The Sciences of the Artificial

Author: Herbert A. Simon

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262264495

Category: Computers

Page: 248

View: 1551

Continuing his exploration of the organization of complexity and the science of design, this new edition of Herbert Simon's classic work on artificial intelligence adds a chapter that sorts out the current themes and tools -- chaos, adaptive systems, genetic algorithms -- for analyzing complexity and complex systems. There are updates throughout the book as well. These take into account important advances in cognitive psychology and the science of design while confirming and extending the book's basic thesis: that a physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for intelligent action. The chapter "Economic Reality" has also been revised to reflect a change in emphasis in Simon's thinking about the respective roles of organizations and markets in economic systems.
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The Book of Why

The New Science of Cause and Effect

Author: Judea Pearl,Dana Mackenzie

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 0465097618

Category: Computers

Page: 432

View: 7358

How the study of causality revolutionized science and the world "Correlation is not causation." This mantra, chanted by scientists for more than a century, has led to a virtual prohibition on causal talk. Today, that taboo is dead. The causal revolution, instigated by Judea Pearl and his colleagues, has cut through a century of confusion and established causality--the study of cause and effect--on a firm scientific basis. His work explains how we can know easy things, like whether it was rain or a sprinkler that made a sidewalk wet; and how to answer hard questions, like whether a drug cured an illness. Pearl's work enables us to know not just whether one thing causes another: it lets us explore the world that is and the worlds that could have been. It shows us the essence of human thought and key to artificial intelligence. Anyone who wants to understand either needs The Book of Why.
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God from the Machine

Artificial Intelligence Models of Religious Cognition

Author: William Sims Bainbridge

Publisher: Rowman Altamira

ISBN: 9780759107441

Category: Computers

Page: 179

View: 6637

A demonstration of how religion and religious belief can emerge using computer simulations
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Machinery of the Mind

Author: George Johnson

Publisher: Crown

ISBN: 0307799395

Category: Computers

Page: 336

View: 5163

Machinery of Mind is a full-scale, indispensable examination of the history, content, politics, and philosophy of Artificial Intelligence. In detail, consecutively but with a keen awareness of the interdisciplinary nature of the field, Johnson traces the history of the burgeoning science from its earliest practitioners to corporation-funded engineers and experts: Roger Schank, Terry Winograd, Doug Lenat and others who are struggling to create machines that can actually think independently, going beyond man-made programs and "games." Johnson presents the counterarguments of some theorists that intelligence is less than soul and that the "new science" moves arrogantly into dangerous territory. Necessarily inconclusive, this fascinating study is clear, comprehensive, richly detailed, and endlessly provocative.
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Swarm Intelligence

From Natural to Artificial Systems

Author: Eric Bonabeau,Marco Dorigo,Guy Theraulaz

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198030157

Category: Science

Page: 320

View: 3794

Social insects--ants, bees, termites, and wasps--can be viewed as powerful problem-solving systems with sophisticated collective intelligence. Composed of simple interacting agents, this intelligence lies in the networks of interactions among individuals and between individuals and the environment. A fascinating subject, social insects are also a powerful metaphor for artificial intelligence, and the problems they solve--finding food, dividing labor among nestmates, building nests, responding to external challenges--have important counterparts in engineering and computer science. This book provides a detailed look at models of social insect behavior and how to apply these models in the design of complex systems. The book shows how these models replace an emphasis on control, preprogramming, and centralization with designs featuring autonomy, emergence, and distributed functioning. These designs are proving immensely flexible and robust, able to adapt quickly to changing environments and to continue functioning even when individual elements fail. In particular, these designs are an exciting approach to the tremendous growth of complexity in software and information. Swarm Intelligence draws on up-to-date research from biology, neuroscience, artificial intelligence, robotics, operations research, and computer graphics, and each chapter is organized around a particular biological example, which is then used to develop an algorithm, a multiagent system, or a group of robots. The book will be an invaluable resource for a broad range of disciplines.
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Artificial Minds

Author: Stan Franklin

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262561099

Category: Computers

Page: 449

View: 9930

Stan Franklin is the perfect tour guide through the contemporary interdisciplinary matrix of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, cognitive neuroscience, artificial neural networks, artificial life, and robotics that is producing a new paradigm of mind. Along the way, Franklin makes the case for a perspective that rejects a rigid distinction between mind and non-mind in favor of a continuum from less to more mind.
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Fundamentals of the New Artificial Intelligence

Beyond Traditional Paradigms

Author: Toshinori Munakata

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387983028

Category: Computers

Page: 231

View: 6892

Artifical intelligence has grown rapidly as a field of research and industrial application in recent years. Whereas traditionally, AI used techniques drawn from rule-based and logic programming systems, interest is now growing in less precise heuristic methods, notably genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic, and neural networks. This textbook provides a first course in AI which covers these new technologies and how they may be applied. Prerequisites are minimal: a basic understanding of computer science and mathematics are sufficient and so this will be suitable for undergraduates coming to this subject for the first time. Professor Munakata is a leading figure in this field and has given courses on this topic extensively. As a result, students and researchers will enjoy this authoritative introduction to the subject. In each topic the book covers the most essential and widely employed material, particularly as it is used in real-world applications. Its emphasis is on concise yet clear descriptions of the technical substance.
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The Allure of Machinic Life

Cybernetics, Artificial Life, and the New AI

Author: John Johnston

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262101262

Category: Computers

Page: 461

View: 8990

An account of the creation of new forms of life and intelligence in cybernetics, artificial life, and artificial intelligence that analyzes both the similarities and the differences among these sciences in actualizing life.The Allure of Machinic Life
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Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence

A Critique of the Mechanistic Theory of Mind

Author: Rajakishore Nath

Publisher: Universal-Publishers

ISBN: 1599429055

Category: Computers

Page: 190

View: 3803

This book deals with the major philosophical issues in the theoretical framework of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in particular and cognitive science in general. The researchers in AI are concerned with the issues of consciousness, human subjectivity, creativity, etc. Cognitive Science and AI argue that consciousness can be artificially created and comprehended in the function of robots. The robotic activities explain the mechanism involved in computation, language processing, sensing the information, etc. Contrary to this thesis, the philosophical study tries to show that human consciousness, thinking, imagination, etc. are much larger concepts and need to be delved into in the broad theoretical framework. This book is a critique of the mechanistic theory of mind. It shows the basic foundation of AI and its limitations in explaining the activities of the human mental life. Machine-functionalism fails to account for the subjective nature of consciousness and the creativity involved in the conscious acts. There are two aspects of this thesis-- the epistemological and the metaphysical. Epistemologically, the subject of consciousness intimately knows the raw feelings or the qualia. Metaphysically speaking, however, the raw feelings are real in the sense that they are part of the furniture of the mental world. Therefore, we can hardly deny that the mental world is real.
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50 Years of Artificial Intelligence

Essays Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of Artificial Intelligence

Author: Max Lungarella,Fumiya Iida,Josh Bongard

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540772952

Category: Computers

Page: 398

View: 9702

This Festschrift volume, published in celebration of the 50th Anniversary of Artificial Intelligence, includes 34 refereed papers written by leading researchers in the field of Artificial Intelligence. The papers were carefully selected from the invited lectures given at the 50th Anniversary Summit of AI, held at the Centro Stefano Franscini, Monte Verità, Ascona, Switzerland, July 9-14, 2006. The summit provided a venue for discussions on a broad range of topics.
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Artificial life II

proceedings of the workshop on artificial life held February, 1990 in Santa Fe, New Mexico

Author: Christopher G. Langton

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Longman

ISBN: 9780201525700

Category: Computers

Page: 854

View: 8255

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Life 3.0

Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence

Author: Max Tegmark

Publisher: Vintage

ISBN: 1101946601

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 384

View: 9502

New York Times Best Seller How will Artificial Intelligence affect crime, war, justice, jobs, society and our very sense of being human? The rise of AI has the potential to transform our future more than any other technology—and there’s nobody better qualified or situated to explore that future than Max Tegmark, an MIT professor who’s helped mainstream research on how to keep AI beneficial. How can we grow our prosperity through automation without leaving people lacking income or purpose? What career advice should we give today’s kids? How can we make future AI systems more robust, so that they do what we want without crashing, malfunctioning or getting hacked? Should we fear an arms race in lethal autonomous weapons? Will machines eventually outsmart us at all tasks, replacing humans on the job market and perhaps altogether? Will AI help life flourish like never before or give us more power than we can handle? What sort of future do you want? This book empowers you to join what may be the most important conversation of our time. It doesn’t shy away from the full range of viewpoints or from the most controversial issues—from superintelligence to meaning, consciousness and the ultimate physical limits on life in the cosmos.
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Adaptation in Natural and Artificial Systems

An Introductory Analysis with Applications to Biology, Control, and Artificial Intelligence

Author: John Henry Holland

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262581110

Category: Psychology

Page: 211

View: 3361

List of figures. Preface to the 1992 edition. Preface. The general setting. A formal framework. lustrations. Schemata. The optimal allocation of trials. Reproductive plans and genetic operators. The robustness of genetic plans. Adaptation of codings and representations. An overview. Interim and prospectus. Glossary of important symbols.
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Artificial life III

proceedings of the Workshop on Artificial Life, held June 1992 in Santa Fe, New Mexico

Author: Christopher G. Langton

Publisher: Addison-Wesley Longman

ISBN: 9780201624922

Category: Science

Page: 599

View: 4074

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The Quest for Artificial Intelligence

Author: Nils J. Nilsson

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139642820

Category: Computers

Page: N.A

View: 9538

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a field within computer science that is attempting to build enhanced intelligence into computer systems. This book traces the history of the subject, from the early dreams of eighteenth-century (and earlier) pioneers to the more successful work of today's AI engineers. AI is becoming more and more a part of everyone's life. The technology is already embedded in face-recognizing cameras, speech-recognition software, Internet search engines, and health-care robots, among other applications. The book's many diagrams and easy-to-understand descriptions of AI programs will help the casual reader gain an understanding of how these and other AI systems actually work. Its thorough (but unobtrusive) end-of-chapter notes containing citations to important source materials will be of great use to AI scholars and researchers. This book promises to be the definitive history of a field that has captivated the imaginations of scientists, philosophers, and writers for centuries.
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Materiality and Organizing

Social Interaction in a Technological World

Author: Paul M. Leonardi,Bonnie A. Nardi,Jannis Kallinikos

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 0199664056

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 365

View: 8747

This edited collection brings together leading academics in the field to explore the ways in which digital and non-digital artifacts shape how groups and collectives organize. It focuses on the idea of materiality and the interactions between the social and the technical in organizations, at work, and in technologies
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