Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions

Author: Becky P. Y. Loo,Tessa Kate Anderson

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439874131

Category: Mathematics

Page: 322

View: 3787

Examine the Prevalence and Geography of Road Collisions Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions centers on the geographical nature of road crashes, and uses spatial methods to provide a greater understanding of the patterns and processes that cause them. Written by internationally known experts in the field of transport geography, the book outlines the key issues in identifying hazardous road locations (HRLs), considers current approaches used for reducing and preventing road traffic collisions, and outlines a strategy for improved road safety. The book covers spatial accuracy, validation, and other statistical issues, as well as link-attribute and event-based approaches, cluster identification, and risk exposure. The book provides a brief summary of the evolution of road safety in the twentieth century, explores current road safety problems, and establishes road safety as a public health issue. The authors discuss risk and socioeconomic factors, lifestyle and behavior, and the impact of urban development. They consider road engineering, signage, vehicle design, the education of road users, and the enforcement of traffic safety measures. They also factor in the overall impact of road traffic collisions on transportation systems, economic systems, health systems, and society as a whole. Combines theoretical methodology with empirical data Bridges research and practice in road safety Includes case studies from around the world Spatial Analysis Methods of Road Traffic Collisions takes a look at spatial methods and their role in analyzing road traffic collisions to improve road safety. A great addition to transportation safety practice and research, this book serves as a reference for spatial analysis researchers and postgraduate students in traffic and transportation engineering, transport, and urban transport planning.
Release

Mathematical Analysis of Urban Spatial Networks

Author: Philippe Blanchard,Dimitri Volchenkov

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540878297

Category: Science

Page: 184

View: 6335

Cities can be considered to be among the largest and most complex artificial networks created by human beings. Due to the numerous and diverse human-driven activities, urban network topology and dynamics can differ quite substantially from that of natural networks and so call for an alternative method of analysis. The intent of the present monograph is to lay down the theoretical foundations for studying the topology of compact urban patterns, using methods from spectral graph theory and statistical physics. These methods are demonstrated as tools to investigate the structure of a number of real cities with widely differing properties: medieval German cities, the webs of city canals in Amsterdam and Venice, and a modern urban structure such as found in Manhattan. Last but not least, the book concludes by providing a brief overview of possible applications that will eventually lead to a useful body of knowledge for architects, urban planners and civil engineers.
Release

Spatial Analysis Along Networks

Statistical and Computational Methods

Author: Atsuyuki Okabe,Kokichi Sugihara

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119967767

Category: Mathematics

Page: 320

View: 9050

In the real world, there are numerous and various events that occur on and alongside networks, including the occurrence of traffic accidents on highways, the location of stores alongside roads, the incidence of crime on streets and the contamination along rivers. In order to carry out analyses of those events, the researcher needs to be familiar with a range of specific techniques. Spatial Analysis Along Networks provides a practical guide to the necessary statistical techniques and their computational implementation. Each chapter illustrates a specific technique, from Stochastic Point Processes on a Network and Network Voronoi Diagrams, to Network K-function and Point Density Estimation Methods, and the Network Huff Model. The authors also discuss and illustrate the undertaking of the statistical tests described in a Geographical Information System (GIS) environment as well as demonstrating the user-friendly free software package SANET. Spatial Analysis Along Networks: Presents a much-needed practical guide to statistical spatial analysis of events on and alongside a network, in a logical, user-friendly order. Introduces the preliminary methods involved, before detailing the advanced, computational methods, enabling the readers a complete understanding of the advanced topics. Dedicates a separate chapter to each of the major techniques involved. Demonstrates the practicalities of undertaking the tests described in the book, using a GIS. Is supported by a supplementary website, providing readers with a link to the free software package SANET, so they can execute the statistical methods described in the book. Students and researchers studying spatial statistics, spatial analysis, geography, GIS, OR, traffic accident analysis, criminology, retail marketing, facility management and ecology will benefit from this book.
Release

The SAGE Handbook of Spatial Analysis

Author: A Stewart Fotheringham,Peter A Rogerson

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 1446206505

Category: Social Science

Page: 528

View: 8012

The widespread use of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) has significantly increased the demand for knowledge about spatial analytical techniques across a range of disciplines. As growing numbers of researchers realise they are dealing with spatial data, the demand for specialised statistical and mathematical methods designed to deal with spatial data is undergoing a rapid increase. Responding to this demand, The Handbook of Spatial Analysis is a comprehensive and authoritative discussion of issues and techniques in the field of Spatial Data Analysis. Its principal focus is on: • why the analysis of spatial data needs separate treatment • the main areas of spatial analysis • the key debates within spatial analysis • examples of the application of various spatial analytical techniques • problems in spatial analysis • areas for future research Aimed at an international audience of academics, The Handbook of Spatial Analysis will also prove essential to graduate level students and researchers in government agencies and the private sector.
Release

Spatial Analysis of Bicycle Use and Accident Risks for Cyclists

Author: Grégory Vandenbulcke-Plasschaert

Publisher: Presses univ. de Louvain

ISBN: 2875580191

Category: Science

Page: 334

View: 1179

Most developed countries nowadays face environmental, health and mobility problems as a consequence of widespread car use. Policies are now being reappraised in favour of more sustainable modes of transport. In particular, bicycle use holds the potential to provide a 'green' and healthy alternative to car commuting. There are however still important barriers that discourage people cycling... This thesis aims at identifying some of the main factors that influence cycle commuting and cycling accidents. Identifying such factors would in turn provide greater support to enable policy makers developing supportive environmental conditions for cycling. In the first part of this thesis, we examine which factors influence the spatial variation of bicycle use for commuting to work at the level of the municipalities in Belgium. Special attention is paid to bicycle-specific factors and spatial econometric methods are used to account for the presence of spatial effects in the data. The second part of this thesis examines which factors are associated with cycling accidents in Brussels. Spatial point pattern methods extended to networks are used to compare the 'locational tendencies' of cycling accidents officially registered by the police with those that are unregistered. An innovative case-control approach, based on a rigorous sampling design of controls and an exhaustive data collection of spatial factors, is also proposed to allow modelling the risk of cycling accident along the Brussels' road network. This thesis not only provides sound recommendations helping planners and policy makers to encourage bicycle use, but it also offers new research directions for pinpointing locations where accidents are more likely to occur.
Release

European road safety action programme

halving the number of road accident victims in the European Union by 2010 : a shared responsibility

Author: European Commission,European Commission. Directorate-General for Energy and Transport

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9789289458931

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 59

View: 3493

Release

World Report on Road Traffic Injury Prevention

Summary

Author: Marjorie Peden

Publisher: DIANE Publishing

ISBN: 1437904068

Category:

Page: 52

View: 4311

Every day thousands of people are killed and injured on our roads. Millions of people each year will spend long weeks in the hospital after severe crashes and many will never be able to live, work or play as they used to do. Current efforts to address road safety are minimal in comparison to this growing human suffering. This report presents a comprehensive overview of what is known about the magnitude, risk factors and impact of road traffic injuries, and about ways to prevent and lessen the impact of road crashes. Over 100 experts, from all continents and different sectors -- including transport, engineering, health, police, education and civil society -- have worked to produce the report. Charts and tables.
Release

Injury Research

Theories, Methods, and Approaches

Author: Guohua Li,Susan P. Baker

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461415985

Category: Medical

Page: 676

View: 342

This text focuses on contemporary injury research methods. It covers recent developments in theories, methods, concepts, and techniques in injury research and includes quantitative, qualitative, experimental and observational methods from multiple disciplines.
Release

Global Status Report on Road Safety 2015

Author: World Health Organization

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9241565063

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 323

View: 8979

This report shows that the number of road traffic deaths - 1.25 million in 2013 - has remained fairly constant since 2007 despite the increase in global motorization and population and the predicted rise in deaths. This suggests that interventions to improve global road safety are preventing increases that otherwise would have occurred. The report highlights that the situation is worst in low-income countries where rates are more than double those in high-income countries and there are a disproportionate number of deaths relative to the (lower) level of motorization. The African Region and the Eastern Mediterranean Region continue to have the highest road traffic death rates while the lowest rates are in the European Region notably among its high-income countries many of which have been very successful at achieving and sustaining reductions in death rates despite increasing motorization. Changing road user behaviour is a critical component of the holistic Safe Systems approach advocated in this report. Adopting and enforcing good laws is an effective means of changing road user behaviour on key risk factors for road traffic injuries - speed drink-driving and the failure to use helmets seat-belts and child restraints properly or at all. The report highlights that over the last 3 years 17 countries have changed laws to bring their legislation on one or more of the five key risk factors into line with best practice. The report further highlights the important role of safe infrastructure and safe vehicles in reducing road traffic injuries. Road infrastructure is mainly constructed with the needs of motorists in mind although the report indicates that 49% of all road traffic deaths occur among pedestrians cyclists and motorcyclists. Real sustained successes at reducing global road traffic deaths will only happen when road design takes into consideration the needs of all road users. With the development of the Sustainable Development Goals road safety is receiving increased international attention and is included in 2 of the 17 Goals of this new global agenda. This is welcomed. The evidence on what works to save lives on the roads exists: the international community national governments and civil society now need to act on it.
Release

Forecasting Urban Travel

Past, Present and Future

Author: David E. Boyce,Huw C.W.L. Williams

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1784713597

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 672

View: 6881

Forecasting Urban Travel presents in a non-mathematical way the evolution of methods, models and theories underpinning travel forecasts and policy analysis, from the early urban transportation studies of the 1950s to current applications throughout the
Release

Geometric Design of Roads Handbook

Author: Keith M. Wolhuter

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482288729

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 626

View: 323

Explore the Art and Science of Geometric Design The Geometric Design of Roads Handbook covers the design of the visible elements of the road—its horizontal and vertical alignments, the cross-section, intersections, and interchanges. Good practice allows the smooth and safe flow of traffic as well as easy maintenance. Geometric design is covered in depth. The book also addresses the underpinning disciplines of statistics, traffic flow theory, economic and utility analysis, systems analysis, hydraulics and drainage, capacity analysis, coordinate calculation, environmental issues, and public transport. Background Material for the Practicing Designer A key principle is recognizing what the driver wishes to do rather than what the vehicle can do. The book takes a human factors approach to design, drawing on the concept of the "self-explaining road." It also emphasizes the need for consistency of design and shows how this can be quantified, and sets out the issues of the design domain context, the extended design domain concept, and the design exception. The book is not simply an engineering manual, but properly explores context-sensitive design. Discover and Develop Real-World Solutions Changes in geometric design over the last few years have been dramatic and far-reaching and this is the first book to draw these together into a practical guide which presents a proper and overriding philosophy of design for road and highway designers, and students. This text: Covers the basics of geometric design Explores key aspects of multimodal design Addresses drainage and environmental issues Reviews practical standards, procedures, and guidelines Provides additional references for further reading A practical guide for graduate students taking geometric design, traffic operations/capacity analysis, and public transport, the Geometric Design of Roads Handbook introduces a novel approach that addresses the human aspect in the design process and incorporates relevant concepts that can help readers create and implement safe and efficient designs.
Release

Statistical and Econometric Methods for Transportation Data Analysis, Second Edition

Author: Simon P. Washington,Matthew G. Karlaftis,Fred L. Mannering

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 142008285X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 544

View: 4066

The complexity, diversity, and random nature of transportation problems necessitates a broad analytical toolbox. Describing tools commonly used in the field, Statistical and Econometric Methods for Transportation Data Analysis, Second Edition provides an understanding of a broad range of analytical tools required to solve transportation problems. It includes a wide breadth of examples and case studies covering applications in various aspects of transportation planning, engineering, safety, and economics. After a solid refresher on statistical fundamentals, the book focuses on continuous dependent variable models and count and discrete dependent variable models. Along with an entirely new section on other statistical methods, this edition offers a wealth of new material. New to the Second Edition A subsection on Tobit and censored regressions An explicit treatment of frequency domain time series analysis, including Fourier and wavelets analysis methods New chapter that presents logistic regression commonly used to model binary outcomes New chapter on ordered probability models New chapters on random-parameter models and Bayesian statistical modeling New examples and data sets Each chapter clearly presents fundamental concepts and principles and includes numerous references for those seeking additional technical details and applications. To reinforce a practical understanding of the modeling techniques, the data sets used in the text are offered on the book’s CRC Press web page. PowerPoint and Word presentations for each chapter are also available for download.
Release

New Frontiers in Urban Analysis

In Honor of Atsuyuki Okabe

Author: Yasushi Asami,Yukio Sadahiro,Toru Ishikawa

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439802533

Category: Law

Page: 272

View: 7533

Bringing together the world’s leading experts in Urban Analysis, this remarkable and critically acclaimed volume applies the theories and models of Atsuyuko Okabe, Japan’s preeminent spatial analyst, to case studies in urban planning, transport, administration, and public health in the context of the highly advanced Japanese planning system. It includes information that has never appeared in English, covering the development of techniques in GIS, spatial modeling, and methodologies of spatial analysis as they are applied to urban environments. Each of the contributors has worked directly with or studied under Professor Okabe
Release

Using ArcMap

ArcGIS 9

Author: Melanie Harlow,Rhonda Pfaff,Michael Minami

Publisher: Esri Press

ISBN: 9781589480988

Category: Computers

Page: 585

View: 2685

ESRI® ArcMap™, part of the suite of integrated applications in ArcGIS™ Desktop— ArcInfo™, ArcEditor™, and ArcView® is used to display and query maps, create publication-quality hard-copy output, develop custom mapping applications, and perform many other map-based tasks. ArcMap also includes a fully integrated editor that can work with versioned multi-user geodatabases implemented within commercial an RDBMS, personal geodatabases, and shapefiles. ArcMap provides an easy and natural transition from viewing a map to editing its geometry. Using ArcMap shows you how to immediately put ArcMap to work. Whether you're just beginning with mapping and geographic information systems (GIS) or you're a power user, this book makes it easy to find the task you want-from basic to advanced-and shows you how to do it. You'll learn how to: Put your geographic information on a map. Effectively display your geographic data. Create and update geographic data. Make great looking, publication-quality maps. Build interactive displays that link charts, tables, reports, photographs, and the Internet to your data. Understand relationships like ""Where is?"" ""How much?"" and ""What if?"" Develop custom map-based applications tailored to your needs. You can begin learning by working with the quick-start tutorial. The tutorial gives you an overview of what you can do with ArcMap and shows you how to make your first map. If you prefer, jump right in and experiment with ArcMap on your own. When you have questions, you'll find concise, step-by-step answers that are fully illustrated to help you complete a task.
Release

Human Factors of Visual and Cognitive Performance in Driving

Author: Candida Castro

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420055337

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 266

View: 8873

Human error is involved in more than 90 percent of traffic accidents, and of those accidents, most are associated with visual distractions, or looking-but-failing-to-see errors. Human Factors of Visual and Cognitive Performance in Driving gathers knowledge from a human factors psychology standpoint and provides deeper insight into traffic -user behavior and the ways drivers acquire information from the road. Emphasizes Drivers as Visual Information Processors Because driving is an eyes-wide-open task, drivers are exposed to a multitude of visual stimuli along their journey. This information must be correctly processed in order to make the right decisions and perform precise safety maneuvers. With contributions from more than 20 leading experts, this detailed resource discusses road and markings design, new technologies, signage, distraction, safety, situation awareness, workload, driving experience, fatigue, and driving interventions with the goal of improving driving behavior and preventing accidents. Addresses These Key Areas: Visual attention and in-vehicle technologies Interventions to reduce road trauma Avoiding collisions and the failures involved in that endeavor Using jargon-free language that is easily understood, this book compresses research from the past few decades into one accessible resource. It clearly and cohesively provides ergonomics and human factor engineers, industrial designers, and highway and roadway engineers with an overarching understanding of the incessant visual demands drivers face.
Release

GIS and Crime Mapping

Author: Spencer Chainey,Jerry Ratcliffe

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118685199

Category: Science

Page: 448

View: 9106

The growing potential of GIS for supporting policing and crime reduction is now being recognised by a broader community. GIS can be employed at different levels to support operational policing, tactical crime mapping, detection, and wider-ranging strategic analyses. With the use of GIS for crime mapping increasing, this book provides a definitive reference. GIS and Crime Mapping provides essential information and reference material to support readers in developing and implementing crime mapping. Relevant case studies help demonstrate the key principles, concepts and applications of crime mapping. This book combines the topics of theoretical principles, GIS, analytical techniques, data processing solutions, information sharing, problem-solving approaches, map design, and organisational structures for using crime mapping for policing and crime reduction. Delivered in an accessible style, topics are covered in a manner that underpins crime mapping use in the three broad areas of operations, tactics and strategy. Provides a complete start-to-finish coverage of crime mapping, including theory, scientific methodologies, analysis techniques and design principles. Includes a comprehensive presentation of crime mapping applications for operational, tactical and strategic purposes. Includes global case studies and examples to demonstrate good practice. Co-authored by Spencer Chainey, a leading researcher and consultant on GIS and crime mapping, and Jerry Ratcliffe, a renowned professor and former police officer. This book is essential reading for crime analysts and other professionals working in intelligence roles in law enforcement or crime reduction, at the local, regional and national government levels. It is also an excellent reference for undergraduate and Masters students taking courses in GIS, Geomatics, Crime Mapping, Crime Science, Criminal Justice and Criminology.
Release

Unsustainable Transport and Transition in China

Author: Becky PY Loo

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317389697

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 242

View: 1478

This book discusses various transport sustainability issues from the perspective of developing countries, exploring key issues, problems and potential solutions for improving transport sustainability in China. It first reviews the current transport sustainability baselines in the three key dimensions of environmental, economic and social sustainability, via an international comparison encompassing both developed and developing countries in different world regions. Then, with a time frame up to 2030, the study groups 100 major Chinese cities according to their baseline conditions, projected population and economic growth, and common sustainability challenges in passenger transport. A systematic attempt is made to discuss the characteristics, strengths and weaknesses of various emerging sustainable transport strategies, including the metro systems, bus rapid transit, light rail, bicycles (and e-bicycles), electric vehicles and walking. Based on the different city clusters identified, the study then explores the opportunities and constraints of introducing a range of emerging sustainable transport strategies through both statistical analysis and detailed fieldwork. Future directions and challenges are identified based on official documents, onsite observations and interviews with local people. The study concludes with thoughts on sustainable transport in smart cities, the importance of governance, local participation, internal and external city movements, and towards a holistic sustainable transport plan. Unsustainable Transport and Transition in China will be of great interest to scholars interested in carbon emissions, climate change, environmental policy, planning, road safety, sustainability, transportation and urban studies, and is relevant to China and other developing countries.
Release

Geospatial Analysis of Environmental Health

Author: Juliana A. Maantay,Sara McLafferty

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400703292

Category: Medical

Page: 498

View: 2044

This book focuses on a range of geospatial applications for environmental health research, including environmental justice issues, environmental health disparities, air and water contamination, and infectious diseases. Environmental health research is at an exciting point in its use of geotechnologies, and many researchers are working on innovative approaches. This book is a timely scholarly contribution in updating the key concepts and applications of using GIS and other geospatial methods for environmental health research. Each chapter contains original research which utilizes a geotechnical tool (Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, GPS, etc.) to address an environmental health problem. The book is divided into three sections organized around the following themes: issues in GIS and environmental health research; using GIS to assess environmental health impacts; and geospatial methods for environmental health. Representing diverse case studies and geospatial methods, the book is likely to be of interest to researchers, practitioners and students across the geographic and environmental health sciences. The authors are leading researchers and practitioners in the field of GIS and environmental health.
Release

Spatial and Spatio-temporal Bayesian Models with R - INLA

Author: Marta Blangiardo,Michela Cameletti

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118950216

Category: Mathematics

Page: 320

View: 5334

Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Bayesian Models with R-INLA provides a much needed, practically oriented & innovative presentation of the combination of Bayesian methodology and spatial statistics. The authors combine an introduction to Bayesian theory and methodology with a focus on the spatial and spatio­-temporal models used within the Bayesian framework and a series of practical examples which allow the reader to link the statistical theory presented to real data problems. The numerous examples from the fields of epidemiology, biostatistics and social science all are coded in the R package R-INLA, which has proven to be a valid alternative to the commonly used Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations
Release

Health Effects of Transport-related Air Pollution

Author: Michał Krzyżanowski,Birgit Kuna-Dibbert,Jürgen Schneider

Publisher: WHO Regional Office Europe

ISBN: 9289013737

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 190

View: 4964

Diseases related to the air pollution caused by road transport affect tens of thousands of people in the WHO Europe region each year. This publication considers the policy challenges involved in the need to reduce the related risks to public health and the environment, whilst meeting socio-economic requirements for effective transport systems. It sets out a systematic review of the literature and a comprehensive evaluation of the health hazards of transport-related air pollution, including factors determining emissions, the contribution of traffic to pollution levels, human exposure and the results of epidemiological and toxicological studies to identify and measure the health effects, and suggestions for policy actions and further research.
Release