

View: 9103

The Parliament of Man is the first definitive history of the United Nations, from one of America's greatest living historians.Distinguished scholar Paul Kennedy, author of the bestselling The Rise and Fall of Great Powers, gives us a thorough and timely account that explains the UN's roots and functions while also casting an objective eye on its effectiveness and its prospects for success in meeting the challenges that lie ahead. Kennedy shows the UN for what it is: fallible, human-based, often dependent on the whims of powerful national governments or the foibles of individual administrators—yet also utterly indispensable. With his insightful grasp of six decades of global history, Kennedy convincingly argues that "it is difficult to imagine how much more riven and ruinous our world of six billion people would be if there had been no UN." From the Trade Paperback edition.
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United Nations Sanctions and the Rule of Law

Author: Jeremy Matam Farrall

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139468510

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 6837

The United Nations Security Council has increasingly resorted to sanctions as part of its efforts to prevent and resolve conflict. In this 2007 book, Farrall traces the evolution of the Security Council's sanctions powers and charts the contours of the UN sanctions system. He also evaluates the extent to which the Security Council's increasing commitment to strengthening the rule of law extends to its sanctions practice. The book identifies shortcomings in respect of key rule of law principles and advances pragmatic policy-reform proposals designed to ensure that UN sanctions promote, strengthen and reinforce the rule of law. In its appendices United Nations Sanctions and the Rule of Law contains summaries of all 25 UN sanctions regimes established to date by the Security Council. It forms an invaluable source of reference for diplomats, policymakers, scholars and advocates.
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Sanctions, Accountability and Governance in a Globalised World

Author: Jeremy Farrall,Kim Rubenstein

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139481827

Category: Law

Page: N.A

View: 8576

This book is the first in a series examining how public law and international law intersect in five thematic areas of global significance: sanctions, global health, environment, movement of people and security. Until recently, international and public law have mainly overlapped in discussions on how international law is implemented domestically. This series explores the complex interactions that occur when legal regimes intersect, merge or collide. Sanctions, Accountability and Governance in a Globalised World discusses legal principles which cross the international law/domestic public law divide. What tensions emerge from efforts to apply and enforce law across diverse jurisdictions? Can we ultimately only fill in or fall between the cracks or is there some greater potential for law in the engagement? This book provides insights into international, constitutional and administrative law, indicating the way these intersect, creating a valuable resource for students, academics and practitioners in the field.
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Economic Sanctions and American Diplomacy

Author: Council on Foreign Relations

Publisher: Council on Foreign Relations

ISBN: 9780876092125

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 222

View: 668

Draws on eight country studies to present lessons to be learned from the American use of economic sanctions in the post-Cold War era, and provides guidelines designed to shape future decisions by Congress and the executive branch. Each chapter analyzes the voice of domestic constituencies in shaping
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The Art of Sanctions

A View from the Field

Author: Richard Nephew

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231542550

Category: Political Science

Page: 233

View: 4392

Nations and international organizations are increasingly using sanctions as a means to achieve their foreign policy aims. However, sanctions are ineffective if they are executed without a clear strategy responsive to the nature and changing behavior of the target. In The Art of Sanctions, Richard Nephew offers a much-needed practical framework for planning and applying sanctions that focuses not just on the initial sanctions strategy but also, crucially, on how to calibrate along the way and how to decide when sanctions have achieved maximum effectiveness. Nephew—a leader in the design and implementation of sanctions on Iran—develops guidelines for interpreting targets’ responses to sanctions based on two critical factors: pain and resolve. The efficacy of sanctions lies in the application of pain against a target, but targets may have significant resolve to resist, tolerate, or overcome this pain. Understanding the interplay of pain and resolve is central to using sanctions both successfully and humanely. With attention to these two key variables, and to how they change over the course of a sanctions regime, policy makers can pinpoint when diplomatic intervention is likely to succeed or when escalation is necessary. Focusing on lessons learned from sanctions on both Iran and Iraq, Nephew provides policymakers with practical guidance on how to measure and respond to pain and resolve in the service of strong and successful sanctions regimes.
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North Korea and Nuclear Weapons

Entering the New Era of Deterrence

Author: Sung Chull Kim,Michael D. Cohen

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1626164541

Category: Political Science

Page: 240

View: 7835

North Korea is perilously close to developing strategic nuclear weapons capable of hitting the United States and its East Asian allies. Since their first nuclear test in 2006, North Korea has struggled to perfect the required delivery systems. Kim Jong-un’s regime now appears to be close, however. Sung Chull Kim, Michael D. Cohen, and the volume contributors contend that the time to prevent North Korea from achieving this capability is virtually over; scholars and policymakers must turn their attention to how to deter a nuclear North Korea. The United States, South Korea, and Japan must also come to terms with the fact that North Korea will be able to deter them with its nuclear arsenal. How will the erratic Kim Jong-un behave when North Korea develops the capability to hit medium- and long-range targets with nuclear weapons? How will and should the United States, South Korea, Japan, and China respond, and what will this mean for regional stability in the short term and long term? The international group of authors in this volume address these questions and offer a timely analysis of the consequences of an operational North Korean nuclear capability for international security.
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