States of Knowledge

The Co-Production of Science and the Social Order

Author: Sheila Jasanoff

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134328338

Category: Social Science

Page: 336

View: 4038

Notes on contributors Acknowledgements 1. The Idiom of Co-production Sheila Jasanoff 2. Ordering Knowledge, Ordering Society Sheila Jasanoff 3. Climate Science and the Making of a Global Political Order Clark A. Miller 4. Co-producing CITES and the African Elephant Charis Thompson 5. Knowledge and Political Order in the European Environment Agency Claire Waterton and Brian Wynne 6. Plants, Power and Development: Founding the Imperial Department of Agriculture for the West Indies, 1880-1914 William K. Storey 7. Mapping Systems and Moral Order: Constituting property in genome laboratories Stephen Hilgartner 8. Patients and Scientists in French Muscular Dystrophy Research Vololona Rabeharisoa and Michel Callon 9. Circumscribing Expertise: Membership categories in courtroom testimony Michael Lynch 10. The Science of Merit and the Merit of Science: Mental order and social order in early twentieth-century France and America John Carson 11. Mysteries of State, Mysteries of Nature: Authority, knowledge and expertise in the seventeenth century Peter Dear 12. Reconstructing Sociotechnical Order: Vannevar Bush and US science policy Michael Aaron Dennis 13. Science and the Political Imagination in Contemporary Democracies Yaron Ezrah 14. Afterword Sheila Jasanoff References Index
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Science and Democracy

Making Knowledge and Making Power in the Biosciences and Beyond

Author: Stephen Hilgartner,Clark Miller,Rob Hagendijk

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136748202

Category: Social Science

Page: 248

View: 3961

In the life sciences and beyond, new developments in science and technology and the creation of new social orders go hand in hand. In short, science and society are simultaneously and reciprocally coproduced and changed. Scientific research not only produces new knowledge and technological systems but also constitutes new forms of expertise and contributes to the emergence of new modes of living and new forms of exchange. These dynamic processes are tightly connected to significant redistributions of wealth and power, and they sometimes threaten and sometimes enhance democracy. Understanding these phenomena poses important intellectual and normative challenges: neither traditional social sciences nor prevailing modes of democratic governance have fully grappled with the deep and growing significance of knowledge-making in twenty-first century politics and markets. Building on new work in science and technology studies (STS), this book advances the systematic analysis of the coproduction of knowledge and power in contemporary societies. Using case studies in the new life sciences, supplemented with cases on informatics and other topics such as climate science, this book presents a theoretical framing of coproduction processes while also providing detailed empirical analyses and nuanced comparative work. Science and Democracy: Knowledge as Wealth and Power in the Biosciences and Beyond will be interesting for students of sociology, science & technology studies, history of science, genetics, political science, and public administration.
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Anthropological Perspectives on Technology

Author: Michael B. Schiffer

Publisher: UNM Press

ISBN: 9780826323699

Category: Social Science

Page: 242

View: 7933

These fourteen original essays accept a dual premise: technology pervades and is embedded in all human activities. By taking that approach, studies of technology address two questions central in anthropological and archaeological research today-accounting for variability and change. These diverse yet interrelated chapters show that to understand human lives, researchers must deal with the material world that all peoples create and inhabit. Therefore an anthropology of technology is not a separate, discrete inquiry; instead, it is a way to connect how people make and use things to any activity studied, ranging from religion, to enculturation, to communication, to art. Each contributor discusses theories and methods and also offers a substantial case study. These detailed inquiries span human societies from the Paleolithic to the computer age. By moving beyond the usual approach of examining ancient technologies, particularly chipped stone and low-fired ceramics, this volume probes for the construction of meaning in the material world across millennia. The authors of these essays find technology to be an inclusive and flexible topic that merges with studies of everything else in human activity. "A provocative and powerful discussion of the role of technology in human cultures. At a time when archaeology has become less focused on theory, and archaeology and social anthropology seem to fracture farther and farther apart, the book is a breath of fresh air."--Professor John Douglas, University of Montana
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Autopoietic Knowledge Systems in Project-Based Companies

Author: K. Koskinen

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230298931

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 227

View: 4820

This book gives an alternative observational scheme to better understand knowledge creation and learning in project-based companies. It builds upon emergent new ways of looking at projects which is important - as any discipline stays alive by reflection and re-framing ideas as they are challenged, argued and clarified.
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Management Accounting and Control Systems

An Organizational and Sociological Approach

Author: Norman B. Macintosh,Paolo Quattrone

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470714476

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 384

View: 9648

Management accounting and control deals with administrative devices which organizations use to control their managers and employees. Management accounting systems are a very important part used to motivate, monitor, measure, and sanction, the actions of managers and employees in organizations. Management Accounting and Control Systems 2nd Edition is about the design and working of management accounting and control from an organizational and sociological perspective. It focuses on how control systems are used to influence, motivate, and control what people do in organizations. The second edition of the book takes into account the need for a general update of the content and a change in the structure of the original text, and some of the comments received by the external reviewers
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Social Science Knowledge and Economic Development

An Institutional Design Perspective

Author: Vernon W. Ruttan

Publisher: University of Michigan Press

ISBN: 9780472113552

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 341

View: 5143

includes bibliographical references.
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Applied Social Science Research in a Regional Knowledge System

Balancing validity, meaning and convenience

Author: Hans Christian Garmann Johnsen,Elisabet S. Hauge,May-Linda Magnussen,Richard Ennals

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1315411393

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 336

View: 470

This book illustrates how applied social scientists and their research are integrated with stakeholders and practitioners in a local/regional setting, and how knowledge development is a mutual concern, made in, and dependent on, ongoing dialogue. Focusing on the Agder region, the southernmost region in Norway, researchers and contributors question what impact the changing economic environment will have on applied researchers around the world. Applied research is seen as a vital part of the infrastructure for economic and social development, in the Agder region and beyond. The chapters are divided into four parts: the spatial dimension of knowledge development; understanding regional practice; explaining regional practice; influencing regional social practice. A useful resource for both policy makers and researchers, the book helps readers reflect on the type of mutual competence building that applied social science research implies, and depends on, in a regional knowledge development process. It represents a voice on how to understand the development of the knowledge society at regional and global levels.
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The Knowledge-based Economy

Modeled, Measured, Simulated

Author: Loet Leydesdorff

Publisher: Universal-Publishers

ISBN: 1581129378

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 385

View: 2877

"Challenging, theoretically rich yet anchored in detailed empirical analysis, Loet Leydesdorff's exploration of the dynamics of the knowledge-economy is a major contribution to the field. Drawing on his expertise in science and technology studies, systems theory, and his internationally respected work on the 'triple helix', the book provides a radically new modelling and simulation of knowledge systems, capturing the articulation of structure, communication, and agency therein. This work will be of immense interest to both theorists of the knowledge-economy and practitioners in science policy." Andrew Webster Science & Technology Studies, University of York, UK ________________________________________ "This book is a ground-breaking collection of theory and techniques to help understand the internal dynamics of the modern knowledge-based economy, including issues such as stability, anticipation, and interactions amongst components. The combination of theory, measurement, and modelling gives the necessary power with which to address the complexity of modern networked social systems. Each on its own would partly illuminate an innovation system, but the combination sheds a far brighter light." Mike Thelwall Information Science, University of Wolverhampton, UK ________________________________________ "The sociologist Niklas Luhmann is considered one of the few social scientists possibly able to explain a decisive event once it has happened. In this book, Loet Leydesdorff answers the challenge to take Luhmann's analysis one step further by introducing anticipation into the theory. This book provides a fascinating exploration of the use of recursion and incursion to model social processes." Dirk Baecker Sociology, Universitat Witten/Herdecke, Germany ________________________________________ How can an economy based on something as volatile as knowledge be sustained? The urgency of improving our understanding of a knowledge-based economy provides the context and necessity of this study. In a previous study entitled A Sociological Theory of Communications: The Self-Organization of the Knowledge-based Society (2001) the author specified knowledge-based systems from a sociological perspective. In this book, he takes this theory one step further and demonstrates how the knowledge base of an economic system can be operationalized, both in terms of measurement and by providing simulation models."
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Handbook of science and technology studies

Author: Sheila Jasanoff,Society for Social Studies of Science

Publisher: Sage Publications, Inc

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 820

View: 9118

Published in cooperation with the Society for Social Studies of Science For the most current, comprehensive resource in this rapidly evolving field, look no further than the Handbook of Science and Technology Studies. This masterful volume is the first resource in over 15 years to define, summarize, and synthesize this complex multidisciplinary, international field. Tightly edited with contributions by an internationally recognized team of leading scholars, this volume addresses the crucial contemporary issues-both traditional and nonconventional-social studies, political studies, and humanistic studies in this changing field. Containing theoretical essays, extensive literature reviews, and detailed case studies, this remarkable volume clearly sets the standard for the field. It does nothing less than establish itself as the benchmark, one that will carry the field well into the next century. "The long-awaited Handbook of Science and Technology Studies--sponsored by the Society for Social Studies of Science is a truly substantial work, both in size and in the breadth of its many contributions. It is a rich and valuable guide to much that is transpiring in the field of Science and Technology Studies. In the editors words, it is 'an unconventional but arresting atlas of the field at a particular moment in its history'" --Science, Technology & Society "This book is not only an important resource for practitioners, but it also may help to spark the curiosity of those who are outside the field--including scientists and engineers themselves--and so pull the "half-seen world' of science and technology studies even more fully into the light of day." --American Scientist "The book as a whole is an impressive testimony to the vitality of a burgeoning field." -New Scientist "It reflects the international and interdisciplinary nature of the society. An excellent resource" --Choice
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Is Science Multicultural?

Postcolonialisms, Feminisms, and Epistemologies

Author: Sandra G. Harding

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 9780253211569

Category: Science

Page: 242

View: 7658

Is Science Multicultural? explores what the last three decades of European/American, feminist, and postcolonial science and technology studies can learn from each other. Sandra Harding introduces and discusses an array of postcolonial science studies, and their implications for "northern" science. All three science studies strains have developed in the context of post-World War II science and technology projects. They illustrate how technoscientific projects mean different things to different groups. The meaning attached by the culture of the West may not be shared or may be diametrically opposite in the cultures in other parts of the world. All, however, would agree that scientific projects--modern science included--are "local knowledge systems." The interests and discursive resources that the various science studies bring groups to their projects, and the ways that they organize the production of their kind of science studies, are distinctively culturally-local also. While their projects may be unintentionally converging, they also conflict in fundamental respects. How is this inevitable cultural-situatedness of knowledge both an invaluable resource as well as a limitation on the advance of knowledge about nature? What are the distinctive resources that the feminist and postcolonial science theorists offer in thinking about the history of modern science; the diversity of "scientific" traditions in non-European as well as in European cultures; and the directions that might be taken by less androcentric and Eurocentric scientific projects? How might modern sciences' projects be linked more firmly to the prodemocratic yearnings that are so widely voiced in contemporary life? Carefully balancing poststructuralist and conventional epistemological resources, this study concludes by proposing new directions for thinking about objectivity, method, and reflexivity in light of the new understandings developed in the post-World War II world.
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Toward a Global Science

Mining Civilizational Knowledge

Author: Susantha Goonatilake

Publisher: Indiana University Press

ISBN: 9780253333889

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 314

View: 3491

Asian science such as mathematics, Chinese printing, gunpowder and the compass, all contributed to the development of European science. During the last few centuries, however, scientific contributions with Asian roots have diminished and been marginalized and deligitimised. Yet the center of the world economy today is shifting to Asia with shifts in science and technology bound to follow. Toward a Global Science is driven by the proposition that pre-Renaissance acquisition of Asian knowledge did not exhaust Asian civilizationOtilde;s potential contribution. There are many useful elements to modern science still lying hidden in Asian civilizational stores waiting to be Ograve;mined.Oacute; The author gives details of recent contributions from South Asian medicine, mathematics, and psychology and explores how South Asian inputs can be useful in navigating the philosophical and ethical problems raised by two dominant technologies of the future, namely biotechnology and information technology. As an illustrative example, it describes how a fruitful marriage of one technologyNtilde;virtual realityNtilde;with South Asian philosophy can enliven both the technology as well as philosophy. It also examines how Asian positions could be used to feed some key contemporary philosophical discussions on science. Using a model of the civilizational construction of science, the book views science without Eurocentric blinders. It documents how science was built initially by transfers from non-European civilizations and why the given historiography of science has to be rethought. Throughout the book the author gives examples of Ograve;parallels and antecedentsOacute; between East and West in science and estimates the potential reservoir of Asian knowledge in each field. The book also deals with the many knotty problems in recovering science from past traditions. The author distinguishes between his secular efforts from religious and other attempts that claim the equivalence of all knowledge systems.
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Future Survey Annual 1990

A Guide to the Recent Literature of Trends, Forecasts, and Policy Proposals

Author: Michael Marien

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 9780930242381

Category: Political Science

Page: 196

View: 3059

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Analysing Exemplary Science Teaching

Author: Steve Alsop,Larry Bencze,Erminia Pedretti

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education (UK)

ISBN: 0335224032

Category: Education

Page: 273

View: 8359

Analysing Exemplary Science Teaching brings together twelve academics, ten innovative teachers and three exceptional students in a conversation about teaching and learning. Teachers and students describe some of their most noteworthy classroom practice, whilst scholars of international standing use educational theory to discuss, define and analyse the documented classroom practice.
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Laboratory Life

The Construction of Scientific Facts

Author: Bruno Latour,Steve Woolgar

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400820413

Category: Social Science

Page: 296

View: 1660

This highly original work presents laboratory science in a deliberately skeptical way: as an anthropological approach to the culture of the scientist. Drawing on recent work in literary criticism, the authors study how the social world of the laboratory produces papers and other "texts,"' and how the scientific vision of reality becomes that set of statements considered, for the time being, too expensive to change. The book is based on field work done by Bruno Latour in Roger Guillemin's laboratory at the Salk Institute and provides an important link between the sociology of modern sciences and laboratory studies in the history of science.
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Knowledge and Democracy

A 21st Century Perspective

Author: Nico Stehr

Publisher: Transaction Publishers

ISBN: 1412812240

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 247

View: 8175

The relationship of knowledge and liberties in modern societies presents a multitude of fascinating issues that deserve to be explored more systematically. The production of knowledge is dynamic, and the conditions and practice of freedom is undergoing transformation. These changes ensure that the linkages between liberty and knowledge are always subject to changes. In the past, the connection between scientific knowledge, democracy, and emancipation seemed self-evident. More recently, the close linkage between democracy and knowledge has been viewed with skepticism. This volume explores the relationship between knowledge and democracy, Do they support each other, do they mutually depend on each other, or are they perhaps even in conflict with each other? Does knowledge increase the freedom to act? If additional knowledge contributes to individual and social well being, does it also enhance freedoms? Knowledge and Democracy focuses on the interpenetration of knowledge, freedom and democracy, and does so from various perspectives, theoretical as well as practical. Modern societies are transforming themselves into knowledge societies. This has a fundamental impact on political systems and the relationship of citizens to large social institutions. The contributors to this book systemically explore whether, and in what ways, these modern-day changes and developments are connected to expansion of the capacities of individual citizens to act. They focus on the interrelation of democracy and knowledge, and the role of democratic institutions, as well as on the knowledge and social conduct of actors within democratic institutions. In the process of investigation, they arrive at a new platform for future research and theory, one that is sensitive to present-day societal conflicts, cleavages, and transformations generated by new knowledge. In this way, this volume will attract the interest of political scientists, sociologists, economists and students within various disciplines. Nico Stehr is Karl Mannheim Professor of Cultural Studies at the Zeppelin University, Friedrichshafen, Germany and a fellow of the Center for the Advanced Study of the Humanities, Essen, Germany. During the academic year 2002/2003 he was Paul F. Lazarsfeld Professor at the University of Vienna. Stehr is also a professor emeritus of the University of Alberta. His research interests include sociology, economics and labor, globalization, and ecology.
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National Union Catalog

Author: N.A

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Union catalogs

Page: N.A

View: 8679

Includes entries for maps and atlases.
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