Syndromes of Corruption

Wealth, Power, and Democracy

Author: Michael Johnston

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139448451

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 7056

Corruption is a threat to democracy and economic development in many societies. It arises in the ways people pursue, use and exchange wealth and power, and in the strength or weakness of the state, political and social institutions that sustain and restrain those processes. Differences in these factors, Michael Johnston argues, give rise to four major syndromes of corruption: Influence Markets, Elite Cartels, Oligarchs and Clans, and Official Moguls. In this 2005 book, Johnston uses statistical measures to identify societies in each group, and case studies to show that the expected syndromes do arise. Countries studied include the United States, Japan and Germany (Influence Markets); Italy, Korea and Botswana (Elite Cartels); Russia, the Philippines and Mexico (Oligarchs and Clans); and China, Kenya, and Indonesia (Offical Moguls). A concluding chapter explores reform, emphasising the ways familiar measures should be applied - or withheld, lest they do harm - with an emphasis upon the value of 'deep democratisation'.

Corruption, Contention and Reform

The Power of Deep Democratization

Author: Michael Johnston

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107034744

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 314

View: 7607

Explores four types of corruption and the implications for reform, emphasizing practical ways to check abuses of wealth and power.

Preventing Corruption in Asia

Institutional Design and Policy Capacity

Author: Ting Gong,Stephen K. Ma

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134014104

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 6524

Despite intensified governmental and public efforts at corruption control in recent years, official transgression continues to surface in various ways of abusing the unique power and trust that a government holds. Preventing Corruption in Asia addresses a number of crucial questions: -What institutional arrangements are necessary to ensure a clean and honest government? - What self-regulatory capabilities must government institutions develop in order to maintain integrity? -How should a sense of ethical responsibility be instilled in the civil services? -Do special anti-corruption agencies help keep government clean? -How will a regulatory framework of official conduct work properly? -How useful are anti-corruption campaigns in containing corruption? Focusing on a number of carefully selected countries in the Asia and Pacific region, the book sets as its focal point the choice of institutional design in preventing corruption, rather than treating corruption as a practical or technical problem to be corrected by strong political will and good anti-corruption policy measures. While focusing on institutional designs and policy choices, the book also examines other aspects of clean government such as the social environment, legal and regulatory framework, role of the public, and the impact of culture.

The Political Economy of Corruption

Author: Arvind K. Jain

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134566344

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 240

View: 2233

'Grand' corruption, generally used to define corruption amongst the top political elite, has drawn increasing attention from academics and policy makers during recent years. Our understanding of the causes and mechanisms of this type of corruption, however, falls short of its importance and consequences. This volume provides theoretical analysis of economic and political conditions that allow 'grand' corruption to survive as well as case studies and empirical analysis that supports the theoretical models used.

Corrupt Histories

Author: Emmanuel Kreike,William C. Jordan

Publisher: University Rochester Press

ISBN: 9781580461733

Category: History

Page: 482

View: 9517

An examination of the meaning and effects of corruption in 18th to 20th Century history.

Corruption as a Last Resort

Adapting to the Market in Central Asia

Author: Kelly M. McMann

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801454905

Category: Political Science

Page: 232

View: 3730

Why do ordinary people engage in corruption? Kelly M. McMann contends that bureaucrats, poverty, and culture do not force individuals in Central Asia to pay bribes, use connections, or sell political support. Rather, corruption is a last resort when relatives, groups in society, the market, and formal government programs cannot provide essential goods and services. Using evidence from her long-term research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, McMann shows that Islamic institutions, secular charities, entrepreneurs, and banks cannot provide the jobs and credit people need. This drives individuals to illicitly seek employment and loans from government officials. A leading cause of this resource scarcity is market reform, as demonstrated by McMann's analysis of these countries as well as of Uzbekistan and global data. Market reform without supporting institutions, such as credit registries and antimonopoly measures, limits the resources available from the market and societal groups. McMann finds that in these circumstances only those individuals who have affluent relatives have an alternative to corruption.By focusing on ordinary people, McMann offers a new understanding of corruption. Previously, our knowledge was largely restricted to government officials’ role in illicit exchanges. From her novel approach comes a useful policy insight: supplying ordinary people with alternatives to corruption is a fundamental and important anticorruption strategy.

Corruption and American Politics

Author: Michael A. Genovese,Victoria A. Farrar-Myers

Publisher: Cambria Press

ISBN: 1621969525

Category: Political Science

Page: 389

View: 1965

From the days of Athenian democracy to the back rooms of Chicago politics today, corruption has plagued all political systems for all time. It is ubiquitous, vexing, and at times, threatens the very fabric of society. No culture, no system of government, no code of ethics has been able to eliminate political corruption. While the United States generally ranks comparatively low in measures of political corruption (Transparency International rates the U.S. as the 18th "least" corrupt nation in the world, with Denmark at number one, New Zealand, second, and Sweden third, the U.K. 16, France 23, Spain 28, Israel 33, South Korea 40, Italy 55, Cuba 65, with Somalia last at 180), yet it too continues to confront the sting of political corruption. For something to count as political corruption in the United States, it must have a public impact, be a part of some violation of public trust. As such, another useful distinction can be drawn between individual corruption and systemic corruption. The former is individual wrongdoing. An officeholder on the take, a legislator who sells his vote, would be examples of "bad apples." Systemic corruption encompasses a broader sphere. Instead of bad apples, here you have a "bad system." The undermining of democratic legitimacy or equality might be considered examples of systemic corruption, as might campaign financing practices. Such corruption runs deeper than mere individual transgression. Corruption is embedded into the day-to-day operation of the system. In focusing on the individual, we often overlook the systemic. It is easier, and in the short run, more gratifying to catch, punish, and condemn an individual like Governor Blagojevich. Yet what of the systemic forces that led the governor to behave in such a manner? Is there undue systemic pressure to accumulate money, so much so that the system pushes politicians "over the edge"? A politician need not "sell" offices to enter into a Faustian bargain. It may be perfectly legal to collect campaign contributions, yet it may also have a corrosive or corrupting effect on the integrity of the democratic process. With so many issues of corruption swirling around in the current American political climate, it is timely that there is new scholarship that casts much-needed light on these systemic forces. The brilliant discussions by a stellar list of distinguished scholars, led by Michael A. Genovese and Victoria A. Farrar-Meyers, in the insightful edited volume, Corruption and American Politics, delivers the best and most up-to-date thinking by some of the finest political minds in the nation. This will be an essential resource for all collections in political science and American studies.

Politische Korruption

Author: ZENS,Jens Borchert,Sigrid Leitner,Klaus Stolz

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3322995739

Category: Social Science

Page: 252

View: 9284

Das "Jahrbuch für Europa- und Nordamerika-Studien" 1999 behandelt das Thema "Politische Korruption" in seiner ganzen Breite - unter Einschluß institutionalisierter und legaler Phänomene wie Klientelismus und Patronage. Es umfaßt historische und aktuelle Beiträge, politikwissenschaftliche ebenso wie soziologische, ökonomische oder geschichtswissenschaftliche. Neben zwei Review-Artikeln, welche den aktuellen Stand der Forschung wiedergeben, enthält der Band unter anderem Beiträge zum Zusammenhang von Korruption, Wirtschaftswachstum und politischem Wettbewerb, zu möglichen Ursachen von Korruption in klientelistischen gesellschaftlichen Strukturen, zu den Maßstäben, mit und an denen sich Korruption und politisches Fehlverhalten messen lassen, sowie zum unterschiedlichen Umgang mit dem Phänomen in verschiedenen Ländern.

متلازمات الفساد: الثروة، والسلطة، والديمقراطية

Syndromes of Corruption: Wealth, Power, and Democracy

Author: Michael Johnston

Publisher: العبيكان للنشر

ISBN: 9960543900

Category: Political Science

Page: 420

View: 9023

يشكل الفساد تهديداً للديمقراطية والتنمية الاقتصادية في العديد من المجتمعات. وهو ينشأ من الطرق التي يسعى من خلالها الناس إلى الحصول على الثروة والسلطة والطرق التي يستعملونهما بها، ومن قوة أو ضعف الدولة والمؤسسات السياسية والاجتماعية التي تعزز هذه العمليات أو تقيّدها. ويجادل مايكل جونستون بأن الاختلافات في هذه العوامل تؤدي إلى ظهور أربعة متلازمات للفساد: أسواق النفوذ، ومنظمات النخبة، وحكم العائلات، والمسؤولون الحكوميون. ويستعمل جونستون الإجراءات الإحصائية لتحديد المجتمعات التي تنتمي إلى كل فئة، كما يستعمل حالات درسية؛ ليظهر أن المتلازمات المتوقعة تظهر دائماً. وتتضمن البلدان موضع الدراسة كلاً من الولايات المتحدة، واليابان، وألمانيا (أسواق النفوذ)؛ وإيطاليا، وكوريا، وبوتسوانا (منظمات النخبة)؛ وروسيا والفلبين، والمكسيك (العائلات)، والصين، وكينيا، وأندونيسيا (المسؤولون الحكوميون). ثم يستكشف الفصل الختامي الإصلاح، مؤكداً على كيفية تطبيق الإجراءات المألوفة ـــ أو الإحجام عن تطبيقها؛ خشية أن تحدث ضرراً ـــ مع التأكيد على قيمة «التحولات الديمقراطية العميقة». «يشكّل كتاب مايكل جونستون إسهاماً مهماً في دراسات الفساد. إنه يَعِد بدفع عملية البحث والتفكير الجارية حالياً إلى أبعد من التركيز على النماذج الاقتصادية للفساد وإفساح المجال للنظر بجدية أكبر للوقائع السياسية. إن الحالات التي يستعملها جونستون لتوضيح تصنيفه الرباعي حالات حية ومثيرة للاهتمام وتتناول جوهر الأوضاع في كل بلد. ويقدم الوزن التراكمي لهذه الحالات خلفية مقنعة لأجندة الإصلاح الحكيمة والاستفزازية التي يطرحها». سوزان روز ـــ أكرمان كلية الحقوق في جامعة ييل العبيكان للنشر

The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology

Author: Edwin Amenta,Kate Nash,Alan Scott

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444355074

Category: Social Science

Page: 576

View: 7958

The Wiley-Blackwell Companion to Political Sociology is a complete reference guide, reflecting the scope and quality of the discipline, and highlighting emerging topics in the field. Global in focus, offering up-to-date topics from an interdisciplinary, international set of scholars addressing key issues concerning globalization, social movements, and citizenship The majority of chapters are new, including those on environmental politics, international terrorism, security, corruption, and human rights Revises and updates all previously published chapters to include new themes and topics in political sociology Provides an overview of scholarship in the field, with chapters working independently and collectively to examine the full range of contributions to political sociology Offers a challenging yet accessible and complete reference guide for students and scholars

Soul, Self, and Society

The New Morality and the Modern State

Author: Edward L. Rubin

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199348677

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 5814

Political and social commentators regularly bemoan the decline of morality in the modern world. They claim that the norms and values that held society together in the past are rapidly eroding, to be replaced by permissiveness and empty hedonism. But as Edward Rubin demonstrates in this powerful account of moral transformations, these prophets of doom are missing the point. Morality is not diminishing; instead, a new morality, centered on an ethos of human self-fulfillment, is arising to replace the old one. As Rubin explains, changes in morality have gone hand in hand with changes in the prevailing mode of governance throughout the course of Western history. During the Early Middle Ages, a moral system based on honor gradually developed. In a dangerous world where state power was declining, people relied on bonds of personal loyalty that were secured by generosity to their followers and violence against their enemies. That moral order, exemplified in the early feudal system and in sagas like The Song of Roland, The Song of the Cid, and the Arthurian legends has faded, but its remnants exist today in criminal organizations like the Mafia and in the rap music of the urban ghettos. When state power began to revive in the High Middle Ages through the efforts of the European monarchies, and Christianity became more institutionally effective and more spiritually intense, a new morality emerged. Described by Rubin as the morality of higher purposes, it demanded that people devote their personal efforts to achieving salvation and their social efforts to serving the emerging nation-states. It insisted on social hierarchy, confined women to subordinate roles, restricted sex to procreation, centered child-rearing on moral inculcation, and countenanced slavery and the marriage of pre-teenage girls to older men. Our modern era, which began in the late 18th century, has seen the gradual erosion of this morality of higher purposes and the rise of a new morality of self-fulfillment, one that encourages individuals to pursue the most meaningful and rewarding life-path. Far from being permissive or a moral abdication, it demands that people respect each other's choices, that sex be mutually enjoyable, that public positions be allocated according to merit, and that society provide all its members with their minimum needs so that they have the opportunity to fulfill themselves. Where people once served the state, the state now functions to serve the people. The clash between this ascending morality and the declining morality of higher purposes is the primary driver of contemporary political and cultural conflict. A sweeping, big-idea book in the vein of Francis Fukuyama's The End of History, Charles Taylor's The Secular Age, and Richard Sennett's The Fall of Public Man, Edward Rubin's new volume promises to reshape our understanding of morality, its relationship to government, and its role in shaping the emerging world of High Modernity.

Govern Like Us

U.S. Expectations of Poor Countries

Author: M. A. Thomas

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231539118

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 3971

In the poorest countries, such as Afghanistan, Haiti, and Mali, the United States has struggled to work with governments whose corruption and lack of capacity are increasingly seen to be the cause of instability and poverty. The development and security communities call for "good governance" to improve the rule of law, democratic accountability, and the delivery of public goods and services. The United States and other rich liberal democracies insist that this is the only legitimate model of governance. Yet poor governments cannot afford to govern according to these ideals and instead are compelled to rely more heavily on older, cheaper strategies of holding power, such as patronage and repression. The unwillingness to admit that poor governments do and must govern differently has cost the United States and others inestimable blood and coin. Informed by years of fieldwork and drawing on practitioner work and academic scholarship in politics, economics, law, and history, this book explains the origins of poor governments in the formation of the modern state system and describes the way they govern. It argues that, surprisingly, the effort to stigmatize and criminalize the governance of the poor is both fruitless and destabilizing. The United States must pursue a more effective foreign policy to engage poor governments and acknowledge how they govern.

Egypt after Mubarak

Liberalism, Islam, and Democracy in the Arab World

Author: Bruce K. Rutherford

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400846145

Category: Political Science

Page: 344

View: 3057

Which way will Egypt go now that Husni Mubarak's authoritarian regime has been swept from power? Will it become an Islamic theocracy similar to Iran? Will it embrace Western-style liberalism and democracy? Egypt after Mubarak reveals that Egypt's secularists and Islamists may yet navigate a middle path that results in a uniquely Islamic form of liberalism and, perhaps, democracy. Bruce Rutherford draws on in-depth interviews with Egyptian judges, lawyers, Islamic activists, politicians, and businesspeople. He utilizes major court rulings, political documents of the Muslim Brotherhood, and the writings of Egypt's leading contemporary Islamic thinkers. Rutherford demonstrates that, in post-Mubarak Egypt, progress toward liberalism and democracy is likely to be slow. Essential reading on a subject of global importance, this edition includes a new introduction by Rutherford that takes stock of the Arab Spring and the Muslim Brotherhood's victories in the 2011-2012 elections.

Public Sector Corruption

Author: Michael Johnston

Publisher: SAGE Publications Limited

ISBN: 9781849206044

Category: Political Science

Page: 1632

View: 3438

Corruption always grabs the headlines and the processes of political contention that created the modern state have done much to shape our notions of corruption and good government; yet very old ideas show surprising vitality as we examine the ways citizens understand and react to corruption issues. Corruption issues appeared as a major international policy concern around 1990, after a generation during which they received relatively little emphasis, and since that time the research literature has had unprecedented growth in quantity and quality. This major reference collection collates the best of the research for scholars, policymakers, students, reformers, journalists, and interested citizens, showing us where we have been and where we need to go as the work continues. Further, the collection develops a much-needed comprehensive record of what we have learned from political scientists, economists, and historical and cultural analysts; while all borrow selectively and creatively from each other, they are still engaged in largely separate conversations. Finally, this collection focuses on the whole issue of reform. The past generation's research has both led to new ideas about how to attack corruption, measure its seriousness, and assess the effects of corruption control efforts. The collection is a particularly important toolkit to bring the best of our knowledge to bear upon efforts at control-in effect, to integrate theory and practice-for as in many other policy areas it is entirely possible to do the wrong things for the right reasons.

Dimensionen politischer Korruption

Beiträge zum Stand der internationalen Forschung

Author: Ulrich Alemann

Publisher: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften

ISBN: 9783531141411

Category: Political Science

Page: 502

View: 9490

Politische Korruption gehörte lange Zeit nicht zum Selbstverständnis der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Mittlerweile ist aber auch hierzulande Korruption zu einem ernstzunehmenden Problem geworden. In diesem Sonderheft der PVS wird das Phänomen umfassend und systematisch behandelt. Dabei wird auch der internationale Vergleich berücksichtigt.

Corruption, Capitalism and Democracy

Author: J. L. S. Girling,John Girling

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415152068

Category: Political Science

Page: 181

View: 5120

Corruption arises from the collusion of economic and political elites, a practice that has developed in order to overcome the contradiction of two important processes of our time: capitalism and democracy. In this new study of the phenomenon, the author shows how corruption is the practice of collusion taken to excess; 'the unacceptable face of capitalism'. Corruption, by 'going too far', exposes what is normally hidden from view; the collusive system of elites furthering the expansion of capitalist practice and market practice at the expense of democratic practice and public values.

Adolf Hitler

Die Jahre des Aufstiegs 1889 - 1939 Biographie

Author: Volker Ullrich

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104028125

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 1088

View: 9583

Die neue große Hitler-Biographie für unsere Zeit Wer war Hitler wirklich? Eindrucksvoll zeichnet der Historiker und Publizist Volker Ullrich ein neues, überraschendes Porträt des Menschen hinter der öffentlichen Figur des »Führers«. Sichtbar werden dabei alle Facetten Hitlers: seine gewinnenden und ab-stoßenden Züge, seine Freundschaften und seine Beziehungen zu Frauen, seine Bega-bungen und Talente, seine Komplexe und seine mörderischen Antriebskräfte. Der erste Band schildert den Weg des Diktators von seinen frühen Jahren in Wien und München bis zum scheinbaren Höhepunkt seiner Macht im Frühjahr 1939. Eine glän-zend erzählte Biographie, die Hitler nicht als Monster zeigt, sondern als Meister der Verführung und Verstellung - und gerade dadurch nicht nur die Abgründe seiner Persönlichkeit, sondern auch das Geheimnis seines Aufstiegs greifbar macht.

Crony Capitalism

Corruption and Development in South Korea and the Philippines

Author: David C. Kang

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521004084

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 203

View: 4473

Even in Korea, corruption was far greater than the conventional wisdom allows - so rampant was corruption that we cannot dismiss it; rather, we need to explain it."--BOOK JACKET.

Corrupt Cities

A Practical Guide to Cure and Prevention

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821346006

Category: Political Science

Page: 162

View: 7415

Much of the devastation caused by the recent earthquake in Turkey was the result of widespread corruption between the construction industry and government officials. Corruption is part of everyday public life and we tend to take it for granted. However, preventing corruption helps to raise city revenues, improve service delivery, stimulate public confidence and participation, and win elections. This book is designed to help citizens and public officials diagnose, investigate and prevent various kinds of corrupt and illicit behaviour. It focuses on systematic corruption rather than the free-lance activity of a few law-breakers, and emphasises practical preventive measures rather than purely punitive or moralistic campaigns.