Between Group Rights and Individual Rights
Author: Anat Scolnicov
View: 3113This book analyses the right to religious freedom in international law, drawing on an array of national and international cases. Taking a rigorous approach to the right to religious freedom, Anat Scolnicov argues that the interpretation and application of religious freedom must be understood as a conflict between individual and group claims of rights, and that although some states, based on their respective histories, religions, and cultures, protect the group over the individual, only an individualistic approach of international law is a coherent way of protecting religious freedom. Analysing legal structures in a variety of both Western and Non-Western jurisdictions, the book sets out a topography of different constitutional structures of religions within states and evaluates their compliance with international human rights law. The book also considers the position of women's religious freedom vis-à-vis community claims of religious freedom, of children’s right to religious freedom and of the rights of dissenters within religious groups.
A Comparative Introduction
Author: Norman Doe
Publisher: OUP Oxford
View: 6766Each state in Europe has its own national laws which affect religion and these are increasingly the subject of political and academic debate. This book provides a detailed comparative introduction to these laws with particular reference to the states of the European Union. A comparison of national laws on religion reveals profound similarities between them. From these emerge principles of law on religion common to the states of Europe and the book articulates these for the first time. It examines the constitutional postures of states towards religion, religious freedom, and discrimination, and the legal position, autonomy, and ministers of religious organizations. It also examines the protection of doctrine and worship, the property and finances of religion, religion, education, and public institutions, and religion, marriage, and children, as well as the fundamentals of the emergent European Union law on religion. The existence of these principles challenges the standard view in modern scholarship that there is little commonality in the legal postures of European states towards religion - it reveals that the dominant juridical model in Europe is that of cooperation between State and religion. The book also analyses national laws in the context of international laws on religion, particularly the European Convention on Human Rights. It proposes that national laws go further than these in their treatment and protection of religion, and that the principles of religion law common to the states of Europe may themselves represent a blueprint for the development of international norms in this field. The book provides a wealth of legal materials for scholars and students. The principles articulated in it also enable greater dialogue between law and disciplines beyond law, such as the sociology of religion, about the role of religion in Europe today. The book also identifies areas for further research in this regard, pointing the direction for future study.
Author: Neil Addison
View: 6019Dealing with this new and controversial area, this is the first comprehensive guide to religious discrimination and hatred legislation. Written by a practising barrister, experienced in all courts and tribunals, this book uses many practical examples covering all forms of religious belief. Exploring part two of the Equality Act and the Racial and Religious Hatred Act, Addison examines the fundamental differences between religion and race which make the operation of these new laws far more problematic than other racial laws. By looking at these new pieces of legislation, together with the existing Human Rights provisions of Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights, the 2003 Employment Discrimination Regulations and the 2001 Religiously Aggravated Offences, he is able to draw subtle comparisons and create a holistic overview of religion and the law. Challenging some common but simplistic views on the nature of religion and its accommodation in the law, this book is an essential read for students and professionals interested in human rights law and law and religion.
Author: Ioana Cismas
Publisher: OUP Oxford
View: 6953This book assesses whether a new category of religious actors has been constructed within international law. Religious actors, through their interpretations of the religion(s) they are associated with, uphold and promote, or indeed may transform, potentially oppressive structures or discriminatory patterns. This study moves beyond the concern that religious texts and practices may be incompatible with international law, to provide an innovative analysis of how religious actors themselves are accountable under international law for the interpretations they choose to put forward. The book defines religious actors as comprising religious states, international organizations, and non-state entities that assume the role of interpreting religion and so claim a 'special' legitimacy anchored in tradition or charisma. Cutting across the state / non-state divide, this definition allows the full remit of religious bodies to be investigated. It analyses the crucial question of whether religious actors do in fact operate under different international legal norms to non-religious states, international organizations, or companies. To that end, the Holy See-Vatican, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, and churches and religious organizations under the European Convention on Human Rights regime are examined in detail as case studies. The study ultimately establishes that religious actors cannot be seen to form an autonomous legal category under international law: they do not enjoy special or exclusive rights, nor incur lesser obligations, when compared to their respective non-religious peers. Going forward, it concludes that a process of two-sided legitimation may be at stake: religious actors will need to provide evidence for the legality of their religious interpretations to strengthen their legitimacy, and international law itself may benefit from religious actors fostering its legitimacy in different cultural contexts.
A Critical Examination of Islamic State Practices
Author: Javaid Rehman,Susan Breau
View: 1401Freedom of religion is a subject, which has throughout human history been a source of profound disagreements and conflict. In the modern era, religious-based intolerance continues to provide lacerative and tormenting concern to the possibility of congenial human relationships. As the present study examines, religions have been relied upon to perpetuate discrimination and inequalities, and to victimise minorities to the point of forcible assimilation and genocide. The study provides an overview of the complexities inherent in the freedom of religion within international law and an analysis of the cultural-religious relativist debate in contemporary human rights law. As many of the chapters examine, Islamic State practices have been a major source of concern. In the backdrop of the events of 11 September 2001, a considerable focus of this volume is upon the Muslim world, either through the emergent State practices and existing constitutional structures within Muslim majority States or through Islamic diasporic communities resident in Europe and North-America.
Author: Malcolm Evans,Peter Petkoff,Julian Rivers
Publisher: OUP Oxford
Category: Political Science
View: 3312The Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief, as proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in 1981, is the only universal human rights instrument specifically focusing on religious intolerance and discrimination. However, recent years have seen increasing controversy surrounding this right, in both political and legal contexts. The European Court of Human Rights has experienced a vast expansion in the number of cases it has had brought before it concerning religious freedom, and politically the boundaries of the right have been much disputed. This book provides a systematic analysis of the different approaches to religious rights which exist in public international law. The book explores how particular institutional perspectives emerge in the context of these differing approaches. It examines, and challenges, these institutional perspectives. It identifies new directions for approaching religious rights through international law by examining existing legal tools, and assesses their achievements and shortcomings. It studies religious organisations' support for international human rights protection, as well as religious critique of international human rights and the development of an alternative religious 'Bills of Rights'. It investigates whether expressions of members belonging to religious minorities can be considered under the minority right to culture, rather than the right to religion, and discusses the benefits and shortcomings of such a route. It analyses the reach and limits of the provisions in the 1981 Declaration, identifies ways in which the right is being eroded as a concept, and suggests new ways in which the right can be reinforced and protected.
Die Rechtsstellung des Individuums im Völkerrecht
Author: Anne Peters
Publisher: Mohr Siebeck
View: 9017Grundthese des Buches ist, dass ein Paradigmenwechsel stattgefunden hat, der den Menschen zum primaren Volkerrechtssubjekt macht. Diese These wird vor dem Hintergrund der Ideengeschichte und Dogmatik der Volkerrechtspersonlichkeit des Menschen entfaltet und auf die Rechtspraxis in zahlreichen Teilrechtsgebieten, angefangen vom Recht der internationalen Verantwortung uber das Recht des bewaffneten Konflikts, das Recht der Katastrophenhilfe, das internationale Strafrecht, das internationale Umweltrecht, das Konsularrecht und das Recht des diplomatischen Schutzes, das internationale Arbeitsrecht, das Fluchtlingsrecht bis hin zum internationalen Investitionsschutzrecht gestutzt. Der neue Volkerrechtsstatus des Menschen wird mit dem Begriff des subjektiven internationalen Rechts auf den Punkt gebracht.
Geschichte und Gegenwart
Author: Mathias Rohe
View: 686Erstmals beschreibt in diesem Buch ein islamwissenschaftlich geschulter Jurist Entstehung, Entwicklung und gegenwärtige Ausformung des islamischen Rechts. Mathias Rohe erläutert die wichtigsten islamischem Rechtsquellen und Rechtsfindungsmethoden und schildert in Grundzügen die Regelungsbereiche des klassischen islamischen Rechts: Ehe- und Familienrecht, Erbrecht, Vertrags- und Wirtschaftsrecht, Gesellschaftsrecht, Eigentumsrecht, Strafrecht, Staats- und Verwaltungsrecht, Fremden- und Völkerrecht. Dabei kommen auch grundlegende Unterschiede zwischen Sunniten, Schiiten und anderen Richtungen zur Sprache. Sein besonderes Augenmerk gilt den Regelungen für Muslime in einer nichtislamischen Umgebung, vor allem in Deutschland. Ein Ausblick auf Perspektiven des islamischen Rechts in einer globalisierten Welt beschließt dieses anschaulich geschriebene Standardwerk. Für die vorliegende dritte Auflage wurde das Buch überarbeitet, aktualisiert und erweitert. „Mathias Rohe hat ein ausgezeichnetes Buch über die wichtigsten Schattierungen der Scharia verfasst. Dessen Lektüre ist Pflicht für jeden, dem ernsthaft an der Integration gelegen ist.“ (Andreas Zielke, Süddeutsche Zeitung) „Wer Aufklärung verschenken will, möge zum christlichsten aller Feste das Buch von Matthias Rohe unter den Baum legen. (...) Es hat das Zeug zu einem Standardwerk. Und es füllt eine Lücke, die Missverständnisse und die einseitige Wahrnehmung konservativer Islamauslegung reißen.“ (Thoralf Schwanitz, Andreas Kurz, Financial Times Deutschland)
Essays on Religion and Human Rights
Author: Nazila Ghanea-Hercock,Alan Andrew Stephens,Raphael Walden
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Category: Political Science
View: 7542Where can religions find sources of legitimacy for human rights? How do, and how should, religious leaders and communities respond to human rights as defined in modern International Law? When religious precepts contradict human rights standards - for example in relation to freedom of expression or in relation to punishments - which should trump the other, and why? Can human rights and religious teachings be interpreted in a manner which brings reconciliation closer? Do the modern concept and system of human rights undermine the very vision of society that religions aim to impart? Is a reference to God in the discussion of human rights misplaced? Do human fallibilities with respect to interpretation, judicial reasoning and the understanding of human oneness and dignity provide the key to the undeniable and sometimes devastating conflicts that have arisen between, and within, religions and the human rights movement? In this volume, academics and lawyers tackle these most difficult questions head-on, with candour and creativity, and the collection is rendered unique by the further contributions of a remarkable range of other professionals, including senior religious leaders and representatives, journalists, diplomats and civil servants, both national and international. Most notably, the contributors do not shy away from the boldest question of all - summed up in the book's title. The thoroughly edited and revised papers which make up this collection were originally prepared for a ground-breaking conference organised by the Clemens Nathan Research Centre, the University of London Institute of Commonwealth Studies and Martinus Nijhoff/Brill.
Second Revised Edition
Author: Natan Lerner
Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers
Category: Political Science
View: 5365Religion, and beliefs related to religion, are today a central factor in international life and politics. International law, and human rights law in particular, have to take into consideration the religious dimension, and have done it to some extent. A body of positive law has already been developed for the protection of freedom of religion, and from religion, by the U.N. and regional organizations. This book, incorporating previously published as well as unpublished materials, discusses the legal meaning of religion and belief, the U.N. work in this respect, religious minorities, relevant regional and special arrangements, the issues of proselytism, religion and terrorism, the use of religious symbols, international criminal law, and some particular situations, such as the state and religious communities in Israel and this country's agreement with the Holy See. Law schools, human rights scholars and activists, and international organizations will find interest in the book.
Finding Answers in a Democratic Society
Publisher: Council of Europe
Category: Social Science
View: 5002Mutual understanding and acceptance is perhaps the main challenge of modern society. Diversity is undoubtedly an asset, but cohabiting with people of different backgrounds and ideals calls for a new ethic of responsible intercultural relations, in Europe and in the World. This book tries to answer a series of pertinent and poignant questions arising from these issues, such as whether it is still possible to criticise ideas when this may be considered hurtful to certain religious feelings; whether society is hostage to the excessive sensitivity of certain individuals; or what legal responses there may be to these phenomena, and whether criminal law is the only answer.
Author: Myriam Hunter-Hénin
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.
Category: Political Science
View: 1102This topical study of a highly sensitive area of education presents a valuable insight for students, researchers and academics with an interest in cultural and religious diversity, human rights and education. This collection considers how contemporary cultural and religious diversity challenges and redefines national, constitutional and legal frameworks and concepts, within the context of education and offers a critical reflection on the extent and meanings given to religious freedom in education across Europe.
Studies in Mass Communication and Conflict
Author: Mario Aguirre,Francisco Ferrándiz
Publisher: Universidad de Deusto
Category: Language Arts & Disciplines
View: 1593This is a book about modern wars in fragile state, one of the most important issues in the international system, and how the media, the academic and non-governmental organizations understand, act towards, interact among them and provide knowledge about there armed conflicts.
Author: P. Ferrara
Category: Social Science
View: 3628With a religious re-emergence in international relations, this book provides an introduction to the role religions play within the global political arena. Culled from theoretical, practical, and real-world experiences, Ferrara explains the role religion now plays in global affairs on diplomatic and political levels.
Author: Salman Rushdie
Publisher: btb Verlag
View: 8714Bejubelt und verdammt: Das Buch, für das Salman Rushdie zum Tode verurteilt wurde Über der englischen Küste wird ein Flugzeug in die Luft gesprengt. Die einzigen Überlebenden dieses Terroranschlags sind Gibril Farishta und Saladin Chamcha, zwei indische Schauspieler, die buchstäblich vom Himmel fallen und wie durch ein Wunder unversehrt bleiben. Doch nach dem Absturz gehen seltsame Dinge mit ihnen vor: Der Muslim Gibril zeigt immer mehr Ähnlichkeit mit dem Erzengel Gabriel, während sich Saladin, der stets seine Herkunft verleugnete, zu einem Abbild des Teufels entwickelt. Doch das ist erst der Beginn einer überwältigenden Odysee zwischen Gut und Böse, zwischen Fantasie und Realität.
A New Theory of Religious Rights for National and International Legal Systems
Author: S. I. Strong
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
View: 3689Religious liberties are at the centre of many debates on how liberal democratic societies can accommodate diversity. This book brings the issue of religious liberties into the broad context of international, comparative and jurisprudential principles. S. I. Strong proposes a new theoretical approach to religious liberty that both transcends and transforms current approaches to law and religion. Drawing on the historical ideas of legal and political philosophers including John Rawls, Ronald Dworkin and John Finnis, the text also tests the validity of new proposals against actual 'hard cases' generated through international, comparative and interdisciplinary analysis. Overcoming longstanding challenges to existing religious rights regimes and identifying a new analytical paradigm that specifically addresses the types of tensions that arise in religiously pluralist societies, Strong's goal is to create a system that both religious and non-religious people can support and thereby increase civic peace between individuals and groups.
Liberal Democracy, Trade, and the New Media
Author: Perry Keller
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Category: Business & Economics
View: 1123Liberal Democracy and the New Media is about the relationship between the media and the liberal democratic state, which is changing rapidly under the pressures of a global communications revolution. The book uses European and international law and policy to examine how that once intimate relationship is being transformed. The Media and the State explores key contemporary media issues, including the protection of cultural diversity, the promotion ofpluralism and other democratic media policies, the safeguard of state information, the protection of reputation and privacy, and the control of harmful and offensive content. It captures the extraordinary impact ofthe liberal media model on European and international law as well as exploring its profound weaknesses.