Stone Tools and Fossil Bones

Debates in the Archaeology of Human Origins

Author: Manuel Domínguez-Rodrigo

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107022924

Category: History

Page: 362

View: 4430

International archaeologists examine early Stone Age tools and bones to present the most holistic view to date of the archaeology of human origins.
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The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology

Author: Peter Mitchell,Paul Lane

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191626155

Category: Social Science

Page: 1080

View: 6685

Africa has the longest and arguably the most diverse archaeological record of any of the continents. It is where the human lineage first evolved and from where Homo sapiens spread across the rest of the world. Later, it witnessed novel experiments in food-production and unique trajectories to urbanism and the organisation of large communities that were not always structured along strictly hierarchical lines. Millennia of engagement with societies in other parts of the world confirm Africa's active participation in the construction of the modern world, while the richness of its history, ethnography, and linguistics provide unusually powerful opportunities for constructing interdisciplinary narratives of Africa's past. This Handbook provides a comprehensive and up-to-date synthesis of African archaeology, covering the entirety of the continent's past from the beginnings of human evolution to the archaeological legacy of European colonialism. As well as covering almost all periods and regions of the continent, it includes a mixture of key methodological and theoretical issues and debates, and situates the subject's contemporary practice within the discipline's history and the infrastructural challenges now facing its practitioners. Bringing together essays on all these themes from over seventy contributors, many of them living and working in Africa, it offers a highly accessible, contemporary account of the subject for use by scholars and students of not only archaeology, but also history, anthropology, and other disciplines.
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The Penguin Factfinder

Author: David Crystal

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: N.A

Category: Handbooks, vade-mecums, etc

Page: 939

View: 3361

Our very own 'national treasure' (as declared by John Humphrys) David Crystal brings us yet another quintessential knowledge compendium. The new edition of The Penguin Factfinderhas been fully revised and updated to reflect recent changes in politics, sport, culture and the arts to the end of 2006. In an age where information is easy to find but hard to verify, Crystal brings us a refreshingly straightforward resource. The Penguin Factfinder is about facts - no jargon or flowery descriptions, no error messages or anonymous sources - just the basic facts from one of Britain's most trusted and authoratitive information providers. We believe every word to be true. Where else can you get a guarantee like that?
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Human Natures

Genes, Cultures, and the Human Prospect

Author: Paul R. Ehrlich

Publisher: Island Press

ISBN: 9781559637794

Category: Science

Page: 531

View: 3515

Explores the impact and inconsistancies of human evolution upon human nature, examining the physical, intellectual, cultural, and sexual aspects of human development and behaviors in the light of current scientific theory.
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Homo Britannicus

The Incredible Story of Human Life in Britain

Author: Chris Stringer

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 0141902361

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 7441

HOMO BRITANNICUS tells the epic history of life in Britain, from man’s very first footsteps to the present day. Drawing on all the latest evidence and techniques of investigation, Chris Stringer describes times when Britain was so tropical that man lived alongside hippos and sabre tooth tiger, times so cold we shared this land with reindeer and mammoth, and times colder still when we were forced to flee altogether. This is the first time we have known the full extent of this history: the Ancient Human Occupation of Britain project, led by Chris, has made discoveries that have stunned the world, pushing back the earliest date of arrival to 700,000 years ago. Our ancestors have been fighting a dramatic battle for survival here ever since.
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History of Africa

Author: Kevin Shillington

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1137003332

Category: History

Page: 528

View: 6081

In a single volume, History of Africa offers readers a richly illustrated narrative introduction to the history of the entire continent, from earliest times through to the present day. Building on the book's established reputation and success, this third edition has been revised and updated throughout in the light of new research and recent events. A companion website now also supports the text. Kevin Shillington traces the history of the continent through the ancient world to medieval, modern and contemporary Africa. He explores the early emergence of farming; the kingdoms of Ancient Egypt, Aksum and Meroe; medieval empires; the spread and impact of Islam; the role of trade and religion; and the development of Africa's wide range of pastoral, agricultural and hunting societies. History of Africa, third edition: • contains nearly 100 specially-drawn maps and almost 200 illustrations, a number of which are new for this edition • takes a deliberately African viewpoint of the European involvement in Africa • provides a carefully constructed examination of the colonial period and the problems of post-colonial Africa • presents expanded coverage of modern Africa with more on issues such as economic concerns, globalization, international organisations, climate change, HIV/AIDS, and the role of China • opens with a new Introduction which includes a helpful historiographical overview • features a companion website offering additional historical debate and critical discussion to complement specific parts of the text; key points to remember for each chapter; a variety of essay questions and exercises; and other resources to enhance the learning experience. Eminently clear and approachable, History of Africa remains the essential text for anyone with an interest in this remarkable continent and its fascinating past.
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Projectile Technology

Author: Heidi Knecht

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780306457166

Category: History

Page: 408

View: 7887

This wide-ranging volume brings together the results of global research on weapon technology, hunting strategies, and technological organization spanning the Middle Paleolithic through the ethnographic present, and the geographical breadth of the five inhabited continents. Integrating archaeological, experimental, and ethnoarchaeological perspectives, the book paints a vibrant picture of the technological know-how, decision-making processes, and organizational logistics associated with hunters armed with spears or arrows. Unlike most works on archaeological subjects, the findings presented here are bound to neither time nor place, but are applicable in any context in which spears, bows, and/or arrows are in use.
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Human Evolution

An Introduction to Mans Adaptations

Author: Bernard Grant Campbell

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9780202366623

Category: Social Science

Page: 523

View: 8050

In this new fourth edition, Campbell has revised and updated his classic introduction to the field. Human Evolution synthesizes the major findings of modern research and theory and presents a complete and integrated account of the evolution of human beings. New developments in microbiology and recent fossil records are incorporated into the enormous range of this volume, with the resulting text as lucid and comprehensive as earlier editions. The fourth edition retains the thematic structure and organization of the third, with its cogent treatment of human variability and speciation, primate locomotion, and nonverbal communication and the evolution of language, supported by more than 150 detailed illustrations and an expanded and updated glossary and bibliography. As in prior editions, the book treats evolution as a concomitant development of the main behavioral and functional complexes of the genus Homo among them motor control and locomotion, mastication and digestion, the senses and reproduction. It analyzes each complex in terms of its changing function, and continually stresses how the separate complexes evolve interdependently over the long course of the human journey. All these aspects are placed within the context of contemporary evolutionary and genetic theory, analyses of the varied extensions of the fossil record, and contemporary primatology and comparative morphology. The result is a primary text for undergraduate and graduate courses, one that will also serve as required reading for anthropologists, biologists, and nonspecialists with an interest in human evolution. "Synthesizes the conventional academic thought into a textbook or detailed account for lay readers. Along the chronological narrative are discussions of progress in homeostasis, the primate radiation, locomotion and the hindlimb, function and structure of the head, reproduction and social structure, and culture and society." Book News Bernard Campbell has been a visiting lecturer at Harvard and Cambridge, and has taught and conducted research in Eastern and Southern Africa. He was professor of anthropology at the University of California, Los Angeles, from 1970-76. Dr. Campbell is author/coauthor of Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man; Human Ecology (second edition, Aldine); Humankind Emerging and the definitive three-volume Catalogue of Fossil Hominids.
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Meat-Eating and Human Evolution

Author: Craig B. Stanford,Henry T. Bunn

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195351293

Category: Science

Page: 384

View: 2396

When, why, and how early humans began to eat meat are three of the most fundamental unresolved questions in the study of human origins. Before 2.5 million years ago the presence and importance of meat in the hominid diet is unknown. After stone tools appear in the fossil record it seems clear that meat was eaten in increasing quantities, but whether it was obtained through hunting or scavenging remains a topic of intense debate. This book takes a novel and strongly interdisciplinary approach to the role of meat in the early hominid diet, inviting well-known researchers who study the human fossil record, modern hunter-gatherers, and nonhuman primates to contribute chapters to a volume that integrates these three perspectives. Stanford's research has been on the ecology of hunting by wild chimpanzees. Bunn is an archaeologist who has worked on both the fossil record and modern foraging people. This will be a reconsideration of the role of hunting, scavenging, and the uses of meat in light of recent data and modern evolutionary theory. There is currently no other book, nor has there ever been, that occupies the niche this book will create for itself.
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Stone Tools in Human Evolution

Behavioral Differences among Technological Primates

Author: John J. Shea

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316798909

Category: Social Science

Page: 236

View: 5576

In Stone Tools in Human Evolution, John J. Shea argues that over the last three million years hominins' technological strategies shifted from occasional tool use, much like that seen among living non-human primates, to a uniquely human pattern of obligatory tool use. Examining how the lithic archaeological record changed over the course of human evolution, he compares tool use by living humans and non-human primates and predicts how the archaeological stone tool evidence should have changed as distinctively human behaviors evolved. Those behaviors include using cutting tools, logistical mobility (carrying things), language and symbolic artifacts, geographic dispersal and diaspora, and residential sedentism (living in the same place for prolonged periods). Shea then tests those predictions by analyzing the archaeological lithic record from 6,500 years ago to 3.5 million years ago.
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Bones and Ochre

The Curious Afterlife of the Red Lady of Paviland

Author: Marianne Sommer

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674024991

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 398

View: 937

When ochre-stained bones were unearthed by William Buckland in a Welsh cave in 1823, they raised many unsettling questions regarding their origin, and inspired the casting and recasting of the character who became known as the Red Lady. Her biography reflects the personal, professional, and national ambitions of those who studied her, and echoes the era in which each bit of research was conducted. In telling her story, Sommer reveals how paleoanthropology has emerged as an international, interdisciplinary, and thoroughly modern science.
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Dragon Bone Hill

An Ice-Age Saga of Homo erectus

Author: Noel T. Boaz,Russell L. Ciochon

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190288329

Category: Science

Page: 264

View: 2975

"Peking Man," a cave man once thought a great hunter who had first tamed fire, actually was a composite of the gnawed remains of some fifty women, children, and men unfortunate enough to have been the prey of the giant cave hyena. Researching the famous fossil site of Dragon Bone Hill in China, scientists Noel T. Boaz and Russell L. Ciochon retell the story of the cave's unique species of early human, Homo erectus. Boaz and Ciochon take readers on a gripping scientific odyssey. New evidence shows that Homo erectus was an opportunist who rode a tide of environmental change out Africa and into Eurasia, puddle-jumping from one gene pool to the next. Armed with a shaky hold on fire and some sharp rocks, Homo erectus incredibly survived for over 1.5 million years, much longer than our own species Homo sapiens has been on Earth. Tell-tale marks on fossil bones show that the lives of these early humans were brutal, ruled by hunger and who could strike the hardest blow, yet there are fleeting glimpses of human compassion as well. The small brain of Homo erectus and its strangely unchanging culture indicate that the species could not talk. Part of that primitive culture included ritualized aggression, to which the extremely thick skulls of Homo erectus bear mute witness. Both a vivid recreation of the unimagined way of life of a prehistoric species, so similar yet so unlike us, and a fascinating exposition of how modern multidisciplinary research can test hypotheses in human evolution, Dragon Bone Hill is science writing at its best.
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Human Evolution, Language and Mind

A Psychological and Archaeological Inquiry

Author: William Noble,Iain Davidson

Publisher: CUP Archive

ISBN: 9780521576352

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 272

View: 5346

Annotation pending.
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Evolution of the Human Diet

The Known, the Unknown, and the Unknowable

Author: Peter S. Ungar

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0195183460

Category: Science

Page: 413

View: 4679

Diet is key to understanding the ecology and evolution of our distant ancestors and thier kin, the early hominins. An appreciation of the range of foods eaten by our progenitorsalso underscores just how unhealthy many of our diets are today.
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African Ecology and Human Evolution

Author: Francis Clark Howell,François Bourlière

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 0202361365

Category: History

Page: 666

View: 505

The record of man's early evolution, though still fragmentary, is more complete on the African continent than anywhere else in the world. The ecological context of this evolution, however, has been studied intensively only in recent years. This pioneering volume draws together eminent specialists from many fields--physical anthropologists, zoologists, geologists, paleontologists, and prehistorians--who summarize here the results of their diverse research on Pleistocene environments and the cultural and biological evolution of man in Africa. This volume was sponsored by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research Inc., which met at Burg Wartenstein, Austria. The editors have field experience in Africa, especially eastern and equatorial Africa. This experience is coupled with their awareness of the need to integrate results of numerous field studies bearing on the biological-behavioral evolution of higher primates with other field studies on the paleoecology and the mammalian ecology of sub-Saharan Africa. The book includes contributions on Pleistocene stratigraphy and climatic changes throughout the African continent; on the origin and evolution of the earliest man-like creatures in Africa; on the dating, distribution, and adaptation of Pleistocene hunter-gatherer peoples; and on the ecology, biology, and social behavior of African primate and human populations. The chapters reflect vividly the state of current knowledge at the time and indicate paths for future research. Over 100 maps and figures, detailed bibliographies, and a comprehensive index contribute to the importance of the volume for basic reference use. F. Clark Howell is professor emeritus of paleoanthropology at the University of California, Berkeley where he is co-director of the Laboratory of Human Studies. He is also curator at The University of California Museum of Paleontology. Franois Bourlire (1913-1993) was professor of physiology at the University of Paris. He is also credited with founding the Gerontology Research Unit of Institute of Health and Medical Research and was a member of Paris hospitals.
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Early Hominid Activities at Olduvai

Foundations of Human Behaviour

Author: Richard Potts

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 135132926X

Category: Social Science

Page: 407

View: 5063

The earliest sites at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania are among the best documented and most important for studies of human evolution. This book investigates the behavior of hominids at Olduvai using data of stone tools and animal bones, as well as the results of work in taphonomy (how animals become fossils), the behavior of mammals, and a wide range of ecological theory and data. By illustrating the ways in which modern and prehistoric evidence is used in making interpretations, the author guides the reader through the geological, ecological, and archeological areas involved in the study of humans.Based on his study of the Olduvai excavations, animal life, and stone tools, the author carefully examines conventional views and proposals about the early Olduvai sites. First, the evidence of site geology, tool cut marks, and other clues to the formation of the Olduvai sites are explored. On this basis, the large mammal communities in which early hominids lived are investigated, using methods which compare sites produced mainly by hominids with others made by carnivores. Questions about hominid hunting, scavenging, and the importance of eating meat are then scrutinized. The leading alternative positions on each issue are discussed, providing a basis for understanding some of the most contentious debates in paleo-anthropology today.The dominant interpretive model for the artifact and bone accumulations at Olduvai and other Plio-Pleistocene sites has been that they represent home bases, social foci similar to the campsites of hunter-gatherers. Based on paleo-ecological evidence and ecological models, the author critically analyzes the home base interpretation and proposes alternative views. A new view of the Olduvai sites - that they represent stone caches where hominids processed carcasses for food - is shown to have important implications for our understanding of hominid social behavior and evolution.
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Lithic technology

making and using stone tools

Author: Earl Herbert Swanson

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3111390373

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 261

View: 9923

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The Making of a Chinese City

History and Historiography in Harbin

Author: Søren Clausen,Stig Thøgersen

Publisher: M.E. Sharpe

ISBN: 9781563244766

Category: History

Page: 236

View: 1462

The history of Harbin, ruled by the Russians, by an international coalition of allied powers, by Chinese warlords, by the Soviet Union and finally by the Chinese Communists - all in the course of 100 years - is presented here as an example of Chinese local-history writing.
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The Sea-craft of Prehistory

Author: Paul Johnstone,Sean McGrail

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0415026350

Category: Social Science

Page: 260

View: 8853

The nautical dimension of prehistory has not so far received the attention it deserves. It is also too often assumed that early man was land bound, yet this is demonstrably not the case. Recent research has shown that man travelled and tracked over greater distances and at a much earlier date than has previously been thought possible. Some of these facts can be explained only by man's mastery of water transport from earliest times. This book, by an acknowledged expert on prehistoric sea-craft, examines these problems looking at the new archaeological information in the light of the author's nautical knowledge. The result is a detailed account of man's use of inland and ocean-going craft from earliest times until the dawn of recorded history. All forms of evidence are critically assessed, from the vessels of Ancient Egypt to the Chinese junk, to present of comprehensive picture of the vessels men have built through the ages, and of the variety of ways in which they have been used.
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