Social Physics

How Social Networks Can Make Us Smarter

Author: Alex Pentland

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 0143126334

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 4239

A landmark tour of the new science of "idea flow" outlines revolutionary insights into the mysteries of collective intelligence and social influence, explaining the virtually unlimited data sets of today's digital technologies and the considerable accuracy of information from social networks.
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People Analytics

How Social Sensing Technology Will Transform Business and What It Tells Us about the Future of Work

Author: Ben Waber

Publisher: FT Press

ISBN: 0133158330

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 240

View: 3141

Discover powerful hidden social "levers" and networks within your company… then, use that knowledge to make slight "tweaks" that dramatically improve both business performance and employee fulfillment! In People Analytics, MIT Media Lab innovator Ben Waber shows how sensors and analytics can give you an unprecedented understanding of how your people work and collaborate, and actionable insights for building a more effective, productive, and positive organization. Through cutting-edge case studies, Waber shows how: Changing the way call center employees spent their breaks increased performance by 25% while significantly reducing stress Quantifying the failure of marketing and customer service to communicate led to a more cohesive and profitable organization Tweaking the balance of in-person and electronic communication can enhance the value of both Sensor data can help you discover who your internal experts really are Identifying employees involved in "creative" behaviors can help you promote innovation throughout your business Sensors and simulations can help you optimize your sick-day policies Measuring informal interactions can improve the chances that a merger, acquisition, or "mega-project" will succeed Drawing on his cutting-edge work at MIT and Harvard, Waber addresses crucial issues ranging from technology to privacy, revealing what will be possible in a few years, and what you can achieve right now. In bringing the power of analytics to organizational development, he offers immense new opportunities to everyone with responsibility for workplace performance.
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Security and Privacy in Social Networks

Author: Yaniv Altshuler,Yuval Elovici,Armin B. Cremers,Nadav Aharony,Alex Pentland

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461441390

Category: Computers

Page: 254

View: 4688

Security and Privacy in Social Networks brings to the forefront innovative approaches for analyzing and enhancing the security and privacy dimensions in online social networks, and is the first comprehensive attempt dedicated entirely to this field. In order to facilitate the transition of such methods from theory to mechanisms designed and deployed in existing online social networking services, the book aspires to create a common language between the researchers and practitioners of this new area- spanning from the theory of computational social sciences to conventional security and network engineering.
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Honest Signals

How They Shape Our World

Author: Alex Pentland,Tracy Heibeck

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262261049

Category: Psychology

Page: 208

View: 7476

How can you know when someone is bluffing? Paying attention? Genuinely interested? The answer, writes Alex Pentland in Honest Signals, is that subtle patterns in how we interact with other people reveal our attitudes toward them. These unconscious social signals are not just a back channel or a complement to our conscious language; they form a separate communication network. Biologically based "honest signaling," evolved from ancient primate signaling mechanisms, offers an unmatched window into our intentions, goals, and values. If we understand this ancient channel of communication, Pentland claims, we can accurately predict the outcomes of situations ranging from job interviews to first dates. Pentland, an MIT professor, has used a specially designed digital sensor worn like an ID badge -- a "sociometer" -- to monitor and analyze the back-and-forth patterns of signaling among groups of people. He and his researchers found that this second channel of communication, revolving not around words but around social relations, profoundly influences major decisions in our lives -- even though we are largely unaware of it. Pentland presents the scientific background necessary for understanding this form of communication, applies it to examples of group behavior in real organizations, and shows how by "reading" our social networks we can become more successful at pitching an idea, getting a job, or closing a deal. Using this "network intelligence" theory of social signaling, Pentland describes how we can harness the intelligence of our social network to become better managers, workers, and communicators.
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Sociophysics

A Physicist's Modeling of Psycho-political Phenomena

Author: Serge Galam

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461420318

Category: Social Science

Page: 439

View: 3613

Do humans behave much like atoms? Sociophysics, which uses tools and concepts from the physics of disordered matter to describe some aspects of social and political behavior, answers in the affirmative. But advocating the use of models from the physical sciences to understand human behavior could be perceived as tantamount to dismissing the existence of human free will and also enabling those seeking manipulative skills . This thought-provoking book argues it is just the contrary. Indeed, future developments and evaluation will either show sociophysics to be inadequate, thus supporting the hypothesis that people can primarily be considered to be free agents, or valid, thus opening the path to a radically different vision of society and personal responsibility. This book attempts to explain why and how humans behave much like atoms, at least in some aspects of their collective lives, and then proposes how this knowledge can serve as a unique key to a dramatic leap forwards in achieving more social freedom in the real world. At heart, sociophysics and this book are about better comprehending the richness and potential of our social interaction, and so distancing ourselves from inanimate atoms.
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Connected

The Surprising Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives

Author: Nicholas A. Christakis,James H. Fowler

Publisher: Little, Brown

ISBN: 031607134X

Category: Social Science

Page: 368

View: 3514

Your colleague's husband's sister can make you fat, even if you don't know her. A happy neighbor has more impact on your happiness than a happy spouse. These startling revelations of how much we truly influence one another are revealed in the studies of Drs. Christakis and Fowler, which have repeatedly made front-page news nationwide. In CONNECTED, the authors explain why emotions are contagious, how health behaviors spread, why the rich get richer, even how we find and choose our partners. Intriguing and entertaining, CONNECTED overturns the notion of the individual and provides a revolutionary paradigm-that social networks influence our ideas, emotions, health, relationships, behavior, politics, and much more. It will change the way we think about every aspect of our lives.
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How Behavior Spreads

The Science of Complex Contagions

Author: Damon Centola

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400890098

Category: Social Science

Page: 312

View: 8809

A new, counterintuitive theory for how social networks influence the spread of behavior New social movements, technologies, and public-health initiatives often struggle to take off, yet many diseases disperse rapidly without issue. Can the lessons learned from the viral diffusion of diseases be used to improve the spread of beneficial behaviors and innovations? In How Behavior Spreads, Damon Centola presents over a decade of original research examining how changes in societal behavior--in voting, health, technology, and finance—occur and the ways social networks can be used to influence how they propagate. Centola's startling findings show that the same conditions accelerating the viral expansion of an epidemic unexpectedly inhibit the spread of behaviors. While it is commonly believed that "weak ties"—long-distance connections linking acquaintances—lead to the quicker spread of behaviors, in fact the exact opposite holds true. Centola demonstrates how the most well-known, intuitive ideas about social networks have caused past diffusion efforts to fail, and how such efforts might succeed in the future. Pioneering the use of Web-based methods to understand how changes in people's social networks alter their behaviors, Centola illustrates the ways in which these insights can be applied to solve countless problems of organizational change, cultural evolution, and social innovation. His findings offer important lessons for public health workers, entrepreneurs, and activists looking to harness networks for social change. Practical and informative, How Behavior Spreads is a must-read for anyone interested in how the theory of social networks can transform our world.
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Accountability through Public Opinion

From Inertia to Public Action

Author: Sina Odugbemi,Taeku Lee

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821385569

Category: Political Science

Page: 534

View: 1133

This books analyses the role of public opinion for generating genuine citizen demand for accountability, providing case studies from around the world to illustrate how public opinion forces governments to be accountable.
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Social and Economic Networks

Author: Matthew O. Jackson

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400833993

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 520

View: 8980

Networks of relationships help determine the careers that people choose, the jobs they obtain, the products they buy, and how they vote. The many aspects of our lives that are governed by social networks make it critical to understand how they impact behavior, which network structures are likely to emerge in a society, and why we organize ourselves as we do. In Social and Economic Networks, Matthew Jackson offers a comprehensive introduction to social and economic networks, drawing on the latest findings in economics, sociology, computer science, physics, and mathematics. He provides empirical background on networks and the regularities that they exhibit, and discusses random graph-based models and strategic models of network formation. He helps readers to understand behavior in networked societies, with a detailed analysis of learning and diffusion in networks, decision making by individuals who are influenced by their social neighbors, game theory and markets on networks, and a host of related subjects. Jackson also describes the varied statistical and modeling techniques used to analyze social networks. Each chapter includes exercises to aid students in their analysis of how networks function. This book is an indispensable resource for students and researchers in economics, mathematics, physics, sociology, and business.
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Frontiers of Financial Technology

Expeditions in Future Commerce, from Blockchain and Digital Banking to Prediction Markets and Beyond

Author: David Shrier

Publisher: Createspace Independent Publishing Platform

ISBN: 9781537248899

Category:

Page: 244

View: 7464

Financial technology innovation has exploded in the popular consciousness, and promises a radical transformation of the global financial services industry. Over $20 billion is expected to be invested in fintech projects in 2016. How can executives, investors, and entrepreneurs make sense of the new inventions that are driving this change? MIT Professor Alex "Sandy" Pentland, called by Forbes one of the seven most powerful data scientists on the planet, is joined by fintech intrapreneur and educator David Shrier in curating an exploration of several major trends and technologies that are changing the face of financial services. Coauthors include Deven Sharma, the former President of S&P, and Alex Lipton, the former head of quantitative analytics for Bank of America Merrill Lynch. From blockchain to artificial intelligence, this series of articles helps the reader grapple with this exciting area of technology innovation.
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Everything Bad is Good for You

How Today's Popular Culture Is Actually Making Us Smarter

Author: Steven Johnson

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 9781101158012

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 4728

Look out for Johnson’s new book, Wonderland, now on sale. Forget everything you’ve ever read about the age of dumbed-down, instant-gratification culture. In this provocative, unfailingly intelligent, thoroughly researched, and surprisingly convincing big idea book, Steven Johnson draws from fields as diverse as neuroscience, economics, and media theory to argue that the pop culture we soak in every day—from Lord of the Rings to Grand Theft Auto to The Simpsons—has been growing more sophisticated with each passing year, and, far from rotting our brains, is actually posing new cognitive challenges that are actually making our minds measurably sharper. After reading Everything Bad is Good for You, you will never regard the glow of the video game or television screen the same way again. With a new afterword by the author. Steven Johnson's newest book, How We Got to Now, is now available from Riverhead Books.
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Reality Mining

Using Big Data to Engineer a Better World

Author: Nathan Eagle,Kate Greene

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262324571

Category: Computers

Page: 208

View: 6997

Big Data is made up of lots of little data: numbers entered into cell phones, addresses entered into GPS devices, visits to websites, online purchases, ATM transactions, and any other activity that leaves a digital trail. Although the abuse of Big Data -- surveillance, spying, hacking -- has made headlines, it shouldn't overshadow the abundant positive applications of Big Data. In Reality Mining, Nathan Eagle and Kate Greene cut through the hype and the headlines to explore the positive potential of Big Data, showing the ways in which the analysis of Big Data ("Reality Mining") can be used to improve human systems as varied as political polling and disease tracking, while considering user privacy.Eagle, a recognized expert in the field, and Greene, an experienced technology journalist, describe Reality Mining at five different levels: the individual, the neighborhood and organization, the city, the nation, and the world. For each level, they first offer a nontechnical explanation of data collection methods and then describe applications and systems that have been or could be built. These include a mobile app that helps smokers quit smoking; a workplace "knowledge system"; the use of GPS, Wi-Fi, and mobile phone data to manage and predict traffic flows; and the analysis of social media to track the spread of disease. Eagle and Greene argue that Big Data, used respectfully and responsibly, can help people live better, healthier, and happier lives.
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The Village Effect

How Face-to-face Contact Can Make Us Healthier and Happier

Author: Susan Pinker

Publisher: Vintage Books Canada

ISBN: 0307359549

Category: Psychology

Page: 432

View: 1248

In her surprising, entertaining and persuasive new book, award-winning author and psychologist Susan Pinker shows how face-to-face contact is crucial for learning, happiness, resilience and longevity. From birth to death, human beings are hard-wired to connect to other human beings. Face-to-face contact matters: tight bonds of friendship and love heal us, help children learn, extend our lives and make us happy. Looser in-person bonds matter, too, combining with our close relationships to form a personal "village" around us, one that exerts unique effects. And not just any social networks will do: we need the real, face-to-face, in-the-flesh encounters that tie human families, groups of friends and communities together. Marrying the findings of the new field of social neuroscience together with gripping human stories, Susan Pinker explores the impact of face-to-face contact from cradle to grave, from city to Sardinian mountain village, from classroom to workplace, from love to marriage to divorce. Her results are enlightening and enlivening, and they challenge our assumptions. Most of us have left the literal village behind, and don't want to give up our new technologies to go back there. But, as Pinker writes so compellingly, we need close social bonds and uninterrupted face-time with our friends and families in order to thrive--even to survive. Creating our own "village effect" can make us happier. It can also save our lives.
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Trust::Data

A New Framework for Identity and Data Sharing

Author: Thomas Hardjono

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781539114215

Category:

Page: 310

View: 1586

As the economy and society move from a world where interactions were physical and based on paper documents, toward a world that is primarily governed by digital data and digital transactions, our existing methods of managing identity and data security are proving inadequate. Large-scale fraud, identity theft and data breaches are becoming common, and a large fraction of the population have only the most limited digital credentials. Even so, our digital infrastructure is recognized as a strategic asset which must be resilient to threat. If we can create an Internet of Trusted Data that provides safe, secure access for everyone, then huge societal benefits can be unlocked, including better health, greater financial inclusion, and a population that is more engaged with and better supported by its government. Some of the world's leading data scientists, led by MIT Professor Alex Pentland, describe a roadmap and platforms to implement this new paradigm.
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The Social Atom

Why the Rich Get Richer, Cheaters Get Caught, and Your Neighbor Usually Looks Like You

Author: Mark Buchanan

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 9781596917316

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 1505

The idiosyncrasies of human decision-making have confounded economists and social theorists for years. If each person makes choices for personal (and often irrational) reasons, how can people's choices be predicted by a single theory? How can any economic, social, or political theory be valid? The truth is, none of them really are. Mark Buchanan makes the fascinating argument that the science of physics is beginning to provide a new picture of the human or "social atom," and help us understand the surprising, and often predictable, patterns that emerge when they get together. Look at patterns, not people, Buchanan argues, and rules emerge that can explain how movements form, how interest groups operate, and even why ethnic hatred persists. Using similar observations, social physicists can predict whether neighborhoods will integrate, whether stock markets will crash, and whether crime waves will continue or abate. Brimming with mind games and provocative experiments, The Social Atom is an incisive, accessible, and comprehensive argument for a whole new way to look at human social behavior.
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Better Together

How to Leverage School Networks For Smarter Personalized and Project Based Learning

Author: Tom Vander Ark,Lydia Dobyns

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119439523

Category: Education

Page: 256

View: 2846

Bring students, teachers, and administrators together to facilitate higher school achievement Better Together presents a tour through one of the modern era’s most important educational innovations, and provides smart strategy for working optimally within the school network sphere. There are more than 50 high-quality scaled charter networks in the U.S.; most share a learning model, professional supports, and—increasingly—platform tools. Although these charter schools get most of the attention, there are over a dozen other networks that connect district schools and provide design principles, curriculum materials, technology tools, and professional learning opportunities to streamline school improvement and help build great new schools from scratch. This book details some of the many success stories, and includes expert analysis of learning models, strategies, and innovations that are making quality scalable and helping schools produce more positive student outcomes. Illustrative examples from the New Tech Network, Summit Public Schools, Big Picture, and other big-name networks provide both guidance and inspiration, while expert discussion clarifies essential details and processes for implementation. Teachers and administrators will find much food for thought both inside and outside of a school network system. Examine proven learning models for scaled school networks Explore the latest innovations for more effective collaborations Read success stories from school networks across the country Learn smart strategies for optimizing the educational network experience Digital platforms have transformed the way we connect with friends, family, colleagues, and businesses. That revolution has finally come to education, opening doors to collaboration, resource expansion, and school success. Better Together explores beyond disruption to show how the U.S. K-12 system is truly evolving.
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Automate This

How Algorithms Took Over Our Markets, Our Jobs, and the World

Author: Christopher Steiner

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1101572159

Category: Computers

Page: 256

View: 3503

The rousing story of the last gasp of human agency and how today’s best and brightest minds are endeavoring to put an end to it. It used to be that to diagnose an illness, interpret legal documents, analyze foreign policy, or write a newspaper article you needed a human being with specific skills—and maybe an advanced degree or two. These days, high-level tasks are increasingly being handled by algorithms that can do precise work not only with speed but also with nuance. These “bots” started with human programming and logic, but now their reach extends beyond what their creators ever expected. In this fascinating, frightening book, Christopher Steiner tells the story of how algorithms took over—and shows why the “bot revolution” is about to spill into every aspect of our lives, often silently, without our knowledge. The May 2010 “Flash Crash” exposed Wall Street’s reliance on trading bots to the tune of a 998-point market drop and $1 trillion in vanished market value. But that was just the beginning. In Automate This, we meet bots that are driving cars, penning haiku, and writing music mistaken for Bach’s. They listen in on our customer service calls and figure out what Iran would do in the event of a nuclear standoff. There are algorithms that can pick out the most cohesive crew of astronauts for a space mission or identify the next Jeremy Lin. Some can even ingest statistics from baseball games and spit out pitch-perfect sports journalism indistinguishable from that produced by humans. The interaction of man and machine can make our lives easier. But what will the world look like when algorithms control our hospitals, our roads, our culture, and our national security? What hap­pens to businesses when we automate judgment and eliminate human instinct? And what role will be left for doctors, lawyers, writers, truck drivers, and many others? Who knows—maybe there’s a bot learning to do your job this minute.
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Cognitive Surplus

How Technology Makes Consumers Into Collaborators

Author: Clay Shirky

Publisher: Penguin Paperbacks

ISBN: 9780143119586

Category: Computers

Page: 242

View: 7621

Explains how new media technologies are prompting a return from consumerism to collaboration, making predictions about imminent wide-scale creative innovations that will positively transform civilization.
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Hello, Startup

A Programmer's Guide to Building Products, Technologies, and Teams

Author: Yevgeniy Brikman

Publisher: "O'Reilly Media, Inc."

ISBN: 1491910046

Category: Computers

Page: 604

View: 9278

This book is the "Hello, World" tutorial for building products, technologies, and teams in a startup environment. It's based on the experiences of the author, Yevgeniy (Jim) Brikman, as well as interviews with programmers from some of the most successful startups of the last decade, including Google, Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, GitHub, Stripe, Instagram, AdMob, Pinterest, and many others. Hello, Startup is a practical, how-to guide that consists of three parts: Products, Technologies, and Teams. Although at its core, this is a book for programmers, by programmers, only Part II (Technologies) is significantly technical, while the rest should be accessible to technical and non-technical audiences alike. If you’re at all interested in startups—whether you’re a programmer at the beginning of your career, a seasoned developer bored with large company politics, or a manager looking to motivate your engineers—this book is for you.
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Uncharted

Big Data as a Lens on Human Culture

Author: Erez Aiden,Jean-Baptiste Michel

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 1594632901

Category: Computers

Page: 288

View: 4163

Identifying data as one of the world's greatest untapped resources, two Harvard scientists who with Google created the Ngram Viewer reveal how the powerful web-based search tool has identified compelling cultural trends that impacting current understandings in science, the humanities, politics and business. 30,000 first printing.
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