Society Against the State

Essays in Political Anthropology

Author: Pierre Clastres,Robert Hurley

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9780942299014

Category: Philosophy

Page: 224

View: 2600

"The thesis is radical," writes Marshall Sahlins of this landmark text in anthropology and political science. "We conventionally define the state as the regulation of violence; it may be the origin of it. Clastres's thesis is that economic expropriation and political coercion are inconsistent with the character of tribal society - which is to say, with the greater part of human history."Can there be a society that is not divided into oppressors and oppressed, or that refuses coercive state apparatuses? In this beautifully written book, Pierre Clastres offers examples of South American Indian groups that, although without hierarchical leadership, were both affluent and complex. In so doing he refutes the usual negative definition of tribal society and poses its order as a radical critique of our own Western state of power.Born in 1934, Pierre Clastres was educated at the Sorbonne; throughout the 1960s he lived with Indian groups in Paraguay and Venezuela. From 1971 until his death in 1979 he was Director of Studies at the fifth section of the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes in Paris and held the Chair of Religion and Societies of the South American Indians there.Robert Hurley is the translator of the History of Sexuality by Michel Foucault and cotranslator of Anti-Oedipus by Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari.
Release

Archeology of Violence

Author: Pierre Clastres

Publisher: Semiotext

ISBN: N.A

Category: Social Science

Page: 335

View: 720

Clastres's final, posthumous book on the affirmative role of violence in "primitive societies."
Release

Against the State

An Introduction to Anarchist Political Theory

Author: Crispin Sartwell

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 0791478351

Category: Political Science

Page: 136

View: 4947

Irreverent and incisive critique of liberal theories of the state.
Release

Militarizing Culture

Essays on the Warfare State

Author: Roberto J González

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315424681

Category: Social Science

Page: 209

View: 4838

Militarizing Culture is a rousing critique of the American warfare state by a leading cultural commentator. Roberto J. González reveals troubling trends in the post-9/11 era, as the military industrial complex infiltrates new arenas of cultural life, from economic and educational arenas to family relationships. One of the nation’s foremost critics of the Human Terrain System program, González makes passionate arguments against the engagement of social scientists and the use of anthropological theory and methods in military operations. Despite the pervasive presence of militarism and violence in our society, González insists that warfare is not an inevitable part of human nature, and charts a path toward the decommissioning of culture.
Release

People without government

an anthropology of anarchy

Author: Harold B. Barclay

Publisher: Kahn & Averill Publishers

ISBN: N.A

Category: Political Science

Page: 162

View: 3820

Anarchy, as the absence of government, is neither chaos nor some impossible Utopian dream. In fact it is a very common form of political organisation and one which has characterised much of the human past. People Without Government describes briefly the anarchic political structures of a number of these societies. True they are mainly small-scale hunting, gathering and horticultural groups. However, the social organisation of certain large populations with complex relations is also sometimes anarchic. Thus anarchy applies to a broad spectrum of different kinds of societies. This book seeks to show what anarchy has been like in practice. Special attention is paid to the techniques of leadership, maintaining order and decision-making. The dynamic interplay between freedom and authority is considered, particularly the apparent tendency of anarchic polities to degenerate into states with government and for organisations to become oligarchies, and it is concluded that liberty and individuality are at best very tenuous and fleeting entities. There can be no relenting in the struggle for freedom.
Release

Symbols, Conflict, and Identity

Essays in Political Anthropology

Author: Zdzisław Mach

Publisher: SUNY Press

ISBN: 9780791414651

Category: Political Science

Page: 297

View: 6810

This book investigates cultural and social identity in contemporary complex societies, focusing especially on Eastern Europe. Mach explains the role of symbols and symbolic forms in he relations between groups and the protection and development of their identities, especially ethnic identity. He places his study within the context of social order and the structure of power, using case studies which deal especially with the significance of politics, state rituals and national identity (Great Britain, Israel, Russia, Poland); in the conflict and displacement of migrating groups (Polish and German); and in regional questions of identity and inter-ethnic relations (Poland, United States, Great Britain). Mach presents a clear conceptual framework for analyzing the symbolic construction of identity. He views cultural identity as a dynamic, creative process which clarifies issues that are particularly significant in contemporary society, such as nationalism, new ethnicity, minority culture, and the cultural dimension of political conflicts.
Release

The World Until Yesterday

What Can We Learn from Traditional Societies?

Author: Jared Diamond

Publisher: Penguin UK

ISBN: 1846148154

Category: Social Science

Page: 512

View: 9225

From the author of No.1 international bestseller Collapse, a mesmerizing portrait of the human past that offers profound lessons for how we can live today Visionary, prize-winning author Jared Diamond changed the way we think about the rise and fall of human civilizations with his previous international bestsellers Guns, Germs and Steel and Collapse. Now he returns with another epic - and groundbreaking - journey into our rapidly receding past. In The World Until Yesterday, Diamond reveals how traditional societies around the world offer an extraordinary window onto how our ancestors lived for the majority of human history - until virtually yesterday, in evolutionary terms - and provide unique, often overlooked insights into human nature. Drawing extensively on his decades working in the jungles of Papua New Guinea, Diamond explores how tribal societies approach essential human problems, from childrearing to conflict resolution to health, and discovers we have much to learn from traditional ways of life. He unearths remarkable findings - from the reason why modern afflictions like diabetes, obesity and Alzheimer's are virtually non-existent in tribal societies to the surprising benefits of multilingualism. Panoramic in scope and thrillingly original, The World Until Yesterday provides an enthralling first-hand picture of the human past that also suggests profound lessons for how to live well today. Jared Diamond is the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of the seminal million-copy-bestseller Guns, Germs, and Steel, which was named one of TIME's best non-fiction books of all time, and Collapse, a #1 international bestseller. A professor of geography at UCLA and noted polymath, Diamond's work has been influential in the fields of anthropology, biology, ornithology, ecology and history, among others.
Release

In the Shadows of the State

Indigenous Politics, Environmentalism, and Insurgency in Jharkhand, India

Author: Alpa Shah

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822392933

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 9683

In the Shadows of the State suggests that well-meaning indigenous rights and development claims and interventions may misrepresent and hurt the very people they intend to help. It is a powerful critique based on extensive ethnographic research in Jharkhand, a state in eastern India officially created in 2000. While the realization of an independent Jharkhand was the culmination of many years of local, regional, and transnational activism for the rights of the region’s culturally autonomous indigenous people, Alpa Shah argues that the activism unintentionally further marginalized the region’s poorest people. Drawing on a decade of ethnographic research in Jharkhand, she follows the everyday lives of some of the poorest villagers as they chase away protected wild elephants, try to cut down the forests they allegedly live in harmony with, maintain a healthy skepticism about the revival of the indigenous governance system, and seek to avoid the initial spread of an armed revolution of Maoist guerrillas who claim to represent them. Juxtaposing these experiences with the accounts of the village elites and the rhetoric of the urban indigenous-rights activists, Shah reveals a class dimension to the indigenous-rights movement, one easily lost in the cultural-based identity politics that the movement produces. In the Shadows of the State brings together ethnographic and theoretical analyses to show that the local use of global discourses of indigeneity often reinforces a class system that harms the poorest people.
Release

Fragments of an Anarchist Anthropology

Author: David Graeber

Publisher: Prickly Paradigm

ISBN: 9780972819640

Category: Social Science

Page: 105

View: 7262

In this work, David Graeber explores the implications of linking anthropology to anarchism.
Release

The Interpretation of Cultures

Author: Clifford Geertz

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465093566

Category: Social Science

Page: 576

View: 2663

In The Interpretation of Cultures, the most original anthropologist of his generation moved far beyond the traditional confines of his discipline to develop an important new concept of culture. This groundbreaking book, winner of the 1974 Sorokin Award of the American Sociological Association, helped define for an entire generation of anthropologists what their field is ultimately about.
Release

Anthropology, Politics, and the State

Democracy and Violence in South Asia

Author: Jonathan Spencer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139471511

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 6238

In recent years anthropology has rediscovered its interest in politics. Building on the findings of this research, this book, first published in 2007, analyses the relationship between culture and politics, with special attention to democracy, nationalism, the state and political violence. Beginning with scenes from an unruly early 1980s election campaign in Sri Lanka, it covers issues from rural policing in north India to slum housing in Delhi, presenting arguments about secularism and pluralism, and the ambiguous energies released by electoral democracy across the subcontinent. It ends by discussing feminist peace activists in Sri Lanka, struggling to sustain a window of shared humanity after two decades of war. Bringing together and linking the themes of democracy, identity and conflict, this important new study shows how anthropology can take a central role in understanding other people's politics, especially the issues that seem to have divided the world since 9/11.
Release

The Social Life of Achievement

Author: Nicholas J. Long,Henrietta L. Moore

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 1782382216

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 6736

What happens when people "achieve"? Why do reactions to "achievement" vary so profoundly? And how might an anthropological study of achievement and its consequences allow us to develop a more nuanced model of the motivated agency that operates in the social world? These questions lie at the heart of this volume. Drawing on research from Southeast Asia, Europe, the United States, and Latin America, this collection develops an innovative framework for explaining achievement's multiple effects-one which brings together cutting-edge theoretical insights into politics, psychology, ethics, materiality, aurality, embodiment, affect and narrative. In doing so, the volume advances a new agenda for the study of achievement within anthropology, emphasizing the significance of achievement as a moment of cultural invention, and the complexity of "the achiever" as a subject position.
Release

The Time of the Tribes

The Decline of Individualism in Mass Society

Author: Michel Maffesoli

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780803984745

Category: Social Science

Page: 176

View: 7104

In this exciting book Michel Maffesoli argues that the conventional approaches to understanding solidarity and society are deeply flawed. He contends that mass culture has disintegrated and that today social existence is conducted through fragmented tribal groupings, organized around the catchwords, brand-names and sound-bites of consumer culture. The book provides a rich backcloth against which to consider the rise of `identity politics' and the `proliferation of lifestyle cultures'.
Release

Legends of People, Myths of State

Violence, Intolerance, and Political Culture in Sri Lanka and Australia

Author: Bruce Kapferer

Publisher: Berghahn Books

ISBN: 0857455176

Category: Social Science

Page: 446

View: 786

The civil war in Sri Lanka and the part that nationalism seemed to play in it inspired the writing of this book some twenty-three years ago. The argument was developed through a comparative analysis of nationalism in Sri Lanka with the author's native Australia. At the time this constituted an innovative approach to comparison in anthropology, as well as to nationalism and its possibilities. It was not based on differences but on the way in which perspectives from within the two nationalisms, when seen side-by-side, could present an understanding of their implication in producing the violence of war, racism, and social exclusion. The book has lost none of its importance and urgency as proven by the chapters in the Appendix, written by top scholars working in Sri Lanka and in Australia. These contributions bring together new material and critically explore the book's themes and their continued relevance to the various trajectories in nationalist processes since the first publication of the book.
Release

Seeing like a state

How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed

Author: James C. Scott

Publisher: Yale University Press

ISBN: 0300128789

Category: Political Science

Page: 463

View: 8963

Why do well-intentioned plans for improving the human condition go tragically awry? In a wide-ranging and original study, James C. Scott analyzes failed cases of large-scale authoritarian plans in a variety of fields. He argues that centrally managed social plans derail when schematic visions are imposed on long-established structures without taking into account preexisting interdependencies.
Release