The Landscape of Stalinism

The Art and Ideology of Soviet Space

Author: Evgeny Dobrenko,Eric Naiman

Publisher: University of Washington Press

ISBN: 0295801174

Category: Art

Page: 344

View: 8105

This wide-ranging cultural history explores the expression of Bolshevik Party ideology through the lens of landscape, or, more broadly, space. Portrayed in visual images and words, the landscape played a vital role in expressing and promoting ideology in the former Soviet Union during the Stalin years, especially in the 1930s. At the time, the iconoclasm of the immediate postrevolutionary years had given way to nation building and a conscious attempt to create a new Soviet �culture.� In painting, architecture, literature, cinema, and song, images of landscape were enlisted to help mold the masses into joyful, hardworking citizens of a state with a radiant, utopian future -- all under the fatherly guidance of Joseph Stalin. From backgrounds in history, art history, literary studies, and philosophy, the contributors show how Soviet space was sanctified, coded, and �sold� as an ideological product. They explore the ways in which producers of various art forms used space to express what Katerina Clark calls �a cartography of power� -- an organization of the entire country into �a hierarchy of spheres of relative sacredness,� with Moscow at the center. The theme of center versus periphery figures prominently in many of the essays, and the periphery is shown often to be paradoxically central. Examining representations of space in objects as diverse as postage stamps, a hikers� magazine, advertisements, and the Soviet musical, the authors show how cultural producers attempted to naturalize ideological space, to make it an unquestioned part of the worldview. Whether focusing on the new or the centuries-old, whether exploring a built cityscape, a film documentary, or the painting Stalin and Voroshilov in the Kremlin, the authors offer a consistently fascinating journey through the landscape of the Soviet ideological imagination. Not all features of Soviet space were entirely novel, and several of the essayists assert continuities with the prerevolutionary past. One example is the importance of the mother image in mass songs of the Stalin period; another is the "boundless longing" inspired in the Russian character by the burden of living amid vast empty spaces. But whether focusing on the new or the centuries-old, whether exploring a built cityscape, a film documentary, or the painting Stalin and Voroshilov in the Kremlin, the authors offer a consistently fascinating journey through the landscape of the Soviet ideological imagination.
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Constructing the Stalinist Body

Fictional Representations of Corporeality in the Stalinist 1930s

Author: Keith Livers

Publisher: Lexington Books

ISBN: 9780739135266

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 276

View: 8810

Constructing the Stalinist Body brings together contemporary body theory with studies on Stalinist ideology and cultural mythology in order to elucidate the complex problem of individual authorship within the context of Stalinist ideology of the 1930s and '40s. Author Keith A. Livers examines the ways in which Andrei Platonov, Mikhail Zoshchenko, Lev Kassil' and other authors used corporeal imagery as a means of both resisting and furthering the idea of a Stalinist utopia and the ideologically purified body politic it aspired to produce. The final chapter of the book looks at collective and popular representations of the Moscow subway (completed in 1935), which was one of the most important construction projects of the 1930s and was at the same time portrayed as a microcosm of the ideal world of Socialism to come.
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Stalinist subjets

individual and system in the Soviet Union and the Comintern, 1929-1953

Author: Brigitte Studer,Heiko Haumann

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Communist self-criticism

Page: 555

View: 383

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The Oxford Handbook of the History of Communism

Author: S. A. Smith

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191667528

Category: History

Page: 672

View: 4254

The impact of Communism on the twentieth century was massive, equal to that of the two world wars. Until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, historians knew relatively little about the secretive world of communist states and parties. Since then, the opening of state, party, and diplomatic archives of the former Eastern Bloc has released a flood of new documentation. The thirty-five essays in this Handbook, written by an international team of scholars, draw on this new material to offer a global history of communism in the twentieth century. In contrast to many histories that concentrate on the Soviet Union, The Oxford Handbook of the History of Communism is genuinely global in its coverage, paying particular attention to the Chinese Revolution. It is 'global', too, in the sense that the essays seek to integrate history 'from above' and 'from below', to trace the complex mediations between state and society, and to explore the social and cultural as well as the political and economic realities that shaped the lives of citizens fated to live under communist rule. The essays reflect on the similarities and differences between communist states in order to situate them in their socio-political and cultural contexts and to capture their changing nature over time. Where appropriate, they also reflect on how the fortunes of international communism were shaped by the wider economic, political, and cultural forces of the capitalist world. The Handbook provides an informative introduction for those new to the field and a comprehensive overview of the current state of scholarship for those seeking to deepen their understanding.
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How the Soviet Man was Unmade

Cultural Fantasy and Male Subjectivity Under Stalin

Author: Lilya Kaganovsky

Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre

ISBN: 9780822973430

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 226

View: 922

In Stalinist Russia, the idealized Soviet man projected an image of strength, virility, and unyielding drive in his desire to build a powerful socialist state. In monuments, posters, and other tools of cultural production, he became the demigod of Communist ideology. But beneath the surface of this fantasy, between the lines of texts and in film, lurked another figure: the wounded body of the heroic invalid, the second version of Stalin's New Man. In How the Soviet Man Was Unmade, Lilya Kaganovsky exposes the paradox behind the myth of the indestructible Stalinist-era male. In her analysis of social-realist literature and cinema, she examines the recurring theme of the mutilated male body, which appears with startling frequency. Kaganovsky views this representation as a thinly veiled statement about the emasculated male condition during the Stalinist era. Because the communist state was "full of heroes," a man could only truly distinguish himself and attain hero status through bodily sacrifice-yet in his wounding, he was forever reminded that he would be limited in what he could achieve, and was expected to remain in a state of continued subservience to Stalin and the party. Kaganovsky provides an insightful reevaluation of classic works of the period, including the novels of Nikolai Ostrovskii (How Steel Was Tempered) and Boris Polevoi (A Story About a Real Man), and films such as Ivan Pyr'ev's The Party Card, Eduard Pentslin's The Fighter Pilots, and Mikhail Chiaureli's The Fall of Berlin, among others. The symbolism of wounding and dismemberment in these works acts as a fissure in the facade of Stalinist cultural production through which we can view the consequences of historic and political trauma.
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Triumph und Tragödie

Stalin und die Wissenschaftler

Author: Simon Ings

Publisher: Hoffmann und Campe

ISBN: 3455003028

Category: Social Science

Page: 544

View: 9104

»Sozialismus ist Wissenschaft«, proklamierte Joseph Stalin, der sich selbst zum ersten Wissenschaftler des Landes stilisierte. Unter seiner Herrschaft entstand der weltweit am besten finanzierte Forschungsapparat, gleichzeitig mussten Wissenschaftler um ihr Leben fürchten. Gestützt auf zahlreiche Dokumente zeichnet Simon Ings die Vereinnahmung der Wissenschaft durch den Sowjetstaat nach. Er erzählt von brillanten Forschern und ruchlosen Scharlatanen, von Visionären und Karrieristen, von großem Mut und ebenso großer Feigheit.
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Contending with Stalinism

Soviet Power and Popular Resistance in the 1930s

Author: Lynne Viola

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 9780801487743

Category: History

Page: 235

View: 8742

Resistance has become an important and controversial analytical category for the study of Stalinism. The opening of Soviet archives allows historians an unprecedented look at the fabric of state and society in the 1930s. Researchers long spellbound by myths of Russian fatalism and submission as well as by the very real powers of the Stalinist state are startled by the dimensions of popular resistance under Stalin.Narratives of such resistance are inherently interesting, yet the topic is also significant because it sheds light on its historical surroundings. Contending with Stalinism employs the idea of resistance as a tool to explore what otherwise would remain opaque features of the social, cultural, and political history of the 1930s. In the process, the authors reveal a semi-autonomous world residing within and beyond the official world of Stalinism. Resistance ranged across a spectrum from violent strikes to the passive resistance that was a virtual way of life for millions and took many forms, from foot dragging and negligence to feigned ignorance and false compliance. Contending with Stalinism also highlights the problematic nature of resistance as an analytical category and stresses the ambiguous nature of the phenomenon. The topics addressed include working-class strikes, peasant rebellions, black-market crimes, official corruption, and homosexual and ethnic subcultures.
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Joseph Stalin

An Annotated Bibliography of English-Language Periodical Literature to 2005

Author: David R. Egan,Melinda A. Egan

Publisher: Scarecrow Press

ISBN: 0810866714

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 504

View: 1896

With the opening of Russian and communist-bloc archives dating from the Soviet-era, there has been a significant increase of scholarly writings pertaining to Joseph Stalin. Widely considered to be among the most influential historical figures of the twentieth century, Stalin continues to be a source of intense study. In the absence of a comprehensive compilation of periodical literature, the need for Joseph Stalin: An Annotated Bibliography of English Language Periodical Literature to 2005 is conspicuous. Ranging from editorials and news reports to academic articles, the more than 1,700 sources cited collectively cover the full range of his life, the various aspects of his leadership, and virtually all facets of the system and practices traditionally associated with his name. The coverage in this bibliography extends beyond the person of Stalin to include the subjects of Stalinism, the Stalinist system, the Stalin phenomenon, and those policies and practices of the Communist Party and Soviet state associated with him. This volume also provides a record of scholarly opinion on Stalin and sheds light on the evolution and current state of Stalinology. An effort has been made to list only those articles in which Stalin figures prominently, but, in some instances, articles have been included which do not center on Stalin but are worthy of listing for other reasons. The book is divided into fourteen main sections: General Studies and Overviews; Biographical Information and Psychological Assessments; The Revolutionary Movement, October Revolution and Civil War; Rise to Power; Politics; Economics; Society and Social Policy; Nationalism and Nationality Policy; Culture; Religion; Philosophy and Theory; Foreign Relations and International Communism; Military Affairs; and De-Stalinization. Including a subject index of several hundred headings and even greater number of subheadings, this comprehensive annotated bibliography should be of benefit to those individuals who, for the purpose of research or classroom instruction, are seeking sources of information on Stalin.
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Bolshevism, Stalinism and the Comintern

Perspectives on Stalinization, 1917-53

Author: Norman LaPorte,Kevin Morgan,Matthew Worley

Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan

ISBN: N.A

Category: History

Page: 319

View: 6856

Bringing together leading authorities and cutting edge scholars, this collection re-examines the defining concepts of Stalinism and the Stalinization odel. The aim of the book is to explore how the common imperatives of a centralized movement were experienced across national boundaries.
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From Fear and Loathing to Revolutionary Self-expression. A historiographical account of Soviet subjectivity in the Stalin Era

Author: Sjors Roeters

Publisher: GRIN Verlag

ISBN: 3668430144

Category: History

Page: 16

View: 476

Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2015 in the subject History Europe - Germany - Postwar Period, Cold War, grade: 9, University of Amsterdam, course: 20th Century Russian and Soviet History, language: English, abstract: Academic research does not operate in a vacuum. As much as the social, cultural, academic and historical circumstances are decisive to the object of research, it is just as much fundamental for the formation of the research itself. Without the trauma of WW II and the Red Army’s and Stalin’s cruel legacy, it is unlikely that Arendt would have developed her monumental Origins of Totalitarianism. And without the changes in the approaches and theories academics use and are influenced by, both Fitzpatrick and Kotkin would assumedly not have revised their predecessor’s argumentation. Equally both Kotkin and Hellbeck could have never developed their arguments without the opening up and eventual collapse of the Soviet Union. Concerning the debate on Soviet subjectivity itself all scholars have deepened our understanding on the subject. As the use of the term already indicates, the totalitarian model assumes an almost total control of society by the regime. And although the consecutive scholars do not explicitly fight the term, they implicitly fight it broadside by tackling the idea of Stalinist authoritarian control of society. Each of the scholars mentioned respectively nuanced and toned down further on Stalin’s supposed authoritarian control on society and grants the Soviet subject more own will and autonomy. Fitzpatrick and Kotkin were correct in taking on the totalitarian model, but did so without being sensitive to the subject’s intrinsic ideological beliefs and convictions. In its criticism of the state-society dichotomy Hellbeck does a very important thing: He is the first to strip the Soviet subject from its mechanical appearance and ‘humanizes’ the Soviet subject, making it an individual made from flesh and blood and with inner struggles and personal aspirations interacting with the revolutionary ideology, shifting the focus towards the Soviet subject itself, and definitively abandoning the old paradigm built on the state-society dichotomy, the debate was stuck in for decades.
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Revolution on My Mind

Writing a Diary Under Stalin

Author: Jochen Hellbeck

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 0674038533

Category: History

Page: 448

View: 5485

Revolution on My Mind is a stunning revelation of the inner world of Stalin's Russia, showing us the minds and hearts of Soviet citizens who recorded their lives in diaries during an extraordinary period of revolutionary fervor and state terror. Jochen Hellbeck brings us face to face with gripping and unforgettably poignant life stories. This book brilliantly explores the forging of the revolutionary self in a study that speaks to the evolution of the individual in mass movements of our own time.
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Organized Networks

Media Theory, Creative Labour, New Institutions

Author: N.A

Publisher: Nai Uitgevers Pub

ISBN: 9789056625269

Category: Art

Page: 250

View: 5952

The celebration of network cultures as open, decentralized and horizontal all too easily overshadows their political dimensions. In Organized Networks, Ned Rossiter, the author of Politics of a Digital Present and Refashioning Pop Music in Asia: Cosmopolitan Flows, Political Tempos and Aesthetic Industries, sets out to upend these myths by tracking the antagonisms lurking within Internet governance debates, the exploitation of labor in creative industries, and the aesthetics of global capital. Rossiter cuts across the fields of media theory, political philosophy and cultural critique to diagnose some of the key issues facing network cultures, questions central to their survival in a post-dot-com era. His work grows from his experience participating in and facilitating network cultures. His explanation of their current transformation into semi-autonomous political and cultural "networks of networks" is virtuosic. And his proposals are radical. A book of the future-present.
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Stalin

Eine Biographie

Author: Oleg Chlewnjuk

Publisher: Siedler Verlag

ISBN: 3641153492

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 592

View: 5010

Der Diktator und seine Herrschaft. Ein neuer Blick auf Stalin. Am Morgen des 1. März 1953, kurz nachdem er seinen engsten Führungszirkel verabschiedet hat, erleidet Josef Stalin in seiner Datscha bei Moskau einen Schlaganfall. Wenige Tage später ist er tot. Oleg Chlewnjuk, einer der führenden Stalinismus-Experten, nimmt diese letzten Lebenstage zum Ausgangspunkt einer beeindruckenden Biographie – auf Grundlage bisher unbekannter Quellen aus sowjetischen Archiven eröffnet sie einen neuen Blick auf den Diktator und seine Herrschaft. So spiegelt sich in Stalins letzten Tagen nicht nur der eigentümliche Charakter seines Regimes, auch seine intimste Umgebung gerät ins Blickfeld. Die Phase des Abschieds erschließt zudem eine neue Perspektive auf die wichtigsten Stationen seines Lebens: Kindheit und Jugend in Georgien, der Weg vom jungen Revolutionär zum politischen Führer und grausamen Despoten, der Kampf gegen Nazi-Deutschland, der Beginn des Kalten Krieges. Chlewnjuk durchleuchtet die elitären Machtzirkel des Kremls, die Stalin umgeben – und zeigt damit, wie untrennbar die Person des Diktators mit der Geschichte des sowjetischen Terrors verknüpft ist.
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Late Stalinist Russia

Society Between Reconstruction and Reinvention

Author: Juliane Fürst

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134189036

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 2513

The late Stalinist period, long neglected by researchers more interested in the high-profile events of the 1930s, has recently become the focus of much new research by people keen to understand the enormous impact of the war on Soviet society and to understand Soviet life under 'mature socialism'. Written by top scholars from high profile universities, this impressive work brings together much new, cutting edge research on a wide range of aspects of late Stalinist society. Filling a gap in the literature, it focuses above all on the experience of the Soviet people and their interaction with ideology, state policy and national and international politics.
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Reflective Laughter

Aspects of Humour in Russian Culture

Author: Lesley Milne

Publisher: Anthem Press

ISBN: 0857287427

Category: Social Science

Page: 238

View: 6189

The end of the Cold War brought new opportunities to explore the long tradition and myriad uses of humour through over two centuries of Russian literature and culture. 'Reflective Laughter' is the first book devoted to an overview of this subject. Bringing together contributions from a number of distinguished scholars from Russia, Europe and North America, this volume ranges from the classics of nineteenth-century literature through to the intellectual and popular comedic culture, both state-sponsored and official, of the twentieth-century, taking in journalism, propaganda, scholarly discourse, jokes, films and television. In doing so, it explores how our understanding remains distorted by the polarization of the East and West during the Cold War.
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Stalinist Confessions

Messianism and Terror at the Leningrad Communist University

Author: Igal Halfin

Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Pre

ISBN: 0822973529

Category: EDUCATION

Page: 496

View: 3946

During Stalin's Great Terror, accusations of treason struck fear in the hearts of Soviet citizens-and lengthy imprisonment or firing squads often followed. Many of the accused sealed their fates by agreeing to confessions after torture or interrogation by the NKVD. Some, however, gave up without a fight. In Stalinist Confessions, Igal Halfin investigates the phenomenon of a mass surrender to the will of the state. He deciphers the skillfully rendered discourse through which Stalin defined his cult of personality and consolidated his power by building a grassroots base of support and instilling a collective psyche in every citizen. By rooting out evil (opposition) wherever it hid, good communists could realize purity, morality, and their place in the greatest society in history. Confessing to trumped-up charges, comrades made willing sacrifices to their belief in socialism and the necessity of finding and making examples of its enemies. Halfin focuses his study on Leningrad Communist University as a microcosm of Soviet society. Here, eager students proved their loyalty to the new socialism by uncovering opposition within the University. Through their meetings and self-reports, students sought to become Stalin's New Man. Using his exhaustive research in Soviet archives including NKVD records, party materials, student and instructor journals, letters, and newspapers, Halfin examines the transformation in the language of Stalinist socialism. From an initial attitude that dismissed dissent as an error in judgment and redeemable through contrition to a doctrine where members of the opposition became innately wicked and their reform impossible, Stalin's socialism now defined loyalty in strictly black and white terms. Collusion or allegiance (real or contrived, now or in the past) with “enemies of the people” (Trotsky, Zinoviev, Bukharin, Germans, capitalists) was unforgivable. The party now took to the task of purging itself with ever-increasing zeal.
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Joseph Stalin

Man and Legend

Author: Ronald Hingley

Publisher: Smithmark Publishers

ISBN: N.A

Category: Soviet Union

Page: 482

View: 9677

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