States, Ideologies, and Social Revolutions

A Comparative Analysis of Iran, Nicaragua, and the Philippines

Author: Misagh Parsa

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521774307

Category: History

Page: 326

View: 4795

An analysis of the causes and processes of revolution, drawing on the stories of Iran, Nicaragua, and the Philippines.
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Revolutionary Ideology and Islamic Militancy

The Iranian Revolution and Interpretations of the Quran

Author: Najibullah Lafraie

Publisher: I.B.Tauris

ISBN: 0857716433

Category: Political Science

Page: 288

View: 9323

The ‘war on terror’ tends to circumscribe crucial developments in the Islamic world within a narrow definition of ‘Islamic terrorism’. This partial and incomplete perspective fails to comprehend the links between today’s scenario and the Iranian revolution of 1979 - a revolution fought in the name of God and spearheaded by religious scholars. Since then, Islamic ideology has become a powerful motivating force behind insurgency in Afghanistan, Palestine, Lebanon, Algeria and Iraq. There have however been few explorations of the role of Quranic doctrine in fomenting revolution. Najibullah Lafraie systematically analyses the Quran as a revolutionary text, and identifies different strands of revolutionary ideology within it. He examines its potential to delegitimise existing social, political and economic arrangements, what kind of values it promotes, what societal goals it outlines, what kind of collective action and personal principles it calls for, and how it establishes its claim to truth. In doing this, Lafraie establishes the paradigm from which most subsequent Islamist revolutionary ideology has emerged. He goes on to demonstrate the diversity that is possible within this paradigm by examining the ideologies of six key figures in the Iranian revolution, and shows how their emphases differ. Focusing on three lay intellectuals and three clerics, Lafraie’s taxonomy of the Islamic Revolution’s ideologues provides an essential backdrop for understanding the battle between moderates and radicals in Iran today. The book ends by assessing the relevance of the ‘Quranic’ model of revolutionary ideology to contemporary Islamist insurgents. ‘The Ideology of the Islamic Revolution’ is an essential companion to anyone seeking to understand both the Iranian revolution and the wider phenomenon of political Islam.
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War, Violence, Terrorism, and Our Present World

A Timeline of Modern Politics

Author: Hares Sayed

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 1543419011

Category: Young Adult Nonfiction

Page: 314

View: 5293

Why Are We Facing Never Ending Terrorism? Political violence and terrorism have been, literally, bleeding humanity throughout the world. This book sheds light on terrorism, highlighting the causes of this evil, including religion, wealth disparity, poverty, dysfunctional government, and the crippling lending policies of international financial institutions. In particular, it highlights one major gray area not discussed by conventional writers - theColonial Legacy. This book highlights every aspect of political development from the birth of new nations to the race for supremacy. The impact of scarce mineral resources, the role of religions, the Shia-Sunni turmoil in the Middle East, and last but not least, the militarization processes are all discussed. Greed allows terrorism to take root and to be nurtured. It leads the religious to be abused and innocent people to be victimized by war's profiteers.
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Revolutions: A Very Short Introduction

Author: Jack A. Goldstone

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199858527

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 5406

From 1789 in France to 2011 in Cairo, revolutions have shaken the world. In their pursuit of social justice, revolutionaries have taken on the assembled might of monarchies, empires, and dictatorships. They have often, though not always, sparked cataclysmic violence, and have at times won miraculous victories, though at other times suffered devastating defeat. This Very Short Introduction illuminates the revolutionaries, their strategies, their successes and failures, and the ways in which revolutions continue to dominate world events and the popular imagination. Starting with the city-states of ancient Greece and Rome, Jack Goldstone traces the development of revolutions through the Renaissance and Reformation, the Enlightenment and liberal constitutional revolutions such as in America, and their opposite--the communist revolutions of the 20th century. He shows how revolutions overturned dictators in Nicaragua and Iran and brought the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, and examines the new wave of non-violent "color" revolutions-the Philippines' Yellow Revolution, Ukraine's Orange Revolution--and the Arab Uprisings of 2011-12 that rocked the Middle East. Goldstone also sheds light on the major theories of revolution, exploring the causes of revolutionary waves, the role of revolutionary leaders, the strategies and processes of revolutionary change, and the intersection between revolutions and shifting patterns of global power. Finally, the author examines the reasons for diverse revolutionary outcomes, from democracy to civil war and authoritarian rule, and the likely future of revolution in years to come. About the Series: Oxford's Very Short Introductions series offers concise and original introductions to a wide range of subjects--from Islam to Sociology, Politics to Classics, Literary Theory to History, and Archaeology to the Bible. Not simply a textbook of definitions, each volume in this series provides trenchant and provocative--yet always balanced and complete--discussions of the central issues in a given discipline or field. Every Very Short Introduction gives a readable evolution of the subject in question, demonstrating how the subject has developed and how it has influenced society. Eventually, the series will encompass every major academic discipline, offering all students an accessible and abundant reference library. Whatever the area of study that one deems important or appealing, whatever the topic that fascinates the general reader, the Very Short Introductions series has a handy and affordable guide that will likely prove indispensable.
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The Geography of Malcolm X

Black Radicalism and the Remaking of American Space

Author: James Tyner

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317793633

Category: Social Science

Page: 206

View: 2303

First published in 2006. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
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Gender and Conflict

Embodiments, Discourses and Symbolic Practices

Author: Dr Annelou Ypeij,Ms Reinhilde König,Professor Georg Frerks

Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.

ISBN: 1472404610

Category: Political Science

Page: 274

View: 4849

Through an in-depth analysis of the multifaceted manifestations of gender and conflict, this book shows how cognition and behaviour, agency and victimization, are gendered beyond the popular stereotypes. Conflict not only reconfirms social hierarchies and power relations, but also motivates people to transgress cultural boundaries and redefine their self-images and identities. The contributions are a mix of classical ethnography, performance studies and embodiment studies, showing ‘emotions and feelings’ often denied in scientific social research. Strong in their constructivist approach and unorthodox in theory, the articles touch upon the dynamic relation between the discourses, embodiments and symbolic practices that constitute the gendered world of conflict. The localities and research sites vary from institutional settings such as a school, rebel movements, public toilets and the military to more artistic domains of gendered conflicts such as prison theatre classes and the capoeira ring. At the same time, these conflicts and domains appropriate wider discourses and practices of a global nature, demonstrating the globalised and institutionalised nature of the nexus gender-conflict. A first set of chapters deals with ‘breaking the gender taboos’ and renegotiating the stereotypical gender roles - masculinities or femininities - during conflict. A second set of chapters focuses more explicitly on the bodily experience of conflict either physically of symbolically, while the last set straddle body and narrative. The inductive quality of the work leads to unexpected insights and does give access to worlds that are new, and often surprising and unconventional.
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Militant Islam

A sociology of characteristics, causes and consequences

Author: Stephen Vertigans

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134126387

Category: Political Science

Page: 224

View: 489

Militant Islam provides a sociological framework for understanding the rise and character of recent Islamic militancy. It takes a systematic approach to the phenomenon and includes analysis of cases from around the world, comparisons with militancy in other religions, and their causes and consequences. The sociological concepts and theories examined in the book include those associated with social closure, social movements, nationalism, risk, fear and ‘de-civilising’. These are applied within three main themes; characteristics of militant Islam, multi-layered causes and the consequences of militancy, in particular Western reactions within the ‘war on terror’. Interrelationships between religious and secular behaviour, ‘terrorism’ and ‘counter-terrorism’, popular support and opposition are explored. Through the examination of examples from across Muslim societies and communities, the analysis challenges the popular tendency to concentrate upon ‘al-Qa’ida’ and the Middle East. This book will be of interest to students of Sociology, Political Science and International Relations, in particular those taking courses on Islam, religion, terrorism, political violence and related regional studies.
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Choice

Publication of the Association of College and Research Libraries, a Division of the American Library Association

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Academic libraries

Page: N.A

View: 8168

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Revolution and Rebellion in the Early Modern World

Population Change and State Breakdown in England, France, Turkey, and China,1600-1850; 25th Anniversary Edition

Author: Jack A. Goldstone

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315408600

Category: Political Science

Page: 646

View: 7092

What can the great crises of the past teach us about contemporary revolutions? Jack Goldstone shows the important role of population changes, youth bulges, urbanization, elite divisions, and fiscal crises in creating major political crises. Goldstone shows how state breakdowns in both western monarchies and Asian empires followed the same patterns, triggered when inflexible political, economic, and social institutions were overwhelmed by cumulative changes in population structure that collided with popular aspirations and state-elite relations. Examining the great revolutions of Europe—the English and French Revolutions—and the great rebellions of Asia, which shattered dynasties in Ottoman Turkey, China, and Japan, he shows how long cycles of revolutionary crises and stability similarly shaped politics in Europe and Asia, but led to different outcomes. In this 25th anniversary edition, Goldstone reflects on the history of revolutions in the last twenty-five years, from the Philippines and other color revolutions to the Arab Uprisings and the rise of the Islamic State. In a new introduction, he re-examines his pioneering look at the role of population changes—such as rising youth cohorts, urbanization, shifting elite mobility––as continuing causal factors of revolutions and rebellions. The new concluding chapter updates his major theory and looks to the future of revolutions in the Middle East, Asia, and Africa.
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Democracy in Iran

Author: Misagh Parsa

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674974298

Category: Political Science

Page: 376

View: 2212

In Misagh Parsa’s view, the outlook for democracy in Iran is stark. Gradual reforms will not be sufficient for real change: the government must fundamentally rethink its commitment to the role of religion in politics and civic life. For Iran to democratize, the options are narrowing to a single path: another revolution.
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The Future of Revolutions

Rethinking Radical Change in the Age of Globalization

Author: John Foran

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781842770320

Category: Political Science

Page: 346

View: 3002

In this volume, a number of eminent historians, sociologists, and political scientists who have spent their lives studying revolutionary processes reflect on the age of 20th century of revolutions. They debate questions like: is the era of revolution over? What might the revolutions of the future look like? The face of transformative politics in the future and the directions of social change rest in large measure on the answers. A range of recent cases are taken up, from the intensely backward-looking movement of the Taliban in Afghanistan, to the magical revolution in Chiapas.
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States and Social Revolutions

A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China

Author: Theda Skocpol

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316453944

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 4421

State structures, international forces, and class relations: Theda Skocpol shows how all three combine to explain the origins and accomplishments of social-revolutionary transformations. Social revolutions have been rare but undeniably of enormous importance in modern world history. States and Social Revolutions provides a new frame of reference for analyzing the causes, the conflicts, and the outcomes of such revolutions. It develops a rigorous, comparative historical analysis of three major cases: the French Revolution of 1787 through the early 1800s, the Russian Revolution of 1917 through the 1930s, and the Chinese Revolution of 1911 through the 1960s. Believing that existing theories of revolution, both Marxist and non-Marxist, are inadequate to explain the actual historical patterns of revolutions, Skocpol urges us to adopt fresh perspectives. Above all, she maintains that states conceived as administrative and coercive organizations potentially autonomous from class controls and interests must be made central to explanations of revolutions.
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Politics of Confrontation

The Foreign Policy of the USA and Revolutionary Iran

Author: Babak Ganji

Publisher: Tauris Academic Studies

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 256

View: 6609

This is a penetrating critique of international relations theory within the historical framework of US-Iranian relations from the early reign of the Shah to the revolution under the Ayatollah Khomeini, with particular emphasis on the final years during the Carter administration. This thorough examination provides the first in-depth look at US documents seized from the American Embassy by revolutionary students during the infamous hostage crisis.
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Social Revolutions in the Modern World

Author: Theda Skocpol

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521409384

Category: History

Page: 354

View: 7445

In this collection of essays, Theda Skocpol, author of the award-winning States and Social Revolutions (CUP, 1979), updates her arguments about social revolutions. How are we to understand recent revolutionary upheavals in countries across the globe? Why have social revolutions happened in some countries, but not in others that seem similar? Skocpol shows how she and other scholars have used ideas about states and societies to identify the particular types of regimes that are susceptible to the growth of revolutionary movements and vulnerable to transfers of state power to revolutionary challengers.
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The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran

Author: Charles Kurzman

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 287

View: 490

The shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, would remain on the throne for the foreseeable future: This was the firm conclusion of a top-secret CIA analysis issued in October 1978. One hundred days later the shah--despite his massive military, fearsome security police, and superpower support was overthrown by a popular and largely peaceful revolution. But the CIA was not alone in its myopia, as Charles Kurzman reveals in this penetrating work; Iranians themselves, except for a tiny minority, considered a revolution inconceivable until it actually occurred. Revisiting the circumstances surrounding the fall of the shah, Kurzman offers rare insight into the nature and evolution of the Iranian revolution and into the ultimate unpredictability of protest movements in general. As one Iranian recalls, "The future was up in the air." Through interviews and eyewitness accounts, declassified security documents and underground pamphlets, Kurzman documents the overwhelming sense of confusion that gripped pre-revolutionary Iran, and that characterizes major protest movements. His book provides a striking picture of the chaotic conditions under which Iranians acted, participating in protest only when they expected others to do so too, the process approaching critical mass in unforeseen and unforeseeable ways. Only when large numbers of Iranians began to "think the unthinkable," in the words of the U.S. ambassador, did revolutionary expectations become a self-fulfilling prophecy. A corrective to 20-20 hindsight, this book reveals shortcomings of analyses that make the Iranian revolution or any major protest movement seem inevitable in retrospect.
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