Reinforcement Learning


Author: Marco Wiering,Martijn van Otterlo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642276458

Category: Computers

Page: 638

View: 7621

Reinforcement learning encompasses both a science of adaptive behavior of rational beings in uncertain environments and a computational methodology for finding optimal behaviors for challenging problems in control, optimization and adaptive behavior of intelligent agents. As a field, reinforcement learning has progressed tremendously in the past decade. The main goal of this book is to present an up-to-date series of survey articles on the main contemporary sub-fields of reinforcement learning. This includes surveys on partially observable environments, hierarchical task decompositions, relational knowledge representation and predictive state representations. Furthermore, topics such as transfer, evolutionary methods and continuous spaces in reinforcement learning are surveyed. In addition, several chapters review reinforcement learning methods in robotics, in games, and in computational neuroscience. In total seventeen different subfields are presented by mostly young experts in those areas, and together they truly represent a state-of-the-art of current reinforcement learning research. Marco Wiering works at the artificial intelligence department of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. He has published extensively on various reinforcement learning topics. Martijn van Otterlo works in the cognitive artificial intelligence group at the Radboud University Nijmegen in The Netherlands. He has mainly focused on expressive knowledge representation in reinforcement learning settings.

Statistical Reinforcement Learning

Modern Machine Learning Approaches

Author: Masashi Sugiyama

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439856907

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 206

View: 1102

Reinforcement learning is a mathematical framework for developing computer agents that can learn an optimal behavior by relating generic reward signals with its past actions. With numerous successful applications in business intelligence, plant control, and gaming, the RL framework is ideal for decision making in unknown environments with large amounts of data. Supplying an up-to-date and accessible introduction to the field, Statistical Reinforcement Learning: Modern Machine Learning Approaches presents fundamental concepts and practical algorithms of statistical reinforcement learning from the modern machine learning viewpoint. It covers various types of RL approaches, including model-based and model-free approaches, policy iteration, and policy search methods. Covers the range of reinforcement learning algorithms from a modern perspective Lays out the associated optimization problems for each reinforcement learning scenario covered Provides thought-provoking statistical treatment of reinforcement learning algorithms The book covers approaches recently introduced in the data mining and machine learning fields to provide a systematic bridge between RL and data mining/machine learning researchers. It presents state-of-the-art results, including dimensionality reduction in RL and risk-sensitive RL. Numerous illustrative examples are included to help readers understand the intuition and usefulness of reinforcement learning techniques. This book is an ideal resource for graduate-level students in computer science and applied statistics programs, as well as researchers and engineers in related fields.

Neuronale Netze selbst programmieren

Ein verständlicher Einstieg mit Python

Author: Tariq Rashid

Publisher: O'Reilly

ISBN: 3960101031

Category: Computers

Page: 232

View: 6216

Neuronale Netze sind Schlüsselelemente des Deep Learning und der Künstlichen Intelligenz, die heute zu Erstaunlichem in der Lage sind. Sie sind Grundlage vieler Anwendungen im Alltag wie beispielsweise Spracherkennung, Gesichtserkennung auf Fotos oder die Umwandlung von Sprache in Text. Dennoch verstehen nur wenige, wie neuronale Netze tatsächlich funktionieren. Dieses Buch nimmt Sie mit auf eine unterhaltsame Reise, die mit ganz einfachen Ideen beginnt und Ihnen Schritt für Schritt zeigt, wie neuronale Netze arbeiten: - Zunächst lernen Sie die mathematischen Konzepte kennen, die den neuronalen Netzen zugrunde liegen. Dafür brauchen Sie keine tieferen Mathematikkenntnisse, denn alle mathematischen Ideen werden behutsam und mit vielen Illustrationen und Beispielen erläutert. Eine Kurzeinführung in die Analysis unterstützt Sie dabei. - Dann geht es in die Praxis: Nach einer Einführung in die populäre und leicht zu lernende Programmiersprache Python bauen Sie allmählich Ihr eigenes neuronales Netz mit Python auf. Sie bringen ihm bei, handgeschriebene Zahlen zu erkennen, bis es eine Performance wie ein professionell entwickeltes Netz erreicht. - Im nächsten Schritt tunen Sie die Leistung Ihres neuronalen Netzes so weit, dass es eine Zahlenerkennung von 98 % erreicht – nur mit einfachen Ideen und simplem Code. Sie testen das Netz mit Ihrer eigenen Handschrift und werfen noch einen Blick in das mysteriöse Innere eines neuronalen Netzes. - Zum Schluss lassen Sie das neuronale Netz auf einem Raspberry Pi Zero laufen. Tariq Rashid erklärt diese schwierige Materie außergewöhnlich klar und verständlich, dadurch werden neuronale Netze für jeden Interessierten zugänglich und praktisch nachvollziehbar.

Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Systems

9th International Symposium, ISICA 2017, Guangzhou, China, November 18–19, 2017, Revised Selected Papers

Author: Kangshun Li,Wei Li,Zhangxing Chen,Yong Liu

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9811316481

Category: Computers

Page: 603

View: 9771

This two-volume set (CCIS 873 and CCIS 874) constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the 9th International Symposium, ISICA 2017, held in Guangzhou, China, in November 2017.The 101 full papers presented in both volumes were carefully reviewed and selected from 181 submissions. This first volume is organized in topical sections on neural networks and statistical learning: neural architecture search, transfer of knowledge; evolutionary multi-objective and dynamic optimization: optimal control and design, hybrid methods; data mining: association rule learning, data management platforms; Cloud computing and multiagent systems: service models, Cloud engineering; everywhere connectivity: IoT solutions, wireless sensor networks.

Recent Advances in Reinforcement Learning

8th European Workshop, EWRL 2008, Villeneuve D'Ascq, France, June 30-July 3, 2008, Revised and Selected Papers

Author: Sertan Girgin,Manuel Loth,Rémi Munos,Philippe Preux,Daniil Ryabko

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3540897216

Category: Computers

Page: 283

View: 1210

This book constitutes revised and selected papers of the 8th European Workshop on Reinforcement Learning, EWRL 2008, which took place in Villeneuve d'Ascq, France, during June 30 - July 3, 2008. The 21 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 61 submissions. They are dedicated to the field of and current researches in reinforcement learning.

Self-Adaptive Systems for Machine Intelligence

Author: Haibo He

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118025598

Category: Computers

Page: 250

View: 6987

This book will advance the understanding and application of self-adaptive intelligent systems; therefore it will potentially benefit the long-term goal of replicating certain levels of brain-like intelligence in complex and networked engineering systems. It will provide new approaches for adaptive systems within uncertain environments. This will provide an opportunity to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of the current state-of-the-art of knowledge, give rise to new research directions, and educate future professionals in this domain. Self-adaptive intelligent systems have wide applications from military security systems to civilian daily life. In this book, different application problems, including pattern recognition, classification, image recovery, and sequence learning, will be presented to show the capability of the proposed systems in learning, memory, and prediction. Therefore, this book will also provide potential new solutions to many real-world applications.

Anticipatory Learning Classifier Systems

Author: Martin V. Butz

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461508916

Category: Computers

Page: 172

View: 1736

Anticipatory Learning Classifier Systems describes the state of the art of anticipatory learning classifier systems-adaptive rule learning systems that autonomously build anticipatory environmental models. An anticipatory model specifies all possible action-effects in an environment with respect to given situations. It can be used to simulate anticipatory adaptive behavior. Anticipatory Learning Classifier Systems highlights how anticipations influence cognitive systems and illustrates the use of anticipations for (1) faster reactivity, (2) adaptive behavior beyond reinforcement learning, (3) attentional mechanisms, (4) simulation of other agents and (5) the implementation of a motivational module. The book focuses on a particular evolutionary model learning mechanism, a combination of a directed specializing mechanism and a genetic generalizing mechanism. Experiments show that anticipatory adaptive behavior can be simulated by exploiting the evolving anticipatory model for even faster model learning, planning applications, and adaptive behavior beyond reinforcement learning. Anticipatory Learning Classifier Systems gives a detailed algorithmic description as well as a program documentation of a C++ implementation of the system.

Growing Adaptive Machines

Combining Development and Learning in Artificial Neural Networks

Author: Taras Kowaliw,Nicolas Bredeche,René Doursat

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3642553370

Category: Computers

Page: 261

View: 3178

The pursuit of artificial intelligence has been a highly active domain of research for decades, yielding exciting scientific insights and productive new technologies. In terms of generating intelligence, however, this pursuit has yielded only limited success. This book explores the hypothesis that adaptive growth is a means of moving forward. By emulating the biological process of development, we can incorporate desirable characteristics of natural neural systems into engineered designs and thus move closer towards the creation of brain-like systems. The particular focus is on how to design artificial neural networks for engineering tasks. The book consists of contributions from 18 researchers, ranging from detailed reviews of recent domains by senior scientists, to exciting new contributions representing the state of the art in machine learning research. The book begins with broad overviews of artificial neurogenesis and bio-inspired machine learning, suitable both as an introduction to the domains and as a reference for experts. Several contributions provide perspectives and future hypotheses on recent highly successful trains of research, including deep learning, the Hyper NEAT model of developmental neural network design, and a simulation of the visual cortex. Other contributions cover recent advances in the design of bio-inspired artificial neural networks, including the creation of machines for classification, the behavioural control of virtual agents, the desi gn of virtual multi-component robots and morphologies and the creation of flexible intelligence. Throughout, the contributors share their vast expertise on the means and benefits of creating brain-like machines. This book is appropriate for advanced students and practitioners of artificial intelligence and machine learning.

Reinforcement Learning and Dynamic Programming Using Function Approximators

Author: Lucian Busoniu,Robert Babuska,Bart De Schutter,Damien Ernst

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439821091

Category: Computers

Page: 280

View: 5922

From household appliances to applications in robotics, engineered systems involving complex dynamics can only be as effective as the algorithms that control them. While Dynamic Programming (DP) has provided researchers with a way to optimally solve decision and control problems involving complex dynamic systems, its practical value was limited by algorithms that lacked the capacity to scale up to realistic problems. However, in recent years, dramatic developments in Reinforcement Learning (RL), the model-free counterpart of DP, changed our understanding of what is possible. Those developments led to the creation of reliable methods that can be applied even when a mathematical model of the system is unavailable, allowing researchers to solve challenging control problems in engineering, as well as in a variety of other disciplines, including economics, medicine, and artificial intelligence. Reinforcement Learning and Dynamic Programming Using Function Approximators provides a comprehensive and unparalleled exploration of the field of RL and DP. With a focus on continuous-variable problems, this seminal text details essential developments that have substantially altered the field over the past decade. In its pages, pioneering experts provide a concise introduction to classical RL and DP, followed by an extensive presentation of the state-of-the-art and novel methods in RL and DP with approximation. Combining algorithm development with theoretical guarantees, they elaborate on their work with illustrative examples and insightful comparisons. Three individual chapters are dedicated to representative algorithms from each of the major classes of techniques: value iteration, policy iteration, and policy search. The features and performance of these algorithms are highlighted in extensive experimental studies on a range of control applications. The recent development of applications involving complex systems has led to a surge of interest in RL and DP methods and the subsequent need for a quality resource on the subject. For graduate students and others new to the field, this book offers a thorough introduction to both the basics and emerging methods. And for those researchers and practitioners working in the fields of optimal and adaptive control, machine learning, artificial intelligence, and operations research, this resource offers a combination of practical algorithms, theoretical analysis, and comprehensive examples that they will be able to adapt and apply to their own work. Access the authors' website at for additional material, including computer code used in the studies and information concerning new developments.

Methods and Models in Artificial and Natural Computation. A Homage to Professor Mira's Scientific Legacy

Third International Work-Conference on the Interplay Between Natural and Artificial Computation, IWINAC 2009, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, June 22-26, 2009, Proceedings

Author: Jose Mira,José M. Ferrández,Jose-Ramon Alvarez Sanchez,Felix Paz,Javier Toledo

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642022634

Category: Computers

Page: 530

View: 4523

Continuing Professor Mira's Scienti?c Navigation Professor Jos´ e Mira passed away during the preparation of this edition of the International Work-Conference on the Interplay Between Natural and Arti?cial Computation. As a pioneer in the ?eld of cybernetics, he enthusiastically p- moted interdisciplinary research. The term cybernetics stems from the Greek K?? ???? ´ ?? (kybernetes), which means steersman, governor,or pilot, the same root as government. Cybernetics is a broad ?eld of study, but the essential goal ofcybernetics is to understandandde?ne the functions andprocessesofsystems that have goals, and promote circular, causal chains that move from action to sensing to comparison with a desired goal, and again to action. These de?- tions can be applied to Prof. Mira. He was a leader, a pilot, with a visionary and extraordinary capacity to guide his students and colleagues to the desired objective. In this way he promoted the study and understanding of biological functions for creating new computational paradigms able to solve known pr- lems in a more e?cient way than classical approaches. But he also impressed his magni?cent and generous character on all the researchers and friends that workedwith him, imprinting in all ofus high requirementsof excellence not only as scientists, but also as human beings. Weallrememberhisenthusiasticexplanationaboutthedomainsandlevelsin the computational paradigm(CP).

Das Geheimnis des menschlichen Denkens

Einblicke in das Reverse Engineering des Gehirns

Author: Ray Kurzweil

Publisher: Lola Books

ISBN: 394420316X

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 3849

Der Wettlauf um das Gehirn hat begonnen. Sowohl die EU als auch die USA haben gewaltige Forschungsprojekte ins Leben gerufen um das Geheimnis des menschlichen Denkens zu entschlüsseln. 2023 soll es dann soweit sein: Das menschliche Gehirn kann vollständig simuliert werden. In "Das Geheimnis des menschlichen Denkens" gewährt Googles Chefingenieur Ray Kurzweil einen spannenden Einblick in das Reverse Engineering des Gehirns. Er legt dar, wie mithilfe der Mustererkennungstheorie des Geistes der ungeheuren Komplexität des Gehirns beizukommen ist und wirft einen ebenso präzisen wie überraschenden Blick auf die am Horizont sich bereits abzeichnende Zukunft. Ist das menschliche Gehirn erst einmal simuliert, wird künstliche Intelligenz die Fähigkeiten des Menschen schon bald übertreffen. Ein Ereignis, das Kurzweil aufgrund der bereits in "Menschheit 2.0" entworfenen exponentiellen Wachstumskurve der Informationstechnologien bereits für das Jahr 2029 prognostiziert. Aber was dann? Kurzweil ist zuversichtlich, dass die Vorteile künstlicher Intelligenz mögliche Bedrohungsszenarien überwiegen und sie uns entscheidend dabei hilft, uns weiterzuentwickeln und die Herausforderungen der Zukunft zu meistern.

Maschinelles Lernen

Author: Ethem Alpaydin

Publisher: De Gruyter Oldenbourg

ISBN: 9783486581140

Category: Machine learning

Page: 440

View: 8926

Maschinelles Lernen heißt, Computer so zu programmieren, dass ein bestimmtes Leistungskriterium anhand von Beispieldaten und Erfahrungswerten aus der Vergangenheit optimiert wird. Das vorliegende Buch diskutiert diverse Methoden, die ihre Grundlagen in verschiedenen Themenfeldern haben: Statistik, Mustererkennung, neuronale Netze, Künstliche Intelligenz, Signalverarbeitung, Steuerung und Data Mining. In der Vergangenheit verfolgten Forscher verschiedene Wege mit unterschiedlichen Schwerpunkten. Das Anliegen dieses Buches ist es, all diese unterschiedlichen Ansätze zu kombinieren, um eine allumfassende Behandlung der Probleme und ihrer vorgeschlagenen Lösungen zu geben.

Control of Complex Systems

Theory and Applications

Author: Kyriakos Vamvoudakis,Sarangapani Jagannathan

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 0128054379

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 762

View: 6229

In the era of cyber-physical systems, the area of control of complex systems has grown to be one of the hardest in terms of algorithmic design techniques and analytical tools. The 23 chapters, written by international specialists in the field, cover a variety of interests within the broader field of learning, adaptation, optimization and networked control. The editors have grouped these into the following 5 sections: “Introduction and Background on Control Theory”, “Adaptive Control and Neuroscience”, “Adaptive Learning Algorithms”, “Cyber-Physical Systems and Cooperative Control”, “Applications”. The diversity of the research presented gives the reader a unique opportunity to explore a comprehensive overview of a field of great interest to control and system theorists. This book is intended for researchers and control engineers in machine learning, adaptive control, optimization and automatic control systems, including Electrical Engineers, Computer Science Engineers, Mechanical Engineers, Aerospace/Automotive Engineers, and Industrial Engineers. It could be used as a text or reference for advanced courses in complex control systems. • Collection of chapters from several well-known professors and researchers that will showcase their recent work • Presents different state-of-the-art control approaches and theory for complex systems • Gives algorithms that take into consideration the presence of modelling uncertainties, the unavailability of the model, the possibility of cooperative/non-cooperative goals and malicious attacks compromising the security of networked teams • Real system examples and figures throughout, make ideas concrete Includes chapters from several well-known professors and researchers that showcases their recent work Presents different state-of-the-art control approaches and theory for complex systems Explores the presence of modelling uncertainties, the unavailability of the model, the possibility of cooperative/non-cooperative goals, and malicious attacks compromising the security of networked teams Serves as a helpful reference for researchers and control engineers working with machine learning, adaptive control, and automatic control systems

Reinforcement Learning and Approximate Dynamic Programming for Feedback Control

Author: Frank L. Lewis,Derong Liu

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118453972

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 648

View: 2919

Reinforcement learning (RL) and adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) has been one of the most critical research fields in science and engineering for modern complex systems. This book describes the latest RL and ADP techniques for decision and control in human engineered systems, covering both single player decision and control and multi-player games. Edited by the pioneers of RL and ADP research, the book brings together ideas and methods from many fields and provides an important and timely guidance on controlling a wide variety of systems, such as robots, industrial processes, and economic decision-making.

Deep Learning with TensorFlow

Author: Giancarlo Zaccone,Md. Rezaul Karim,Ahmed Menshawy

Publisher: Packt Publishing Ltd

ISBN: 1786460122

Category: Computers

Page: 320

View: 3941

Delve into neural networks, implement deep learning algorithms, and explore layers of data abstraction with the help of this comprehensive TensorFlow guide About This Book Learn how to implement advanced techniques in deep learning with Google's brainchild, TensorFlow Explore deep neural networks and layers of data abstraction with the help of this comprehensive guide Real-world contextualization through some deep learning problems concerning research and application Who This Book Is For The book is intended for a general audience of people interested in machine learning and machine intelligence. A rudimentary level of programming in one language is assumed, as is a basic familiarity with computer science techniques and technologies, including a basic awareness of computer hardware and algorithms. Some competence in mathematics is needed to the level of elementary linear algebra and calculus. What You Will Learn Learn about machine learning landscapes along with the historical development and progress of deep learning Learn about deep machine intelligence and GPU computing with the latest TensorFlow 1.x Access public datasets and utilize them using TensorFlow to load, process, and transform data Use TensorFlow on real-world datasets, including images, text, and more Learn how to evaluate the performance of your deep learning models Using deep learning for scalable object detection and mobile computing Train machines quickly to learn from data by exploring reinforcement learning techniques Explore active areas of deep learning research and applications In Detail Deep learning is the step that comes after machine learning, and has more advanced implementations. Machine learning is not just for academics anymore, but is becoming a mainstream practice through wide adoption, and deep learning has taken the front seat. As a data scientist, if you want to explore data abstraction layers, this book will be your guide. This book shows how this can be exploited in the real world with complex raw data using TensorFlow 1.x. Throughout the book, you'll learn how to implement deep learning algorithms for machine learning systems and integrate them into your product offerings, including search, image recognition, and language processing. Additionally, you'll learn how to analyze and improve the performance of deep learning models. This can be done by comparing algorithms against benchmarks, along with machine intelligence, to learn from the information and determine ideal behaviors within a specific context. After finishing the book, you will be familiar with machine learning techniques, in particular the use of TensorFlow for deep learning, and will be ready to apply your knowledge to research or commercial projects. Style and approach This step-by-step guide will explore common, and not so common, deep neural networks and show how these can be exploited in the real world with complex raw data. With the help of practical examples, you will learn how to implement different types of neural nets to build smart applications related to text, speech, and image data processing.

Breakthroughs in Decision Science and Risk Analysis

Author: Louis Anthony Cox, Jr.

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118938895

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 328

View: 6837

Discover recent powerful advances in the theory, methods, and applications of decision and risk analysis Focusing on modern advances and innovations in the field of decision analysis (DA), Breakthroughs in Decision Science and Risk Analysis presents theories and methods for making, improving, and learning from significant practical decisions. The book explains these new methods and important applications in an accessible and stimulating style for readers from multiple backgrounds, including psychology, economics, statistics, engineering, risk analysis, operations research, and management science. Highlighting topics not conventionally found in DA textbooks, the book illustrates genuine advances in practical decision science, including developments and trends that depart from, or break with, the standard axiomatic DA paradigm in fundamental and useful ways. The book features methods for coping with realistic decision-making challenges such as online adaptive learning algorithms, innovations in robust decision-making, and the use of a variety of models to explain available data and recommend actions. In addition, the book illustrates how these techniques can be applied to dramatically improve risk management decisions. Breakthroughs in Decision Science and Risk Analysis also includes: An emphasis on new approaches rather than only classical and traditional ideas Discussions of how decision and risk analysis can be applied to improve high-stakes policy and management decisions Coverage of the potential value and realism of decision science within applications in financial, health, safety, environmental, business, engineering, and security risk management Innovative methods for deciding what actions to take when decision problems are not completely known or described or when useful probabilities cannot be specified Recent breakthroughs in the psychology and brain science of risky decisions, mathematical foundations and techniques, and integration with learning and pattern recognition methods from computational intelligence Breakthroughs in Decision Science and Risk Analysis is an ideal reference for researchers, consultants, and practitioners in the fields of decision science, operations research, business, management science, engineering, statistics, and mathematics. The book is also an appropriate guide for managers, analysts, and decision and policy makers in the areas of finance, health and safety, environment, business, engineering, and security risk management.

Engineering Applications of Neural Networks

11th International Conference, EANN 2009, London, UK, August 27-29, 2009, Proceedings

Author: Dominic Palmer-Brown,Chrisina Draganova,Elias Pimenidis,Haris Mouratidis

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642039693

Category: Computers

Page: 496

View: 9922

A cursory glance at the table of contents of EANN 2009 reveals the am- ing range of neural network and related applications. A random but revealing sample includes: reducing urban concentration, entropy topography in epil- tic electroencephalography, phytoplanktonic species recognition, revealing the structure of childhood abdominal pain data, robot control, discriminating angry and happy facial expressions, ?ood forecasting, and assessing credit worthiness. The diverse nature of applications demonstrates the vitality of neural comp- ing and related soft computing approaches, and their relevance to many key contemporary technological challenges. It also illustrates the value of EANN in bringing together a broad spectrum of delegates from across the world to learn from each other’s related methods. Variations and extensions of many methods are well represented in the proceedings, ranging from support vector machines, fuzzy reasoning, and Bayesian methods to snap-drift and spiking neurons. This year EANN accepted approximately 40% of submitted papers for fu- length presentation at the conference. All members of the Program Committee were asked to participate in the reviewing process. The standard of submissions was high, according to the reviewers, who did an excellent job. The Program and Organizing Committees thank them. Approximately 20% of submitted - pers will be chosen, the best according to the reviews, to be extended and - viewedagainfor inclusionin a specialissueofthe journalNeural Computing and Applications. We hope that these proceedings will help to stimulate further research and development of new applications and modes of neural computing.