Author: Robert Burgess,Anne Murcott
Category: Social Science
View: 7588Appropriate as a supplemental text to courses in Sociology. Providing an overview grounded in research. Developments in Sociology focuses on the major areas of theoretical, methodological and substantive developments in sociology. Each author takes a field of study in which they are an acknowledged expert and highlights the way in which the subject has developed over the last fifty years.
AIDS, Activism, and the Politics of Knowledge
Author: Steven Epstein
Publisher: Univ of California Press
View: 6092In the short, turbulent history of AIDS research and treatment, the boundaries between scientist insiders and lay outsiders have been crisscrossed to a degree never before seen in medical history. Steven Epstein's astute and readable investigation focuses on the critical question of "how certainty is constructed or deconstructed," leading us through the views of medical researchers, activists, policy makers, and others to discover how knowledge about AIDS emerges out of what he calls "credibility struggles." Epstein shows the extent to which AIDS research has been a social and political phenomenon and how the AIDS movement has transformed biomedical research practices through its capacity to garner credibility by novel strategies. Epstein finds that nonscientist AIDS activists have gained enough of a voice in the scientific world to shape NIH–sponsored research to a remarkable extent. Because of the blurring of roles and responsibilities, the production of biomedical knowledge about AIDS does not, he says, follow the pathways common to science; indeed, AIDS research can only be understood as a field that is unusually broad, public, and contested. He concludes by analyzing recent moves to democratize biomedicine, arguing that although AIDS activists have set the stage for new challenges to scientific authority, all social movements that seek to democratize expertise face unusual difficulties. Avoiding polemics and accusations, Epstein provides a benchmark account of the AIDS epidemic to date, one that will be as useful to activists, policy makers, and general readers as to sociologists, physicians, and scientists.
Recent Issues in Theories of Scientific Method
Author: Robert Nola,H. Sankey
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
View: 3604Some think that issues to do with scientific method are last century's stale debate; Popper was an advocate of methodology, but Kuhn, Feyerabend, and others are alleged to have brought the debate about its status to an end. The papers in this volume show that issues in methodology are still very much alive. Some of the papers reinvestigate issues in the debate over methodology, while others set out new ways in which the debate has developed in the last decade. The book will be of interest to philosophers and scientists alike in the reassessment it provides of earlier debates about method and current directions of research.
Eine empirische Rekonstruktion und strukturationstheoretische Analyse der ökologieorientierten Forschung in der Betriebswirtschaftslehre
Author: Roswitha Wöllenstein
Publisher: Rainer Hampp Verlag
Category: Business & Economics
View: 9255Seit gut 30 Jahren beschäftigt sich das Fach Betriebswirtschaftslehre mit den Auswirkungen wirtschaftlicher Tätigkeit auf die natürliche Umwelt. Erfolgte die Adaption des Umweltthemas zunächst auch eher zögerlich, so konnte sich doch im Verlauf der Jahre eine eigenständige Forschungsrichtung innerhalb der Betriebswirtschaftslehre etablieren, deren Fachvertreter sich aus unterschiedlichsten Perspektiven mit betrieblichen Umweltproblemen befassen. Umwelt- oder nachhaltigkeitsorientierte Forschung ist mittlerweile im Fach anerkannt. Es gibt unzählige Veröffentlichungen zum Thema, eigene Fachzeitschriften und wissenschaftliche Institutionen, die diesen betriebswirtschaftlichen Schwerpunkt repräsentieren. In welcher Weise die Auseinandersetzung mit der Umweltproblematik die Betriebswirtschaftslehre beeinflusst und verändert hat, diese Frage ist jedoch nicht abschließend geklärt. Die vorliegende Arbeit will hierzu einen Beitrag leisten und rekonstruiert die Entwicklungsgeschichte der ökologieorientierten betriebswirtschaftlichen Forschungsrichtung mit dem Ziel, diejenigen Faktoren zu identifizieren, die sich als fördernd bzw. hemmend für die betriebswirtschaftliche Bearbeitung der Umweltproblematik erwiesen haben. In diesem Kontext geht es auch darum, das Verhältnis der Forschungsrichtung zum Fach herauszuarbeiten und zu analysieren. Die Rekonstruktion basiert auf einer empirischen Studie, in welcher Hochschullehrer der Betriebswirtschaftslehre als Experten zum Thema interviewt wurden. Zusätzlich wurde eine umfassende Auswertung von Zeitschriftenartikeln durchgeführt. Die empirischen Befunde sind Ausgangspunkt einer theoretischen Analyse der rekonstruierten Entwicklungsgeschichte, die insbesondere die Handlungen der Akteure und die Strukturen des Systems Wissenschaft in den Blick nimmt.
Author: Gisela Kaplan
Category: Social Science
View: 9099Contemporary Western European Feminism is a ground-breaking history of feminism. Gisela Kaplan invites a critical analysis of current ideas, terms and assumptions about our modern world. Written confidently and with compassion, this is the story of a long revolution that has set out to change predominant attitudes and transform value hierarchies and human lifestyles. By outlining the postwar histories of individual countries Kaplan contextualises women’s movements and documents a significant chapter of European social history. She poses questions about the interrelationship between the new movements and the parliamentary democracies in which they occurred, while analysing the contradictions of living in modern capitalist countries. Contemporary Western European Feminism also tackles important contradictions, such as those between the welfare state and the free market economy; industrialisation and religious value systems; social engineering and the production of wealth; and dissent and patrimonial systems of democracy. For those wanting to know more about Europe without the intimidating barriers of language and for those already experts in its social history, Contemporary Western European Feminism is essential reading.
Women's Experiences of Planning Home Births
Author: Nadine Edwards
Category: Health & Fitness
View: 9671Birthing Autonomy brings some balance to the difficult arguments that arise from debates about home births, and focuses on women’s views and their experiences of planning home births. It provides an in-depth exploration of how women make decisions about home births and what aspects matter most to them. Comparing how differently the pros and cons of home births are constructed and contemplated by mothers and by the medical profession, the book looks at how current obstetric thinking and practices can disempower and harm women emotionally and spiritually as well as physically. Written in an accessible style, this book is enlightening for student and practicing midwives and obstetricians, as well as researchers and students of nursing, medical sociology, health studies, gender studies, feminist practitioners and theorists. It will also be invaluable to expectant mothers who want to be more informed about the choices they are facing and the wider context within which their birth options are considered.
A Sociological Appraisal
Author: Robert Evans
Category: Business & Economics
View: 8013Drawing on interviews with the UK government's Panel of Independent Forecasters, the author shows how economic models, forecasts and policy analysis depend crucially upon the judgements of economists.
Readings in the Sociology of Norm Violation
Author: Clifton D. Bryant
Publisher: Taylor & Francis
Category: Social Science
View: 3766The popular image of Japanese society is a steroetypical one - that of a people characterised by a coherent set of thought and behaviour patterns, applying to all Japanese and transcending time. Ross Mouer and Yoshio Sugimoto found this image quite incongruous during their research for this book in Japan. They ask whether this steroetype of the Japanese is not only generated by foreigners but by the Japanese themselves. This is likely to be a controversial book as it does not contribute to the continuing mythologising of Japan and the Japanese. The book examines contemporary images of Japanese society by surveying an extensive sample of popular and academic literature on Japan. After tracing the development of "holistic" theories about the Japanese, commonly referred to as the "group model", attention is focused on the evaluation of that image. Empirical evidence contrary to this model is discussed and methodological lacunae are cited. A "sociology of Japanology" is also presented. In pursuit of other visions of Japanese society, the authors argue that certain aspects of Japanese behaviour can be explained by considering Japanese society as the exact inverse of the portayal provided by the group model. The authors also present a multi-dimensional model of social stratification, arguing that much of the variation in Japanese behaviour can be understood within the framework as having universal equivalence.
the classic and contemporary readings
Author: Gerard Delanty,Piet Strydom
Publisher: Open University Press
View: 8626“This book will certainly prove to be a useful resource and reference point … a good addition to anyone’s bookshelf.” Network "This is a superb collection, expertly presented. The overall conception seems splendid, giving an excellent sense of the issues... The selection and length of the readings is admirably judged, with both the classic texts and the few unpublished pieces making just the right points." William Outhwaite, Professor of Sociology, University of Sussex "... an indispensable book for all of us in philosophy and the social sciences who teach and care about the shape of social knowledge in the future." Steven Seidman, Professor of Sociology, State University of New York Albany "For a comprehensive account of the ways in which world transformations affect claims to social scientific knowledge, one need look no further than Gerard Delanty and Piet Strydom's Philosophies of Social Science. ...this collection captures nicely the increasingly engaged political nature of the philosophy of social science. Debates about pragmatism, feminism and postmodernism are particularly well represented" The Australian What is social science? How does it differ from the other sciences? What is the meaning of method in social science? What is the nature and limits of scientific knowledge? This collection of over sixty extracts from classic works on the philosophy of social science provides an essential textbook and a landmark reference in the field. It highlights the work of some of the most influential authors who have shaped social science. The texts explore the question of truth, the meaning of scientific knowledge, the nature of methodology and the relation of science to society, including edited extracts from both classic and contemporary works by authors such as Emile Durkheim, Georg Simmel, Max Weber, Alfred Schutz, Max Horkheimer, Jurgen Habermas, Alvin Gouldner, Karl-Otto Apel, Michel Foucault, Pierre Bourdieu, Anthony Giddens, Dorothy Smith, Donna Haraway, Sigmund Freud, Jacques Derrida and Claude Levi-Strauss. The readings are representative of the major schools of thought, including European and American trends in particular as well as approaches that are often excluded from mainstream traditions. From a teaching and learning perspective the volume is strengthened by extensive introductions to each of the six sections, as well as a general introduction to the reader as a whole. These introductions contextualise the readings and offer succinct summaries of them. This volume is the definitive companion to the study of the philosophy of social science, taught within undergraduate or postgraduate courses in sociology and the social sciences.
Author: Yuri Balashov,Alexander Rosenberg
Publisher: Psychology Press
View: 4165This comprehensive anthology draws together writings by leading philosophers on the philosophy of science. Each section is prefaced by an introductory essay from the editors, guiding students gently into the topic. Accessible and wide-ranging, the text draws on both contemporary and twentieth century sources. The readings are designed to complement Alex Rosenberg's textbook, Philosophy of Science: A Contemporary Introduction (Routledge 2000), but can also serve as a stand-alone volume in any philosophy of science course. Includes readings from the following leading philosophers: Achinstein, Anderson, Bloor, Earman, Feyerabend, Gutting, Hanson, Hempel, Kitcher, Kuhn, Laudan, Leplin, Mackie, McMullin, Nagel, Popper, Quine, Rosenberg, Russell, Salmon, Schlick, Shapere, Van Fraassen.
Readings in Sociology
Author: R. E. Pahl
Category: Social Science
View: 3144Readings in Urban Sociology covers the specialized aspect of sociology, together with an introduction designed to relate the selected Readings to the state of sociological knowledge and research in the field in question. This book is organized into four parts encompassing 12 chapters, and begins with an overview of the study of urbanization and urban sociology. The opening part describes the nature of industrial urbanism in Great Britain. This part deals with the development of British urban sociology and the idea of neighborhood community. The next part examines the distinction between ways of life in the modern city and the modern suburb. This part also looks into the context of urbanization involving population dispersal and diffusion. The closing parts provide an analysis of the urban system in terms of a conflict model and demonstrate the development of Prague's ecological structure. These parts also discuss the notion of a rural-urban continuum and the process of adjustment to an urban system in Africa. This book will prove useful to sociologists and researchers.
Author: William Forde Thompson
Publisher: SAGE Publications
View: 5851This first definitive reference resource to take a broad interdisciplinary approach to the nexus between music and the social and behavioral sciences examines how music affects human beings and their interactions in and with the world. The interdisciplinary nature of the work provides a starting place for students to situate the status of music within the social sciences in fields such as anthropology, communications, psychology, linguistics, sociology, sports, political science and economics, as well as biology and the health sciences. Features: Approximately 450 articles, arranged in A-to-Z fashion and richly illustrated with photographs, provide the social and behavioral context for examining the importance of music in society. Entries are authored and signed by experts in the field and conclude with references and further readings, as well as cross references to related entries. A Reader's Guide groups related entries by broad topic areas and themes, making it easy for readers to quickly identify related entries. A Chronology of Music places material into historical context; a Glossary defines key terms from the field; and a Resource Guide provides lists of books, academic journals, websites and cross-references. The multimedia digital edition is enhanced with video and audio clips and features strong search-and-browse capabilities through the electronic Reader’s Guide, detailed index, and cross references. Music in the Social and Behavioral Sciences, available in both multimedia digital and print formats, is a must-have reference for music and social science library collections.
Author: Eric Gottfrid Swedin
View: 1088This work is a unique introductory A–Z resource detailing the scientific achievements of the contemporary world and analyzing the key scientific trends, discoveries, and personalities of the modern age. * Over 200 A–Z entries covering topics ranging from plate tectonics to the first Moon landings * More than 40 stunning photographs providing a unique pictorial chronicle of the achievements of modern science
Positivism and Its Epistemological Others
Author: George Steinmetz
Publisher: Duke University Press
Category: Social Science
View: 4665The Politics of Method in the Human Sciences provides a remarkable comparative assessment of the variations of positivism and alternative epistemologies in the contemporary human sciences. Often declared obsolete, positivism is alive and well in a number of the fields; in others, its influence is significantly diminished. The essays in this collection investigate its mutations in form and degree across the social science disciplines. Looking at methodological assumptions field by field, individual essays address anthropology, area studies, economics, history, the philosophy of science, political science and political theory, and sociology. Essayists trace disciplinary developments through the long twentieth century, focusing on the decades since World War II. Contributors explore and contrast some of the major alternatives to positivist epistemologies, including Marxism, psychoanalysis, poststructuralism, narrative theory, and actor-network theory. Almost all the essays are written by well-known practitioners of the fields discussed. Some essayists approach positivism and anti-positivism via close readings of texts influential in their respective disciplines. Some engage in ethnographies of the present-day human sciences; others are more historical in method. All of them critique contemporary social scientific practice. Together, they trace a trajectory of thought and method running from the past through the present and pointing toward possible futures. Contributors. Andrew Abbott, Daniel Breslau, Michael Burawoy, Andrew Collier , Michael Dutton, Geoff Eley, Anthony Elliott, Stephen Engelmann, Sandra Harding, Emily Hauptmann, Webb Keane, Tony Lawson, Sophia Mihic, Philip Mirowski, Timothy Mitchell, William H. Sewell Jr., Margaret R. Somers, George Steinmetz, Elizabeth Wingrove
The Uses of Understanding in the Social Sciences
Author: Michael Martin
Publisher: Transaction Publishers
Category: Social Science
View: 5015Originating in 19th-century Germany, "verstehen" (literally understanding) theory argues that social phenomena must be understood from the point of view of the social actor. This work appraises "verstehen" as a method of verification and discovery as well as a necessary condition for understanding.