Syndromes of Corruption

Wealth, Power, and Democracy

Author: Michael Johnston

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139448451

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 3497

Corruption is a threat to democracy and economic development in many societies. It arises in the ways people pursue, use and exchange wealth and power, and in the strength or weakness of the state, political and social institutions that sustain and restrain those processes. Differences in these factors, Michael Johnston argues, give rise to four major syndromes of corruption: Influence Markets, Elite Cartels, Oligarchs and Clans, and Official Moguls. In this 2005 book, Johnston uses statistical measures to identify societies in each group, and case studies to show that the expected syndromes do arise. Countries studied include the United States, Japan and Germany (Influence Markets); Italy, Korea and Botswana (Elite Cartels); Russia, the Philippines and Mexico (Oligarchs and Clans); and China, Kenya, and Indonesia (Offical Moguls). A concluding chapter explores reform, emphasising the ways familiar measures should be applied - or withheld, lest they do harm - with an emphasis upon the value of 'deep democratisation'.
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Corruption, Contention and Reform

The Power of Deep Democratization

Author: Michael Johnston

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107034744

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 314

View: 4532

Explores four types of corruption and the implications for reform, emphasizing practical ways to check abuses of wealth and power.
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Double Paradox

Rapid Growth and Rising Corruption in China

Author: Andrew Wedeman

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801464749

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 7869

According to conventional wisdom, rising corruption reduces economic growth. And yet, between 1978 and 2010, even as officials were looting state coffers, extorting bribes, raking in kickbacks, and scraping off rents at unprecedented rates, the Chinese economy grew at an average annual rate of 9 percent. In Double Paradox, Andrew Wedeman seeks to explain why the Chinese economy performed so well despite widespread corruption at almost kleptocratic levels. Wedeman finds that the Chinese economy was able to survive predatory corruption because corruption did not explode until after economic reforms had unleashed dynamic growth. To a considerable extent corruption was also a by-product of the transfer of undervalued assets from the state to the emerging private and corporate sectors and a scramble to capture the windfall profits created by their transfer. Perhaps most critically, an anticorruption campaign, however flawed, has proved sufficient to prevent corruption from spiraling out of control. Drawing on more than three decades of data from China-as well as examples of the interplay between corruption and growth in South Korea, Taiwan, Equatorial Guinea, and other nations in Africa and the Caribbean-Wedeman cautions that rapid growth requires not only ongoing and improved anticorruption efforts but also consolidated and strengthened property rights.
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Systems of Survival

A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics

Author: Jane Jacobs

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 0525432884

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 7131

With intelligence and clarity of observation, the author of The Death and Life of Great American Cities addresses the moral values that underpin working life. In Systems of Survival, Jane Jacobs identifies two distinct moral syndromes—one governing commerce, the other, politics—and explores what happens when these two syndromes collide. She looks at business fraud and criminal enterprise, government’s overextended subsidies to agriculture, and transit police who abuse the system the are supposed to enforce, and asks us to consider instances in which snobbery is a virtue and industry a vice. In this work of profound insight and elegance, Jacobs gives us a new way of seeing all our public transactions and encourages us towards the best use of our natural inclinations.
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Making Sense of Corruption

Author: Bo Rothstein,Aiysha Varraich

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107163706

Category: Political Science

Page: 190

View: 4174

Corruption is a serious threat to prosperity, democracy and human well-being, with mounting empirical evidence highlighting its detrimental effects on society. Yet defining this threat has resulted in profound disagreement, producing a multidimensional concept. Tackling this important and provocative topic, the authors provide an accessible and systematic analysis of how our understanding of corruption has evolved. They identify gaps in the research and make connections between related concepts such as clientelism, patronage, patrimonialism, particularism and state capture. A fundamental issue discussed is how the opposite of corruption should be defined. By arguing for the possibility of a universal understanding of corruption, and specifically what corruption is not, an innovative solution to this problem is presented. This book provides an accessible overview of corruption, allowing scholars and students alike to see the far reaching place it has within academic research.
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Corrupt Cities

A Practical Guide to Cure and Prevention

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 9780821346006

Category: Political Science

Page: 162

View: 673

Much of the devastation caused by the recent earthquake in Turkey was the result of widespread corruption between the construction industry and government officials. Corruption is part of everyday public life and we tend to take it for granted. However, preventing corruption helps to raise city revenues, improve service delivery, stimulate public confidence and participation, and win elections. This book is designed to help citizens and public officials diagnose, investigate and prevent various kinds of corrupt and illicit behaviour. It focuses on systematic corruption rather than the free-lance activity of a few law-breakers, and emphasises practical preventive measures rather than purely punitive or moralistic campaigns.
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Preventing Corruption in Asia

Institutional Design and Policy Capacity

Author: Ting Gong,Stephen K. Ma

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134014104

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 4422

Despite intensified governmental and public efforts at corruption control in recent years, official transgression continues to surface in various ways of abusing the unique power and trust that a government holds. Preventing Corruption in Asia addresses a number of crucial questions: -What institutional arrangements are necessary to ensure a clean and honest government? - What self-regulatory capabilities must government institutions develop in order to maintain integrity? -How should a sense of ethical responsibility be instilled in the civil services? -Do special anti-corruption agencies help keep government clean? -How will a regulatory framework of official conduct work properly? -How useful are anti-corruption campaigns in containing corruption? Focusing on a number of carefully selected countries in the Asia and Pacific region, the book sets as its focal point the choice of institutional design in preventing corruption, rather than treating corruption as a practical or technical problem to be corrected by strong political will and good anti-corruption policy measures. While focusing on institutional designs and policy choices, the book also examines other aspects of clean government such as the social environment, legal and regulatory framework, role of the public, and the impact of culture.
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Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Compliance Guidebook

Protecting Your Organization from Bribery and Corruption

Author: Martin T. Biegelman,Daniel R. Biegelman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470527935

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 384

View: 7234

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act Compliance Guidebook shows readers how the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) has grown to critical importance to any U.S. company that does business in a global environment, as well as foreign companies that supply or have agency agreements with U.S. companies. It provides an overview of the business risks and guidance on spotting potential red flags regarding FCPA violation. Business professionals are provided with practical guidance on managing FCPA requirements as part of an overall compliance program.
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The Corruption Cure

How Citizens and Leaders Can Combat Graft

Author: Robert I. Rotberg

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400884993

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 9390

Why leadership is key to ending political and corporate corruption globally Corruption corrodes all facets of the world's political and corporate life, yet until now there was no one book that explained how best to battle it. The Corruption Cure provides many of the required solutions and ranges widely across continents and diverse cultures—putting some thirty-five countries under an anticorruption microscope—to show exactly how to beat back the forces of sleaze and graft. Robert Rotberg defines corruption theoretically and practically in its many forms, describes the available legal remedies, and examines how we know and measure corruption's presence. He looks at successful and unsuccessful attempts to employ anticorruption investigative commissions to combat political theft and venal behavior. He explores how the globe's least corrupt nations reached that exceptional goal. Another chapter discusses the role of civil society in limiting corruption. Expressed political will through determined leadership is a key factor in winning all of these battles. Rotberg analyzes the best-performing noncorrupt states to show how consummate leadership made a telling difference. He demonstrates precisely how determined leaders changed their wildly corrupt countries into paragons of virtue, and how leadership is making a significant difference in stimulating political anticorruption movements in places like India, Croatia, Honduras, and Lebanon. Rotberg looks at corporate corruption and how it can be checked, and also offers an innovative fourteen-step plan for nations that are ready to end corruption. Curing rampant corruption globally requires strengthened political leadership and the willingness to remake national political cultures. Tougher laws and better prosecutions are not enough. This book enables us to rethink the problem completely—and solve it once and for all.
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Dirty Entanglements

Corruption, Crime, and Terrorism

Author: Louise I. Shelley

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107015642

Category: Law

Page: 386

View: 9076

Using lively case studies, this book analyzes the transformation of crime and terrorism and the business logic of terrorism.
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Fixing Fragile States

A New Paradigm for Development

Author: Seth D. Kaplan

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 9780275998288

Category: Political Science

Page: 215

View: 1703

Offers analysis into political, economic and business mistakes and solutions within fragile states. This title argues that to avoid revisiting the carnage and catastrophes seen in places like Iraq, Bosnia, and the Congo, the West needs to rethink its ideas on fragile states and start helping their peoples build governments that fit the landscape
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The Historical Roots of Corruption

Mass Education, Economic Inequality, and State Capacity

Author: Eric M. Uslaner

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1108416489

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 5471

This book argues that corruption levels today depend largely upon the level of education in a country over a century ago.
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The Good Cause

Theoretical Perspectives on Corruption

Author: Gjalt Graaf,Patrick Maravic,Pieter Wagenaar

Publisher: Verlag Barbara Budrich

ISBN: 3866496028

Category: Political Science

Page: 204

View: 4061

Money makes the world go round - corruption The book presents the state of the art in studying the causes of corruption from a comparative perspective. Leading scholars in the field of corruption analysis shed light on the issue of corruption from different theoretical perspectives. Understanding how different theories define, conceptualize, and eventually deduce policy recommendations will amplify our understanding of the complexity of this social phenomenon and illustrate the spectrum of possibilities to deal with it analytically as well as practically.
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Corruption as a Last Resort

Adapting to the Market in Central Asia

Author: Kelly M. McMann

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801454905

Category: Political Science

Page: 232

View: 7685

Why do ordinary people engage in corruption? Kelly M. McMann contends that bureaucrats, poverty, and culture do not force individuals in Central Asia to pay bribes, use connections, or sell political support. Rather, corruption is a last resort when relatives, groups in society, the market, and formal government programs cannot provide essential goods and services. Using evidence from her long-term research in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, McMann shows that Islamic institutions, secular charities, entrepreneurs, and banks cannot provide the jobs and credit people need. This drives individuals to illicitly seek employment and loans from government officials. A leading cause of this resource scarcity is market reform, as demonstrated by McMann's analysis of these countries as well as of Uzbekistan and global data. Market reform without supporting institutions, such as credit registries and antimonopoly measures, limits the resources available from the market and societal groups. McMann finds that in these circumstances only those individuals who have affluent relatives have an alternative to corruption.By focusing on ordinary people, McMann offers a new understanding of corruption. Previously, our knowledge was largely restricted to government officials’ role in illicit exchanges. From her novel approach comes a useful policy insight: supplying ordinary people with alternatives to corruption is a fundamental and important anticorruption strategy.
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Clarity of Responsibility, Accountability, and Corruption

Author: Leslie A. Schwindt-Bayer,Margit Tavits

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316552888

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 2813

Corruption is a significant problem for democracies throughout the world. Even the most democratic countries constantly face the threat of corruption and the consequences of it at the polls. Why are some governments more corrupt than others, even after considering cultural, social, and political characteristics? In Clarity of Responsibility, Accountability, and Corruption, the authors argue that clarity of responsibility is critical for reducing corruption in democracies. The authors provide a number of empirical tests of this argument, including a cross-national time-series statistical analysis to show that the higher the level of clarity the lower the perceived corruption levels. Using survey and experimental data, the authors show that clarity causes voters to punish incumbents for corruption. Preliminary tests further indicate that elites respond to these electoral incentives and are more likely to combat corruption when clarity is high.
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Corruption in Public Administration

An Ethnographic Approach

Author: Davide Torsello

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1785362593

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 3234

Despite the growth in literature on political corruption, contributions from field research are still exiguous. This book provides a timely and much needed addition to current research, bridging the gap and providing an innovative approach to the study of corruption and integrity in public administration.
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Islam and Human Rights

Tradition and Politics

Author: Ann Elizabeth Mayer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429974752

Category: Political Science

Page: 322

View: 6044

Islam and Human Rights is a probing examination of how the Islamic tradition has been exploited for political ends by regimes and institutions seeking to legitimize policies inimical to human rights. Ann Elizabeth Mayer critically appraises Islamic human rights schemes that dilute the human rights afforded by international law, comparing them with the complex Islamic legal heritage and international human rights law. Challenging stereotypes about a supposedly monolithic Islam inherently incompatible with human rights, Mayer dissects the political motives behind the selective deployment of elements of the Islamic tradition by conservative forces seeking to delegitimize demands for democracy and human rights.The fifth edition provides an updated consideration of government policies on Islam and human rights activism and how they are affecting developments in several Middle Eastern countries, and features a new chapter on the resistance of human rights for sexual minorities by the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) project to co-opt international human rights law to criminalize ?defamation of Islam? occurring in the West. The new edition also analyzes the other most recent and important issues of the region, including:The burgeoning pressures in the Middle East for human rights leading up to the Arab Spring;The ambitious campaign of the (OIC) to influence the UN human rights system by forging alliances with non-Muslim states hostile to human rights; The concerted efforts by this cross-cultural alliance to subvert international human rights law under pretenses of supporting human rights;The intensifying controversies over issues of sexual orientation and gender identity in the Middle East;The Danish Cartoons controversy and the OIC project to co-opt international human rights law to criminalize ?defamation of Islam? occurring in the West.
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Corruption

What Everyone Needs to Know®

Author: Ray Fisman,Miriam A. Golden

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190463996

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 9017

Corruption regularly makes front page headlines: public officials embezzling government monies, selling public offices, and trading bribes for favors to private companies generate public indignation and calls for reform. In Corruption: What Everyone Needs to Know®, renowned scholars Ray Fisman and Miriam A. Golden provide a deeper understanding of why corruption is so damaging politically, socially, and economically. Among the key questions examined are: is corruption the result of perverse economic incentives? Does it stem from differences in culture and tolerance for illicit acts of government officials? Why don't voters throw corrupt politicians out of office? Vivid examples from a wide range of countries and situations shed light on the causes of corruption, and how it can be combated.
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China's Governance Puzzle

Enabling Transparency and Participation in a Single-Party State

Author: Edmund J. Malesky,Jonathan R. Stromseth,Dimitar D. Gueorguiev

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107122635

Category: Political Science

Page: 343

View: 7439

China is widely viewed as a global powerhouse that has achieved a remarkable economic transformation with little political change. Less well known is that China's leaders have also implemented far‐reaching governance reforms designed to promote government transparency and increase public participation in official policymaking. What are the motivations behind these reforms and, more importantly, what impact are they having? This puzzle lies at the heart of Chinese politics and could dictate China's political trajectory for years to come. This extensive collaborative study not only documents the origins and scope of these reforms across China, but offers the first systematic assessment by quantitatively and qualitatively analyzing the impact of participation and transparency on important governance outcomes. Comparing across provinces and over time, the authors argue that the reforms are resulting in lower corruption and enhanced legal compliance, but these outcomes also depend on a broader societal ecosystem that includes an active media and robust civil society.
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Political Corruption

Concepts and Contexts

Author: Arnold J. Heidenheimer,Michael Johnston

Publisher: Transaction Pub

ISBN: 9780765807618

Category: Political Science

Page: 970

View: 2602

Corruption is once again high on the international policy agenda as a result of globalization, the spread of democracy, and major scandals and reform initiatives. But the concept itself has been a focus for social scientists for many years, and new findings and data take on richer meanings when viewed in the context of long-term developments and enduring conceptual debates. This compendium, a much-enriched version of a work that has been a standard reference in the field since 1970, offers concepts, cases, and fresh evidence for comparative analysis. Building on a nucleus of classic studies laying out the nature and development of the concept of corruption, the book also incorporates recent work on economic, cultural, and linguistic dimensions of the problem, as well as critical analyses of several approaches to reform. While many authors are political scientists, work by historians, economists, and sociologists are strongly represented. Two-thirds of the nearly fifty articles are based either on studies especially written or translated for this volume, or on selected journal literature published in the 1990s. The tendency to treat corruption as merely a synonym for bribery is illuminated by analyses of the diverse terminology and linguistic techniques that help distinguish corruption problems in the major languages. Recent attempts to measure corruption, and to analyze its causes and effects quantitatively are also critically examined. New contributions emphasize especially: corruption phenomena in Asia and Africa; contrasts among region and regime types; comparing U.S. state corruption incidence; European Party finance and corruption; assessments of international corruption rating project; analyses of international corruption control treaties; unintended consequences of anti-corruption efforts. Cumulatively, the book combines description richness, analytical thrust, conceptual awareness, and contextual articulation.
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