Survival of the Prettiest

The Science of Beauty

Author: Nancy Etcoff

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 0307779114

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 3656

A provocative and thoroughly researched inquiry into what we find beautiful and why, skewering the myth that the pursuit of beauty is a learned behavior. In Survival of the Prettiest, Nancy Etcoff, a faculty member at Harvard Medical School and a practicing psychologist at Massachusetts General Hospital, argues that beauty is neither a cultural construction, an invention of the fashion industry, nor a backlash against feminism—it’s in our biology. Beauty, she explains, is an essential and ineradicable part of human nature that is revered and ferociously pursued in nearly every civilization—and for good reason. Those features to which we are most attracted are often signals of fertility and fecundity. When seen in the context of a Darwinian struggle for survival, our sometimes extreme attempts to attain beauty—both to become beautiful ourselves and to acquire an attractive partner—suddenly become much more understandable. Moreover, if we understand how the desire for beauty is innate, then we can begin to work in our own interests, and not just the interests of our genetic tendencies.
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The Evolution of Beauty

How Darwin's Forgotten Theory of Mate Choice Shapes the Animal World - and Us

Author: Richard O. Prum

Publisher: Anchor

ISBN: 0385537220

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 3284

A FINALIST FOR THE PULITZER PRIZE NAMED A BEST BOOK OF THE YEAR BY THE NEW YORK TIMES BOOK REVIEW, SMITHSONIAN, AND WALL STREET JOURNAL A major reimagining of how evolutionary forces work, revealing how mating preferences—what Darwin termed "the taste for the beautiful"—create the extraordinary range of ornament in the animal world. In the great halls of science, dogma holds that Darwin's theory of natural selection explains every branch on the tree of life: which species thrive, which wither away to extinction, and what features each evolves. But can adaptation by natural selection really account for everything we see in nature? Yale University ornithologist Richard Prum—reviving Darwin's own views—thinks not. Deep in tropical jungles around the world are birds with a dizzying array of appearances and mating displays: Club-winged Manakins who sing with their wings, Great Argus Pheasants who dazzle prospective mates with a four-foot-wide cone of feathers covered in golden 3D spheres, Red-capped Manakins who moonwalk. In thirty years of fieldwork, Prum has seen numerous display traits that seem disconnected from, if not outright contrary to, selection for individual survival. To explain this, he dusts off Darwin's long-neglected theory of sexual selection in which the act of choosing a mate for purely aesthetic reasons—for the mere pleasure of it—is an independent engine of evolutionary change. Mate choice can drive ornamental traits from the constraints of adaptive evolution, allowing them to grow ever more elaborate. It also sets the stakes for sexual conflict, in which the sexual autonomy of the female evolves in response to male sexual control. Most crucially, this framework provides important insights into the evolution of human sexuality, particularly the ways in which female preferences have changed male bodies, and even maleness itself, through evolutionary time. The Evolution of Beauty presents a unique scientific vision for how nature's splendor contributes to a more complete understanding of evolution and of ourselves.
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In Your Face

The New Science of Human Attraction

Author: David Perrett

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137205059

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 1284

In our daily lives, in our memories and fantasies, our mental worlds overflow with faces. But why do we have faces at all, and brains that are good at reading them? And why are we attracted to some faces more than others? In Your Face is an engaging and authoritative tour of the science of facial beauty and face perception. David Perrett, the preeminent scholar in the field, reveals and interprets the most remarkable findings and in the process demolishes many popular myths, setting the record straight on what neuroscience and evolutionary psychology are teaching us about beauty. The record is more surprising and often more unsettling than you might think.
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Beauty Pays

Why Attractive People Are More Successful

Author: Daniel S. Hamermesh

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400839445

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 232

View: 4244

Most of us know there is a payoff to looking good, and in the quest for beauty we spend countless hours and billions of dollars on personal grooming, cosmetics, and plastic surgery. But how much better off are the better looking? Based on the evidence, quite a lot. The first book to seriously measure the advantages of beauty, Beauty Pays demonstrates how society favors the beautiful and how better-looking people experience startling but undeniable benefits in all aspects of life. Noted economist Daniel Hamermesh shows that the attractive are more likely to be employed, work more productively and profitably, receive more substantial pay, obtain loan approvals, negotiate loans with better terms, and have more handsome and highly educated spouses. Hamermesh explains why this happens and what it means for the beautiful--and the not-so-beautiful--among us. Exploring whether a universal standard of beauty exists, Hamermesh illustrates how attractive workers make more money, how these amounts differ by gender, and how looks are valued differently based on profession. He considers whether extra pay for good-looking people represents discrimination, and, if so, who is discriminating. Hamermesh investigates the commodification of beauty in dating and how this influences the search for intelligent or high-earning mates, and even examines whether government programs should aid the ugly. He also discusses whether the economic benefits of beauty will persist into the foreseeable future and what the "looks-challenged" can do to overcome their disadvantage. Reflecting on a sensitive issue that touches everyone, Beauty Pays proves that beauty's rewards are anything but superficial.
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Beauty around the World: A Cultural Encyclopedia

Author: Erin Kenny,Elizabeth Gackstetter Nichols Ph.D.

Publisher: ABC-CLIO

ISBN: 1610699459

Category: Social Science

Page: 464

View: 1073

Taking the concept of beauty seriously, this encyclopedia examines how humanity has sought and continues to seek what is "beautiful" in a variety of cultural contexts, giving readers an understanding of how to look at beauty both intellectually and critically. • Provides an interdisciplinary approach to world beauty practices, from the earliest experiments in plastic surgery in 600 B.C. to contemporary practices • Gives readers a representative overview of beauty practices around the globe • Documents how from cosmetics to clothing, exercise to body modification, being beautiful is a goal worldwide • Identifies numerous authoritative sources of information for further research and reading
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Looks

Why They Matter More Than You Ever Imagined

Author: Gordon PATZER

Publisher: AMACOM Div American Mgmt Assn

ISBN: 9780814409695

Category: Social Science

Page: 288

View: 6037

We all know one hard and undeniable truth: Physical beauty comes with tremendous power, and tremendous benefits. Those who possess it are generally luckier in love, more likely to be popular, and more apt to get better grades in school. But very few of us realize just how much looks affect every aspect of our lives. Recent studies document that people blessed with good looks earn about 10% more than their average-looking colleagues. They are also more likely to get hired and promoted at work. What exactly is this “physical attractiveness” phenomenon and how does it affect each and every one of us? Dr. Gordon L. Patzer has devoted the last 30 years to investigating this unsettling phenomenon for both women and men, and how it touches every part of our lives. In Looks, he reveals not only its impact on romance, but also on family dynamics, performance in school, career, courtroom proceedings, politics and government. Looks is the first book to explore how the power of beauty affects both sexes and how the rise of reality TV shows, cosmetic surgery, and celebrity culture have contributed to our culture’s overall obsession with being beautiful. Unflinching and topical, Looks uncovers the sometimes ugly truth about beauty and its profound effects on all of our lives.
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Survival of the Beautiful

Art, Science, and Evolution

Author: David Rothenberg

Publisher: A&C Black

ISBN: 1408830566

Category: Art and science

Page: 311

View: 4961

'The peacock's tail makes me sick!' said Charles Darwin. That's because the theory of evolution as adaptation can't explain why nature is so beautiful. It took the concept of sexual selection for Darwin to explain that, a process that has more to do with aesthetic taste than adaptive fitness. Survival of the Beautiful is a revolutionary new examination of the interplay of beauty, art, and culture in evolution. Taking inspiration from Darwin's observation that animals have a natural aesthetic sense, philosopher and musician David Rothenberg probes why animals, humans included, have an innate appreciation for beauty - and why nature is, indeed, beautiful.
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The Last Alchemist in Paris

And Other Curious Tales from Chemistry

Author: Lars Öhrström

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 019966109X

Category: Science

Page: 257

View: 5677

La 4eme de couv. indique : "This is a book about discovery and disaster, exploitation and invention, warfare and science, and the relationship between human beings and the chemical elements that make up our planet. It is an introduction to chemistry as you never thaught it at school."
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Beauty Junkies

Inside Our $15 Billion Obsession with Cosmetic Surgery

Author: Alex Kuczynski

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 0767914112

Category: Surgery, Plastic

Page: 290

View: 7265

A revealing glimpse inside the burgeoning business of cosmetic enhancement explores the frauds, follies, and fanaticism that exemplify American society's pursuit of youth and beauty by any means necessary.
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Survival of the Prettiest

The Gender, Mental Health, and Sexualization Crisis Told by a Teenager

Author: Ashley Olafsen

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780692763261

Category: Body image in girls

Page: 317

View: 5072

Survival of the Prettiest focuses on three main ideas: 1. Current gendered expectations, perpetuated by the media, are having negative real life consequences on kids and teenagers.2. There is an enormous lack of awareness on mental health, which, combined with stigmas, is both dangerous and deadly.3. Our contradictory attitude towards sex, where we don't talk about sex in school or at home yet allow pornography and a sex saturated culture to prevail, is having massive consequences on teenagers.
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The Evolutionary Bases of Consumption

Author: Gad Saad

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 1135608245

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 360

View: 6806

The Evolutionary Bases of Consumption by Gad Saad applies Darwinian principles in understanding our consumption patterns and the products of popular culture that most appeal to individuals. The first and only scholarly work to do so, this is a captivating study of the adaptive reasons behind our behaviors, cognitions, emotions, and perceptions. This lens of analysis suggests how we come to make selections such as choosing a mate, the foods we eat, the gifts that we offer, and more. It also highlights how numerous forms of dark side consumption, including pathological gambling, compulsive buying, pornographic addiction, and eating disorders, possess a Darwinian etiology. Engaging and diverse in scope, the book maps consumption phenomena onto four key Darwinian modules: survival, reproduction, kin selection, and reciprocal altruism. As an interesting proposal, the author suggests that media and advertising contents exist in their particular forms because they are a reflection of our evolved human nature - negating the notion that they exist through the reverse causal link, as proposed by social constructivists. The link between evolutionary theory and consumption behaviors is detailed throughout the book via an examination of (among many others): appearance-enhancing products and services; financial and physical risk-taking; use of sexual imagery and the depictions of women in advertising; and television programs, movies, songs, music videos, literature, religion, and art. The Evolutionary Bases of Consumption will appeal to evolutionists who desire to explore new areas wherein evolutionary theory can be applied; consumer and marketing scholars who wish to learn about the ways in which biological-and evolutionary-based theorizing can be infused into the consumer behavior/marketing/advertising disciplines; as well as other interdisciplinary scholars interested in gaining knowledge about the power of evolutionary theory in explaining a wide range of behavioral phenomena.
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Aesthetics

An Introduction to the Philosophy of Art

Author: Anne D. R. Sheppard

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0192891642

Category: Philosophy

Page: 172

View: 462

Explains why art is important, discusses expression, form, beauty, and criticism, and raises questions about ethics, meaning, and truth
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Face Value

The Hidden Ways Beauty Shapes Women's Lives

Author: Autumn Whitefield-Madrano

Publisher: Simon and Schuster

ISBN: 1476754047

Category: Psychology

Page: 288

View: 5153

"Part social commentary, part cultural analysis, part careful investigation and part powerful personal anecdotes, a provocative book explores the relationship between appearance and science, social media, sex, friendship, language and advertising to show how beauty actually affects us day to day,"--NoveList.
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The Beauty Bias

The Injustice of Appearance in Life and Law

Author: Deborah L. Rhode

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199779451

Category: Law

Page: 272

View: 3758

"It hurts to be beautiful" has been a cliche for centuries. What has been far less appreciated is how much it hurts not to be beautiful. The Beauty Bias explores our cultural preoccupation with attractiveness, the costs it imposes, and the responses it demands. Beauty may be only skin deep, but the damages associated with its absence go much deeper. Unattractive individuals are less likely to be hired and promoted, and are assumed less likely to have desirable traits, such as goodness, kindness, and honesty. Three quarters of women consider appearance important to their self image and over a third rank it as the most important factor. Although appearance can be a significant source of pleasure, its price can also be excessive, not only in time and money, but also in physical and psychological health. Our annual global investment in appearance totals close to $200 billion. Many individuals experience stigma, discrimination, and related difficulties, such as eating disorders, depression, and risky dieting and cosmetic procedures. Women bear a vastly disproportionate share of these costs, in part because they face standards more exacting than those for men, and pay greater penalties for falling short. The Beauty Bias explores the social, biological, market, and media forces that have contributed to appearance-related problems, as well as feminism's difficulties in confronting them. The book also reviews why it matters. Appearance-related bias infringes fundamental rights, compromises merit principles, reinforces debilitating stereotypes, and compounds the disadvantages of race, class, and gender. Yet only one state and a half dozen localities explicitly prohibit such discrimination. The Beauty Bias provides the first systematic survey of how appearance laws work in practice, and a compelling argument for extending their reach. The book offers case histories of invidious discrimination and a plausible legal and political strategy for addressing them. Our prejudices run deep, but we can do far more to promote realistic and healthy images of attractiveness, and to reduce the price of their pursuit.
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Erotic Capital

The Power of Attraction in the Boardroom and the Bedroom

Author: Catherine Hakim

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465027474

Category: Family & Relationships

Page: 295

View: 4128

States that each person has "erotic capital," or a level of sexual attractiveness that he or she can use to his or her advantage, and argues that each person should use this erotic capital to get ahead in life.
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The Power of Persuasion

How We're Bought and Sold

Author: Robert Levine

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0471266345

Category: Psychology

Page: 278

View: 8367

Looks at the power of effective persuasion, describing the mindset and tactics of persuasion professionals and detailing ways to protect oneself from becoming a victim of manipulation.
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Beautiful Brows

The Ultimate Guide to Styling, Shaping, and Maintaining Your Eyebrows

Author: Nancy Parker,Nancy Kalish

Publisher: Harmony

ISBN: 060980670X

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 128

View: 5399

The founder of Eyebrowz.com and a beauty writer team up to explain how to select the best style to suit the four basic face shapes and the five brow shapes, discussing such topics as plucking, waxing, trimming, stenciling, darkening and lightening the brows, different looks for varied occasions, and more. Original. 15,000 first printing.
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Evolution's Bite

A Story of Teeth, Diet, and Human Origins

Author: Peter S. Ungar

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400884756

Category: Science

Page: 248

View: 6753

What teeth can teach us about the evolution of the human species Whether we realize it or not, we carry in our mouths the legacy of our evolution. Our teeth are like living fossils that can be studied and compared to those of our ancestors to teach us how we became human. In Evolution's Bite, noted paleoanthropologist Peter Ungar brings together for the first time cutting-edge advances in understanding human evolution and climate change with new approaches to uncovering dietary clues from fossil teeth to present a remarkable investigation into the ways that teeth—their shape, chemistry, and wear—reveal how we came to be. Ungar describes how a tooth's "foodprints"—distinctive patterns of microscopic wear and tear—provide telltale details about what an animal actually ate in the past. These clues, combined with groundbreaking research in paleoclimatology, demonstrate how a changing climate altered the food options available to our ancestors, what Ungar calls the biospheric buffet. When diets change, species change, and Ungar traces how diet and an unpredictable climate determined who among our ancestors was winnowed out and who survived, as well as why we transitioned from the role of forager to farmer. By sifting through the evidence—and the scars on our teeth—Ungar makes the important case for what might or might not be the most natural diet for humans. Traveling the four corners of the globe and combining scientific breakthroughs with vivid narrative, Evolution's Bite presents a unique dental perspective on our astonishing human development.
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Pandora's Seed

Why the Hunter-Gatherer Holds the Key to Our Survival

Author: Spencer Wells

Publisher: Random House Trade Paperbacks

ISBN: 0812971914

Category: Nature

Page: 256

View: 3851

Originally published in hardcover in 2010.
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Moving Beyond Words

Essays on Age, Rage, Sex, Power, Money, Muscles: Breaking the Boundaries of Gender

Author: Gloria Steinem

Publisher: Open Road Media

ISBN: 1453250174

Category: Social Science

Page: 312

View: 3587

Steinem’s career-spanning collection of essays—each one a book in itself—re-imagine everything from the masculinization of wealth to Freudian thought and aging With cool humor and rich intellect, Gloria Steinem strips bare our social constructions of gender and race, explaining just how limiting these invented cultural identities can be. In the first of six sections, Steinem imagines how our understanding of human psychology would be different in a witty reversal: What if Freud had been a woman who inflicted biological inferiority on men (think “womb envy”)? In other essays, the author presents positive examples of people who turn stereotypes on their heads, from a female bodybuilder to Mahatma Gandhi, whose followers absorbed his wisdom that change starts at the bottom. And in some of the most moving pieces, Steinem reveals something of her own complicated history as a writer, woman, and citizen of the world.
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