A Museum Menagerie
Author: Samuel J. M. M. Alberti
Publisher: University of Virginia Press
View: 4714In the quiet halls of the natural history museum, there are some creatures still alive with stories, whose personalities refuse to be relegated to the dusty corners of an exhibit. The fame of these beasts during their lifetimes has given them an iconic status in death. More than just museum specimens, these animals have attained a second life as historical and cultural records. This collection of essays—from a broad array of contributors, including anthropologists, curators, fine artists, geographers, historians, and journalists—comprises short "biographies" of a number of famous taxidermized animals. Each essay traces the life, death, and museum "afterlife" of a specific creature, illuminating the overlooked role of the dead beast in the modern human-animal encounter through practices as disparate as hunting and zookeeping. The contributors offer fresh examinations of the many levels at which humans engage with other animals, especially those that function as both natural and cultural phenomena, including Queen Charlotte’s pet zebra, Maharajah the elephant, and Balto the sled dog, among others. Readers curious about the enduring fascination with animals who have attained these strange afterlives will be drawn to the individual narratives within each essay, while learning more about the scientific, cultural, and museological contexts of each subject. Ranging from autobiographical to analytical, the contributors’ varying styles make this delightful book a true menagerie. Contributors: Samuel J. M. M. Alberti, Royal College of Surgeons * Sophie Everest, University of Manchester * Kate Foster * Michelle Henning, University of the West of England, Bristol * Hayden Lorimer, University of Glasgow * Garry Marvin, Roehampton University, London * Henry Nicholls * Hannah Paddon * Merle Patchett * Christopher Plumb, University of Manchester * Rachel Poliquin * Jeanne Robinson, Glasgow Museums * Mike Rutherford, University of the West Indies * Richard C. Sabin, Natural History Museum * Richard Sutcliffe, Glasgow Museums * Geoffrey N. Swinney, University of Edinburgh
Author: Nigel Rothfels
Publisher: Indiana University Press
Category: Literary Criticism & Collections
View: 5820Representing Animals explores the complex and often surprising connections between our imagining of animals and our cultural environment. The contributors -- historians, literary critics, anthropologists, artists, art historians, and scholars of cultural studies -- examine the ways we talk, write, photograph, imagine, and otherwise represent animals. The book includes topics such as pet cloning, fox hunting, animatronic characters, and how we displace our fear of aging onto our dogs. Representing Animals demonstrates the deep connections between the way we think about animals and the way we have thought about ourselves and our cultures in different times and places. Its publication marks a formative moment in the emerging field of animal studies. Contributors: Steve Baker, Marcus Bullock, Jane Desmond, Erica Fudge, Andrew Isenberg, Kathleen Kete, Akira Mizuta Lippit, Teresa Mangum, Garry Marvin, Susan McHugh, and Nigel Rothfels.
Beyond the Human in Russian Culture and History
Author: Jane Costlow,Amy Nelson
Publisher: University of Pittsburgh Press
View: 8621The lives of animals in Russia are intrinsically linked to cultural, political and psychological transformations of the imperial, Soviet, and post-Soviet eras. Other Animals examines the interaction of animals and humans in Russian literature, art, and life from the eighteenth century until the present. The chapters explore the unique nature of the Russian experience in a range of human-animal relationships through tales of cruelty, interspecies communion and compassion, and efforts to either overcome or establish the human-animal divide. Four themes run through the volume: the prevalence of animals in utopian visions; the ways in which Russians have incorporated and sometimes challenged Western sensibilities and practices, such as the humane treatment of animals and the inclusion of animals in urban domestic life; the quest to identify and at times exploit the physiological basis of human and animal behavior and the ideological implications of these practices; and the breakdown of traditional human-animal hierarchies and categories during times of revolutionary upheaval, social transformation, or disintegration. From failed Soviet attempts to transplant the seminomadic Sami and their reindeer herds onto collective farms, to performance artist Oleg Kulik's scandalous portrayal of Pavlov's dogs as a parody of the Soviet “new man,” to novelist Tatyana Tolstaya's post-cataclysmic future world of hybrid animal species and their disaffection from the past, Other Animals presents a completely new perspective on Russian and Soviet history. It also offers a fascinating look into the Russian psyche as seen through human interactions with animals.
Animal Agency and the Business of the American Circus
Author: Susan Nance
Publisher: JHU Press
Category: Business & Economics
View: 2712Consider the career of an enduring if controversial icon of American entertainment: the genial circus elephant. In Entertaining Elephants Susan Nance examines elephant behavior—drawing on the scientific literature of animal cognition, learning, and communications—to offer a study of elephants as actors (rather than objects) in American circus entertainment between 1800 and 1940. By developing a deeper understanding of animal behavior, Nance asserts, we can more fully explain the common history of all species. Entertaining Elephants is the first account that uses research on animal welfare, health, and cognition to interpret the historical record, examining how both circus people and elephants struggled behind the scenes to meet the profit necessities of the entertainment business. The book does not claim that elephants understood, endorsed, or resisted the world of show business as a human cultural or business practice, but it does speak of elephants rejecting the conditions of their experience. They lived in a kind of parallel reality in the circus, one that was defined by their interactions with people, other elephants, horses, bull hooks, hay, and the weather. Nance’s study informs and complicates contemporary debates over human interactions with animals in entertainment and beyond, questioning the idea of human control over animals and people's claims to speak for them. As sentient beings, these elephants exercised agency, but they had no way of understanding the human cultures that created their captivity, and they obviously had no claim on (human) social and political power. They often lived lives of apparent desperation.
Author: P. J. Vinken,G. W. Bruyn
Category: Nervous system
View: 5615The discipline of neurology emerged in the second half of the 19th Century. With it, chairs and departments of neurology, training programs, specialized journals, and new societies came into being. Trying to understand disorders of the nervous system, however, has roots that can be traced back into antiquity, and the new discipline did not develop in similar ways throughout the world. Further, whereas some neurological disorders seemed relatively easy to understand even before there was a neurological examination, others posed challenges, and many still remain shrouded in mystery. The authors of the present volume examine the fascinating prehistory of neurology, its emergence with as an independent discipline, and how it developed throughout the world. They also look at a number of neurological disorders, some sensory, others motor, and still others affecting higher cognitive functions, to illustrate how our understanding of neurological disorders has changed over time. With 55 chapters, many covering material that has received little or no coverage in other books, this history of neurology is unique in its breadth and depth. Filling a great void, its pages are laced with fascinating medical facts, information about people, and cultural connections. This volume is sure to appeal to neurologists, historians of science and medicine, and inquisitive people from other fields --- readers who wish to understand the roots of a discipline and the challenges faced by its pioneers.
Author: Yuval Noah Harari
View: 2777Krone der Schöpfung? Vor 100 000 Jahren war der Homo sapiens noch ein unbedeutendes Tier, das unauffällig in einem abgelegenen Winkel des afrikanischen Kontinents lebte. Unsere Vorfahren teilten sich den Planeten mit mindestens fünf weiteren menschlichen Spezies, und die Rolle, die sie im Ökosystem spielten, war nicht größer als die von Gorillas, Libellen oder Quallen. Vor 70 000 Jahren dann vollzog sich ein mysteriöser und rascher Wandel mit dem Homo sapiens, und es war vor allem die Beschaffenheit seines Gehirns, die ihn zum Herren des Planeten und zum Schrecken des Ökosystems werden ließ. Bis heute hat sich diese Vorherrschaft stetig zugespitzt: Der Mensch hat die Fähigkeit zu schöpferischem und zu zerstörerischem Handeln wie kein anderes Lebewesen. Anschaulich, unterhaltsam und stellenweise hochkomisch zeichnet Yuval Harari die Geschichte des Menschen nach und zeigt alle großen, aber auch alle ambivalenten Momente unserer Menschwerdung.
Animals, Humans, and the Study of History
Author: Dorothee Brantz
Publisher: University of Virginia Press
View: 8236"This new collection is a thoughtful menagerie. The essays collected here offer a fresh way of looking at animals in their context, and give us a whole new way of doing natural history. The boundaries between humans and animals are provocatively redrawn."---Stephen T. Asma, Columbia College, author of Stuffed Animals and Pickled Heads: The Culture and Evolution of Natural History Museums Although the animal may be, as Nietzsche argued, ahistorical, living completely in the present, it nonetheless plays a crucial role in human history. The fascination with animals that leads not only to a desire to observe and even live alongside them, but to capture or kill them, is found in all civilizations. The essays collected in Beastly Natures show how animals have been brought into human culture, literally helping to build our societies (as domesticated animals have done) or contributing, often in problematic ways, to our concept of the wild. The book begins with a group of essays that approach the historical relevance of human-animal relations seen from the perspectives of various disciplines and suggest ways in which animals might be brought into formal studies of history. Differences in species and location can greatly affect the shape of human-animal interaction, and so the essays that follow address a wide spectrum of topics, including the demanding fate of the working horse, the complex image of the American alligator (at turns a dangerous predator and a tourist attraction), the zoo gardens of Victorian England, the iconography of the rhinoceros and the preference it reveals in society for myth over science, relations between humans and wolves in Europe, and what we can learn from society's enthusiasm for "political" animals, such as the pets of the American presidents and the Soviet Union's "space dogs." Taken together, these essays suggest new ways of looking not only at animals but at human history.
Author: Katherine Kete
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic
Category: Social Science
View: 3372This volume explores the cultural position of animals in the period from 1800 to 1920. This was a time of extraordinary social, political and economic change as the Western world rapidly industrialized and modernized. The Enlightenment had attempted to define the human self; the Age of Empire pulled animals and humans further apart. As with all the volumes in the illustrated Cultural History of Animals, this volume presents an overview of the period and continues with essays on the position of animals in contemporary Symbolism, Hunting, Domestication, Sports and Entertainment, Science, Philosophy, and Art. Volume 5 in the Cultural History of Animals edited by Linda Kalof and Brigitte Resl
The Essential Classic and Contemporary Writings
Author: Linda Kalof,Amy Fitzgerald
Publisher: Bloomsbury Academic
Category: Social Science
View: 1670The study of animals - and the relationship between humans and other animals - is now one of the most fiercely debated topics in contemporary science and culture. Animals have a long history in human society, providing food, labour, sport and companionship as well as becoming objects for exhibit. More contemporary uses extend to animals as therapy and in scientific testing. As natural habitats continue to be destroyed, the rights of animals to co-exist on the planet - and their symbolic power as a connection between humans and the natural world - are ever more hotly contested. The Animals Reader brings together the key classic and contemporary writings from Philosophy, Ethics, Sociology, Cultural Studies, Anthropology, Environmental Studies, History, Law and Science. As the first book of its kind, The Animals Reader provides a framework for understanding the current state of the multidisciplinary field of animal studies. This anthology will be invaluable for students across the Humanities and Social Sciences as well as for general readers.
The Silent Victims of World War II
Author: Mayumi Itoh
Publisher: Palgrave MacMillan
View: 7831The Japanese government disposed of "dangerous animals" (not only carnivores but also herbivores, such as elephants) in zoos and circuses during World War II, including those in Japan's three "colonies" - Korea, Taiwan, and Manchukuo, Japan's puppet state in current Northeast China. Strangely, the "disposal order" was issued in August 1943, more than 15 months before U.S. B-29 air raids on Japan began. While some European zoos also destroyed their animals, none of the authorities in Europe enforced the disposal of zoo animals as systematically as the Japanese Home Ministry. No country conducted as nationwide and systematic a disposal of captive animals as Japan. This policy was an integral part of the Japanese government propaganda to mobilize the whole civilian population into total war, rather than for the ostensible purpose of public safety.
Author: Benedikt Stuchtey
View: 8875The volume investigates how the British, French, German, and Dutch empires influenced or were influenced by scientific exploration as a means Western culture used to gain entry to the non-Western world from around 1800 to the middle of the twentieth century. The transnational perspective aidsan understanding and comparison of the sciences as an instrument which the colonial powers employed to gain economic advantage and political control. The essays pay tribute to the 'metropolitan/centre' and 'colonial/periphery' viewpoints and to the different ways in which imperial expansion occurred. Science had specific meanings in the specific historical realities of European colonialism: the European case studies present similarities anddifferences in their imperial systems, and in the way in which science was used in relation to the level at which they interacted intellectually with the indigenous populations. As these were relationships of interdependence, science certainly helped to purvey solutions that were required by theimperial governments. However, it could equally well provide the basis for an institution of knowledge that was used by the colonized to create forms of civil disobedience ranging up to open resistance to the colonial power. Life sciences, natural history, and the 'non-exact' sciences could beincorporated within the colonial sciences by assimilation and transformation. This process helps us to comprehend the complex character of the interaction between Europe and the colonial world which is a major concern of the present volume. Its agenda lies in engaging with both the Europeanperspective and the viewpoints of colonial life, thus embodying the historiographical concept of 'entangled histories'. It was in the process of these multiple engagements between (1) Europeans and the colonial world, and (2) European scientists at home and abroad that colonial science emerged and developed. Certain features and legacies of modern imperial science are brought together as key elements not only ofWestern imperialism, but of a global intelligence system.