Russia and Iran in the Great Game

Travelogues and Orientalism

Author: Elena Andreeva

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113598302X

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 1626

This book examines the Russian explorers and officials in the nineteenth and early twentieth century who came into contact with Iran as a part of the Great Game. It demonstrates the development of Russia's own form of Orientalism, a phenomenon that has previously been thought to be exclusive to the West.
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Immortal

A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces

Author: Steven R. Ward

Publisher: Georgetown University Press

ISBN: 1626160651

Category: Political Science

Page: 400

View: 4410

Immortal is the only single-volume English-language survey of Iran’s military history. CIA analyst Steven R. Ward shows that Iran’s soldiers, from the famed “Immortals” of ancient Persia to today’s Revolutionary Guard, have demonstrated through the centuries that they should not be underestimated. This history also provides background on the nationalist, tribal, and religious heritages of the country to help readers better understand Iran and its security outlook. Immortal begins with the founding of ancient Persia’s empire under Cyrus the Great and continues through the Iran-Iraq War (1980–1988) and up to the present. Drawing on a wide range of sources including declassified documents, the author gives primary focus to the modern era to relate the build-up of the military under the last Shah, its collapse during the Islamic revolution, its fortunes in the Iran-Iraq War, and its rise from the ashes to help Iran become once again a major regional military power. He shows that, despite command and supply problems, Iranian soldiers demonstrate high levels of bravery and perseverance and have enjoyed surprising tactical successes even when victory has been elusive. These qualities and the Iranians’ ability to impose high costs on their enemies by exploiting Iran’s imposing geography bear careful consideration today by potential opponents.
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Iran and Russian Imperialism

The Ideal Anarchists, 1800-1914

Author: Moritz Deutschmann

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317385306

Category: History

Page: 236

View: 4786

Rather than a centralized state, Iran in the nineteenth century was a delicate balance between tribal groups, urban merchant communities, religious elites, and an autocratic monarchy. While Russia gained an increasingly dominant political role in Iran over the course of this century, Russian influence was often challenged by banditry on the roads, riots in the cities, and the seeming arbitrariness of the Shah. Iran and Russian Imperialism develops a comprehensive picture of Russia’s historical entanglements with one of its most important neighbours in Asia. It recounts how the Russian Empire strived to gain political influence at the Persian court, promote Russian trade, and secure the enormous southern borders of the empire. Using hitherto often neglected documents from archives in Russia and Georgia and reading them against the grain, this book reveals the complex reactions of different groups in Iranian society to Russian imperialism. As it turns out, the Iranians were, in the words of the Russian orientalist Konstantin Smirnov, "ideal anarchists," whose resistance to imperial domination, as well as to centralized state institutions more generally, impacted developments in the region in the century to come. Iran’s troubled relationship with the wider world continues to be a topic of considerable interest to historians, yet little focus has been given to Russia’s historical connections to Iran. This book thus represents a valuable contribution to Iranian and Russian History, as well as International Relations.
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Asiatic Russia

Imperial Power in Regional and International Contexts

Author: Tomohiko Uyama

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136620141

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 967

Although the Russian Empire has traditionally been viewed as a European borderland, most of its territory was actually situated in Asia. Imperial power was huge but often suffered from a lack of enough information and resources to rule its culturally diverse subjects, and asymmetric relations between state and society combined with flexible strategies of local actors sometimes produced unexpected results. In Asiatic Russia, an international team of scholars explores the interactions between power and people in Central Asia, Siberia, the Volga-Urals, and the Caucasus from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, drawing on a wealth of Russian archival materials and Turkic, Persian, and Tibetan sources. The variety of topics discussed in the book includes the Russian idea of a "civilizing mission," the system of governor-generalships, imperial geography and demography, roles of Muslim and Buddhist networks in imperial rule and foreign policy, social change in the Russian Protectorate of Bukhara, Muslim reformist and national movements. The book is essential reading for students and scholars of Russian, Central Eurasian, and comparative imperial history, as well as imperial and colonial studies and nationalism studies. It may also provide some hints for understanding today’s world, where "empire" has again become a key word in international and domestic power relations.
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Aus den Ruinen des Empires

Die Revolte gegen den Westen und der Wiederaufstieg Asiens

Author: Pankaj Mishra

Publisher: S. Fischer Verlag

ISBN: 3104027463

Category: History

Page: 448

View: 5397

Asiens Antwort auf den westlichen Imperialismus: »Provokant, beschämend und überzeugend« The Times Nachdem die letzten Erben des Mogul-Reiches getötet und der Sommerpalast in Peking zerstört war, schien die asiatische Welt vom Westen besiegt. Erstmals erzählt der Essayist und Schriftsteller Pankaj Mishra, wie in dieser Situation Intellektuelle in Indien, China und Afghanistan eine Fülle an Ideen entwickelten, die zur Grundlage für ein neues Asien wurden. Sie waren es, die Mao und Gandhi inspirierten und neue Strömungen des Islam anregten. Von hier aus nahmen die verschiedenen Länder ihren jeweiligen Weg in die Moderne. Unterhaltsam und eindringlich schildert Pankaj Mishra die Entstehung des antikolonialen Denkens und seine Folgen. Ein Buch, das einen völlig neuen Blick auf die Geschichte der Welt bietet und den Schlüssel liefert, um das heutige Asien zu verstehen. »Brillant. Mishra spiegelt den tradierten westlichen Blick auf Asien zurück. Moderne Geschichte, wie sie die Mehrheit der Weltbevölkerung erfahren hat - von der Türkei bis China. Großartig.« Orhan Pamuk »Lebendig ... fesselnd ... ›Aus den Ruinen des Empires‹ hat die Kraft, nicht nur zu belehren, sondern zu schockieren.« Mark Mazower, Financial Times
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The New Great Game

Blood and Oil in Central Asia

Author: Lutz Kleveman

Publisher: Open Road + Grove/Atlantic

ISBN: 1555846653

Category: History

Page: 304

View: 8437

In the tradition of The Prize, Lutz Kleveman gives us the twenty-first-century chapter on the history, passion, and politics of oil and gas resources, and the struggle to control them in a critical part of the world. Using the concept of the "Great Game" that Rudyard Kipling immortalized in his novel Kim, Kleveman argues that there is now a new Great Game in the region, a modern variant of the nineteenth-century clash of imperial ambitions of Great Britain and Tsarist Russia. Traveling thousands of miles, from Turkmenistan (where statues of the country's leader are made of gold and line the thoroughfares) to the Afghan Hindu Kush, Kleveman met with the principal Great Game actors between Kabul and Moscow: oil barons, generals, diplomats, and warlords. Based on extensive research and travel in the Caucasus, the Caspian, and Central Asia, The New Great Game is a thrilling travel narrative through one of the world's last unexplored frontiers, and a savvy and incisive analysis of the power struggle for the world's remaining energy resources.
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The Great Game

Author: Peter Hopkirk

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 1848544774

Category: History

Page: 592

View: 1903

For nearly a century the two most powerful nations on earth, Victorian Britain and Tsarist Russia, fought a secret war in the lonely passes and deserts of Central Asia. Those engaged in this shadowy struggle called it 'The Great Game', a phrase immortalized by Kipling. When play first began the two rival empires lay nearly 2,000 miles apart. By the end, some Russian outposts were within 20 miles of India. This classic book tells the story of the Great Game through the exploits of the young officers, both British and Russian, who risked their lives playing it. Disguised as holy men or native horse-traders, they mapped secret passes, gathered intelligence and sought the allegiance of powerful khans. Some never returned. The violent repercussions of the Great Game are still convulsing Central Asia today.
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The Small Players of the Great Game

The Settlement of Iran's Eastern Borderlands and the Creation of Afghanistan

Author: Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134383770

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 4877

This book deals with the 19th century Anglo-Russian Great Game played out on the territorial chessboard of eastern and north-eastern parts of the waning Persian empire. The Great Game itself has been written about extensively, but never from a Persian angle and from the point of view of the local players in that game. Looking at the territorial consequences of the Great Game for the local players is a unique approach, which deserves a special place in the studies of history, geography, politics and geopolitics of the age of modernity.
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Russians in Iran

Diplomacy and Power in the Qajar Era and Beyond

Author: Rudi Matthee,Elena Andreeva

Publisher: I.B. Tauris

ISBN: 9781838600129

Category: Political Science

Page: 336

View: 4095

Russians in Iran seeks to challenge the traditional narrative regarding Russian involvement Iran and to show that whilst Russia's historical involvement in Iran is longstanding it is nonetheless much misunderstood. Russia's influence in Iran between 1800 and the middle of the twentieth century is not simply a story of inexorable intrusion and domination: rather, it is a complex and interactive process of mostly indirect control and constructive engagement. Drawing on fresh archival material, the contributors provide a window into the power and influence wielded in Iran not just by the Russian government through it traditional representatives but by Russian nationals operating in Iran in a variety of capacities, including individuals, bankers, and entrepreneurs. Russians in Iran reveals the multifaceted role that Russians have played in Iranian history and provides an original and important contribution to the history and international relations of Iran, Russia and the Middle East.
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Iran

A Beginner's Guide

Author: Homa Katouzian

Publisher: Oneworld Publications

ISBN: 1780742738

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 5147

As the Western-Iranian impasse continues to dominate international affairs, politicians and the media confidently proclaim Iran the greatest threat to the Western World. But this villainous mask obscures a far more complex identity formed by a vibrant and tumultuous history. Revealing the true face of this troubled country, acclaimed expert Homa Katouzian delves deep into Iran’s past, exploring how an ancient civilization at a cross-road of diverse dynasties and religions grew to become an ethnically, linguistically and culturally rich nation still bound by the Persian tradition. Major political events and key figures are brought to life as centuries of authoritarian and arbitrary rule, chaos and revolution are unraveled and analyzed, shedding new light on modern Iran and making this an indispensable resource for understanding the current situation in the Middle East.
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China and India in Central Asia

A New "Great Game"?

Author: Sébastien Peyrouse

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230114350

Category: Social Science

Page: 254

View: 382

This book looks at how China and India's growing interests in Central Asia disrupt the traditional Russia-U.S. 'Great Game' at the heart of the old continent. In the years to come, both Asian powers are looking to redeploy their rivalry on the Central Asian and Afghan theatres on a geopolitical, but also political and economic level.
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Iran-Turkey Relations, 1979-2011

Conceptualising the Dynamics of Politics, Religion and Security in Middle-Power States

Author: Suleyman Elik

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136630880

Category: Political Science

Page: 272

View: 9697

Both Turkey and Iran are large and important countries in the Middle East; how these two countries relate to each other is of crucial importance both for the region and for the wider world. This book explores the diplomatic, security and energy relations of these two middle power states since 1979, analysing the impact of religious, political and social transformation on their bilateral relationship. It considers the nature of Turkey-Iran relations in the context of middle power relations theory, and goes on to look at diplomatic crises that have taken place between Turkey and Iran since 1979. The author analyses Turkey and Iran’s security relations with the wider Middle East, including the Kurdish-Turkish War, the Kurdish-Iranian War and the Kurdish-Arab War, and their impact on regional politics.
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Great Games, Local Rules

The New Power Contest in Central Asia

Author: Alexander Cooley

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 0199812004

Category: Asia, Central

Page: 252

View: 5685

The struggle between Russia and Great Britain over Central Asia in the nineteenth century was the original "great game." But in the past quarter century, a new "great game" has emerged, pitting America against a newly aggressive Russia and a resource-hungry China, all struggling for influence over the same region, now one of the most volatile areas in the world: the long border region stretching from Iran through Pakistan to Kashmir. In Great Games, Local Rules, Alexander Cooley, one of America's most respected international relations scholars, explores the dynamics of the new competition for control of the region since 9/11. All three great powers have crafted strategies to increase their power in the area, which includes Afghanistan and the former Soviet republics of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. Each nation is pursuing important goals: basing rights for the US, access to natural resources for the Chinese, and increased political influence for the Russians. However, overlooked in all of the talk about this new great game is fact that the Central Asian governments have proven themselves critical agents in their own right, establishing local rules for external power involvement that serve to fend off foreign interest. As a result, despite a decade of intense interest from the United States, Russia, and China, Central Asia remains a collection of segmented states, and the external competition has merely reinforced the sovereign authority of the individual Central Asian governments. A careful and surprising analysis of how small states interact with great powers in a vital region, Great Games, Local Rules greatly advances our understanding of how global politics actually works in the contemporary era.
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Diplomacy and Murder in Tehran

Alexander Griboyedov and Imperial Russia's Mission to the Shah of Persia

Author: Laurence Kelly

Publisher: Tauris Parke Paperbacks

ISBN: 0857712101

Category: Biography & Autobiography

Page: 368

View: 6346

When the Tehran mob broke into the Russian embassy and murdered all the diplomats there, the death toll included one of the most brilliant and promising stars in the early 19th century Russian literary firmament. Alexander Griboyedov’s masterpiece ‘Woe from Wit’, had been praised by Pushkin as making ‘an indelible impression’. It also had the distinction of being immediately banned by the Russian censors. The play’s alternative title was ‘The Misfortune of Being Clever’ and perhaps Griboyedov’s tragedy was that he was not clever enough to withstand the malign forces which shadowed and dogged his career. In this first biography of Griboyedov in English, Laurence Kelly paints a vivid picture of his remarkable literary and diplomatic gifts which were nevertheless overshadowed by ill-fortune and tragedy. As a writer he narrowly escaped the ferocity of the Tsar’s government on suspicion of complicity in the 1825 Decembrist plot by liberal aristocrats to overthrow the Tsarist state. And his role as a diplomat in the dangerous game of Russian imperial expansion in Iran was to cost him his life. Griboyedov’s friend Pushkin thought him `the cleverest man in Russia’ and `a man of unusual quality’ but ‘overshadowed by certain clouds, the results of fiery passions and great events’. After his brush with the wrath of the Tsar, Griboyedov was dispatched to Georgia and Iran, charged with furthering Russia’s expansionist agenda in the Caucasus and beyond. As one of the earliest Russian players in the Great Game, he was a leading actor in defining the Tsar’s relations with the Persians and the British in the region. (The Treaty of Turkmanchai, which he drafted in 1827, still forms the basis for today’s international borders in this area). But Griboyedov viewed his mission to Tehran as Russian Minister Plenipotentiary with the greatest foreboding. In the end his diplomatic skills were no match for the zealous mobs unleashed by the mullahs incensed by trivial incidents which they portrayed as a slur on Iran’s self esteem and the honour of Islam. When his embassy was ransacked he perished in the attack. This book makes an invaluable contribution to the diplomatic history of Russia, the Caucasus and Iran, while at the same time shedding much new light on the life and works of a writer who was among 19th century Russia’s most respected and prominent literary figures.
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Russian Foreign Policy in the Twenty-first Century and the Shadow of the Past

Author: Robert Legvold

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 023114122X

Category: Political Science

Page: 534

View: 9949

Because the turbulent trajectory of Russia's foreign policy since the collapse of the Soviet Union echoes previous moments of social and political transformation, history offers a special vantage point from which to judge the current course of events. In this book, a mix of leading historians and political scientists examines the foreign policy of contemporary Russia over four centuries of history. The authors explain the impact of empire and its loss, the interweaving of domestic and foreign impulses, long-standing approaches to national security, and the effect of globalization over time. Contributors focus on the underlying patterns that have marked Russian foreign policy and that persist today. These patterns are driven by the country's political makeup, geographical circumstances, economic strivings, unsettled position in the larger international setting, and, above all, its tortured effort to resolve issues of national identity. The argument here is not that the Russia of Putin and his successors must remain trapped by these historical patterns but that history allows for an assessment of how much or how little has changed in Russia's approach to the outside world and creates a foundation for identifying what must change if Russia is to evolve. A truly unique collection, this volume utilizes history to shed crucial light on Russia's complex, occasionally inscrutable relationship with the world. In so doing, it raises the broader issue of the relationship of history to the study of contemporary foreign policy and how these two enterprises might be better joined.
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Security and Territoriality in the Persian Gulf

A Maritime Political Geography

Author: Dr Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh,Pirouz Mojtahed-Zadeh

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136817247

Category: Social Science

Page: 284

View: 812

This study presents the story of successes and failures of the treatment of security matters pertaining to territorial and boundary affairs in the maritime areas of the Persian Gulf, and at the same time provides an example of the impact of territoriality on world-wide maritime security.
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Russia and its Near Neighbours

Author: M. Freire,R. Kanet

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230390161

Category: Political Science

Page: 295

View: 5829

Russia has recently re-emerged as the dominant political, economic and military actor in former Soviet nations. Kanet and Freire bring together a stellar cast of contributors to consider Russia's recent return as a major regional and international actor and its likely future policy toward its neighbours.
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The Baloch and Balochistan

A Historical Account from the Beginning to the Fall of the Baloch State

Author: Naseer Dashti

Publisher: Trafford Publishing

ISBN: 1466958979

Category: Political Science

Page: 424

View: 6478

Three thousand years ago, a group of Indo-Iranic tribes (called Balaschik at that time) settled in the northwestern Caspian region of Balashagan. Circumstances forced them to disperse and migrate towards south and eastern parts of Iranian plateau. In medieval times, they finally settled in present Balochistan where they became known as the Baloch. During their long and tortuous journey from Balashagan to Balochistan, the Baloch faced persecutions, deportations, and genocidal acts of various Persian, Arab and other regional powers. During 17th century, after dominating Balochistan culturally and politically, the Baloch carved out a nation state (the Khanate of Kalat). In 1839, the British occupied Balochistan and subsequently it was divided into various parts. In the wake of the British withdrawal from India in 1947, Balochistan regained its sovereignty but soon Pakistan occupied it in 1948. The historical account of the Baloch is the story of a pastoralist nomadic people from ancient times to mid-twentieth century. The author outlines the origin of the Baloch state and its variegated history of survival against powerful neighbors such as the Persians, the British and finally, Pakistan. This fascinating research work discovers the background of the long drawn-out conflict between the Baloch and Pakistan and Iranian states.
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Averting Global War

Regional Challenges, Overextension, and Options for American Strategy

Author: H. Gardner

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230108717

Category: Political Science

Page: 285

View: 3834

Averting Global War examines major regional disputes and conflicts throughout the world as they impact upon both American domestic and foreign policy. These include: The ongoing _war on terrorism_; NATO enlargement to Russian borders; US intervention in Iraq; US confrontation with Iran; the feud between Israel and the Palestinians; the widening _zone of conflict_ from Central Asia to sub-Saharan Africa; the global ramifications of North Korea_s nuclear program and China_s claims to Taiwan; Venezuela_s _Bolivarian Revolution_ and the _war on drugs_ in Latin America, the domestic socio-political effects of Latin American immigration upon the US. The book_s goal is to articulate an irenic American strategy intended to resolve, or at least transform, a number of these disputes and conflicts so as to prevent them from further _deepening_ or _widening__and to avert the real possibility of major power confrontation involving both clandestine and overt methods of warfare.
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