Purposive Interpretation in Law

Author: Aharon Barak

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400841267

Category: Law

Page: 448

View: 9730

This book presents a comprehensive theory of legal interpretation, by a leading judge and legal theorist. Currently, legal philosophers and jurists apply different theories of interpretation to constitutions, statutes, rules, wills, and contracts. Aharon Barak argues that an alternative approach--purposive interpretation--allows jurists and scholars to approach all legal texts in a similar manner while remaining sensitive to the important differences. Moreover, regardless of whether purposive interpretation amounts to a unifying theory, it would still be superior to other methods of interpretation in tackling each kind of text separately. Barak explains purposive interpretation as follows: All legal interpretation must start by establishing a range of semantic meanings for a given text, from which the legal meaning is then drawn. In purposive interpretation, the text's "purpose" is the criterion for establishing which of the semantic meanings yields the legal meaning. Establishing the ultimate purpose--and thus the legal meaning--depends on the relationship between the subjective and objective purposes; that is, between the original intent of the text's author and the intent of a reasonable author and of the legal system at the time of interpretation. This is easy to establish when the subjective and objective purposes coincide. But when they don't, the relative weight given to each purpose depends on the nature of the text. For example, subjective purpose is given substantial weight in interpreting a will; objective purpose, in interpreting a constitution. Barak develops this theory with masterful scholarship and close attention to its practical application. Throughout, he contrasts his approach with that of textualists and neotextualists such as Antonin Scalia, pragmatists such as Richard Posner, and legal philosophers such as Ronald Dworkin. This book represents a profoundly important contribution to legal scholarship and a major alternative to interpretive approaches advanced by other leading figures in the judicial world.
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The Judge in a Democracy

Author: Aharon Barak

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400827043

Category: Law

Page: 368

View: 5882

Whether examining election outcomes, the legal status of terrorism suspects, or if (or how) people can be sentenced to death, a judge in a modern democracy assumes a role that raises some of the most contentious political issues of our day. But do judges even have a role beyond deciding the disputes before them under law? What are the criteria for judging the justices who write opinions for the United States Supreme Court or constitutional courts in other democracies? These are the questions that one of the world's foremost judges and legal theorists, Aharon Barak, poses in this book. In fluent prose, Barak sets forth a powerful vision of the role of the judge. He argues that this role comprises two central elements beyond dispute resolution: bridging the gap between the law and society, and protecting the constitution and democracy. The former involves balancing the need to adapt the law to social change against the need for stability; the latter, judges' ultimate accountability, not to public opinion or to politicians, but to the "internal morality" of democracy. Barak's vigorous support of "purposive interpretation" (interpreting legal texts--for example, statutes and constitutions--in light of their purpose) contrasts sharply with the influential "originalism" advocated by U.S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia. As he explores these questions, Barak also traces how supreme courts in major democracies have evolved since World War II, and he guides us through many of his own decisions to show how he has tried to put these principles into action, even under the burden of judging on terrorism.
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A Purposive Approach to Labour Law

Author: Guy Davidov

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0191076848

Category: Law

Page: 270

View: 4732

The mismatch between goals and means is a major cause of crisis in labour law. The regulations that we use - the legal instruments and techniques - are no longer in sync with the goals they are supposed to advance. This mismatch leads to a problem of coverage, where many workers who need the protection of labour law are not covered by it, as well as a problem of obsoleteness, as labour laws are not sufficiently updated in light of dramatic changes in the labour market. Adopting a purposive approach to interpretation and legislative reform, this volume addresses this crisis of mismatch. It first articulates the goals of labour law, both general and specific, through an in-depth normative discussion and a consideration of critiques. The book then proceeds to reconsider our means, asking what we need to change or improve in the laws themselves in order to better advance the goals. Some of the proposed solutions are at the level of judicial interpretation, others at the legislative level. The book offers several examples of the way a purposive analysis should be performed in concrete cases. It also recommends institutional structures that are suited to ongoing adaptation of the law to ensure that our goals are advanced even when circumstances frequently change. Finally, in response to the crisis of enforcement in this field, which frustrates the achievement of labour law's goals, several proposals to improve compliance and enforcement are considered.
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Interpretation in International Law

Author: Andrea Bianchi,Daniel Peat,Matthew Windsor

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191038709

Category: Law

Page: 380

View: 3359

International lawyers have long recognised the importance of interpretation to their academic discipline and professional practice. As new insights on interpretation abound in other fields, international law and international lawyers have largely remained wedded to a rule-based approach, focusing almost exclusively on the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties. Such an approach neglects interpretation as a distinct and broader field of theoretical inquiry. Interpretation in International Law brings international legal scholars together to engage in sustained reflection on the theme of interpretation. The book is creatively structured around the metaphor of the game, which captures and illuminates the constituent elements of an act of interpretation. The object of the game of interpretation is to persuade the audience that one's interpretation of the law is correct. The rules of play are known and complied with by the players, even though much is left to their skills and strategies. There is also a meta-discourse about the game of interpretation - 'playing the game of game-playing' - which involves consideration of the nature of the game, its underlying stakes, and who gets to decide by what rules one should play. Through a series of diverse contributions, Interpretation in International Law reveals interpretation as an inescapable feature of all areas of international law. It will be of interest and utility to all international lawyers whose work touches upon theoretical or practical aspects of interpretation.
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Statutes in Court

The History and Theory of Statutory Interpretation

Author: William D. Popkin

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 9780822323280

Category: Law

Page: 340

View: 8377

Popkin provides a survey of the history of American statutory interpretation and then offers his own theory of "ordinary judging" that defines the proper scope of judicial discretion."--BOOK JACKET.
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Interpretation in Polish, German and European Private Law

Author: Grzegorz Zmij,Bettina Heiderhoff

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter

ISBN: 3866539304

Category: Law

Page: 120

View: 3540

The interpretation of declarations of intent and contracts is a very difficult task, especially with regard to crossborder partners. Read the informative proceedings of the international conference in Katowice as to the topics: - Interpretation of foreign law by German courts - Theories of interpretation in private law - Interpretation of contracts under the German BGB and under the CFR - Interpretation of the juridical acts - a comparative perspective - The "common" interpretation of national law - Iuris cogentis and iuris dispositivi rules / provisions in contract and corporate law - Relevance of circumstances in which the contract was concluded - Is there "the one true interpretation of a law"? - Is the wording of the law a limitation for its interpretation?
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Statutory Interpretation

Author: Ruth Sullivan

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9781552211380

Category: Law

Page: 347

View: 1518

The book's primary focus is on the techniques and reasoning used by lawyers and judges to resolve interpretation problems. The book deciphers the often confusing rules of interpretation, explains the way these rules relate to each other, and focuses on the strategic use of the rules in constructing arguments and justifying outcomes.
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Israel Among the Nations

International and Comparative Law Perspectives on Israel's 50th Anniversary

Author: Alfred E. Kellermann,Kurt Siehr,Talia Einhorn

Publisher: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

ISBN: 9789041111425

Category: Law

Page: 392

View: 4678

On the occasion of Israel's 50th anniversary, eminent American, European and Israeli jurists contributed essays of great relevance to the current debate on constitutionalism and its values, the international legal dimension of the Arab-Israeli conflict, the dilemma of democracies when dealing with terrorism, the establishment of the concept of UN peace-keeping forces, individual responsibility and superior orders for war crimes, and the ombudsman as defender of democracy and human rights.
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Der Begriff des Rechts

Author: Herbert L. A. Hart

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783518296097

Category: Jurisprudence

Page: 395

View: 7043

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Gerechtigkeit für Igel

Author: Ronald Dworkin

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518780204

Category: Philosophy

Page: 813

View: 7363

»Der Fuchs weiß viele Dinge, aber der Igel weiß eine große Sache.« Der griechische Dichter Archilochos hat diesen Satz formuliert, Isaiah Berlin hat ihn mit seinem Tolstoi-Essay berühmt gemacht. Aber was ist diese »eine große Sache«? Ronald Dworkin liefert eine Antwort: Es sind Werte in all ihren Erscheinungsformen. Wenn wir verstehen wollen, was Wahrheit und Schönheit sind, was dem Leben Sinn verleiht, was die Moral fordert und die Gerechtigkeit verlangt, so müssen wir der Spur jener moralischen Einstellungen nachgehen, die menschliches Denken, Fühlen und Handeln durchdringen und zu einer Einheit formen. »Gerechtigkeit für Igel« ist eines jener Bücher, wie es sie in Zeiten der Füchse – der Spezialisten und Skeptiker – immer seltener gibt: eines, das aus einem einzigen Prinzip eine ganze Welt erklären und zugleich Orientierung geben möchte.
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Environmental Judicial Review

Author: R. J. Moules

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 1847318118

Category: Law

Page: 430

View: 9438

Judicial review of environmental decisions is an important and growing area of public law. But although the general principles of judicial review have been clearly mapped out, their application to the particular context of the environment is under-explored. This book therefore seeks to provide a detailed and critical account of environmental judicial review in both domestic and EU law. Part I explains the central principles of environmental law, such as the polluter pays principle and the precautionary principle, and shows how they influence the application of public law standards of legality. Part II considers the procedure for judicial review with particular emphasis on standing, protective costs and the availability of interim relief. Part III consists of a detailed examination of how each of the grounds for judicial review is applied in the environmental context. It highlights the increased emphasis on consultation and public participation in environmental matters, the degree of deference afforded by the courts to scientific and political judgments, and the prevalence of 'hard-edged' questions of law. Part IV focuses on EU law and examines direct and indirect actions before the EU courts, preliminary references and state liability. It also considers infraction proceedings brought by the EU Commission, the role of individuals and NGOs in relation to such proceedings and the interrelationships between infraction proceedings and judicial review. Finally, Part V explains the complex regime governing access to environmental information.
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Human Dignity

The Constitutional Value and the Constitutional Right

Author: Aharon Barak

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1316240983

Category: Political Science

Page: N.A

View: 655

Human dignity is now a central feature of many modern constitutions and international documents. As a constitutional value, human dignity involves a person's free will, autonomy, and ability to write a life story within the framework of society. As a constitutional right, it gives full expression to the value of human dignity, subject to the specific demands of constitutional architecture. This analytical study of human dignity as both a constitutional value and a constitutional right adopts a legal-interpretive perspective. It explores the sources of human dignity as a legal concept, its role in constitutional documents, its content, and its scope. The analysis is augmented by examples from comparative legal experience, including chapters devoted to the role of human dignity in American, Canadian, German, South African, and Israeli constitutional law.
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Interworld

Author: Neil Gaiman,Michael Reaves

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: 9783401501307

Category:

Page: 259

View: 8505

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Commercial Law and Commercial Practice

Author: Sarah Worthington

Publisher: Hart Publishing

ISBN: 1841134384

Category: Law

Page: 690

View: 2114

This edited collection brings together leading scholars and practitioners from various jurisdictions with essays and commentaries coordinated around the theme of alignments and misalignments between commercial law and commercial practice. The purpose of the book is to prompt a more critical and constructive reassessment of current commercial law and its practices, and to instigate a more fruitful dialogue between academics, judges, law reformers and practitioners. There are twenty-four essays in all, eleven with commentaries. Essays by academics receive comment by practitioners, and vice versa. Senior members of the judiciary also participated, providing both essays and commentary. Most of the essays were first presented at a two-day seminar held at the LSE, funded by the Society of Legal Scholars, the Modern Law Review, and the LSE Law Department.
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The End of the Charter Revolution

Looking Back from the New Normal

Author: Peter J. McCormick

Publisher: University of Toronto Press

ISBN: 144260641X

Category: Political Science

Page: 304

View: 323

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms became an entrenched part of the Canadian Constitution on April 17, 1982. The Charter represented a significant change in Canadian constitutional order and carried the courts, and the Supreme Court in particular, decisively into some of the biggest controversies in Canadian politics. Although the impact of the Charter on Canadian law and society was profound, a new status quo has been established. Even though there will be future Charter surprises and decisions that will claim news headlines, Peter J. McCormick argues that these cases will be occasional rather than frequent, and that the Charter "revolution" is over. Or, as he puts it in his introduction, "I will tell a story about the Charter, about the big ripples that have gradually but steadily died away such that the surface of the pond is now almost smooth." The End of the Charter Revolution explores the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, beginning with a general historical background, followed by a survey of the significant changes brought about as Charter decisions were made. The book addresses a series of specific cases made before the Dickson, Lamer, and McLachlin Courts, and then provides empirical data to support the argument that the Charter revolution has ended. The Supreme Court has without question become "a national institution of the first order," but even though the Charter is a large part of why this has happened, it is not Charter decisions that will showcase the exercise of this power in the future.
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The Cosmopolitan Constitution

Author: Alexander Somek

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191030929

Category: Law

Page: 320

View: 8358

Originally the constitution was expected to express and channel popular sovereignty. It was the work of freedom, springing from and facilitating collective self-determination. After the Second World War this perspective changed: the modern constitution owes its authority not only to collective authorship, it also must commit itself credibly to human rights. Thus people recede into the background, and the national constitution becomes embedded into one or other system of 'peer review' among nations. This is what Alexander Somek argues is the creation of the cosmopolitan constitution. Reconstructing what he considers to be the three stages in the development of constitutionalism, he argues that the cosmopolitan constitution is not a blueprint for the constitution beyond the nation state, let alone a constitution of the international community; rather, it stands for constitutional law reaching out beyond its national bounds. This cosmopolitan constitution has two faces: the first, political, face reflects the changed circumstances of constitutional authority. It conceives itself as constrained by international human rights protection, firmly committed to combating discrimination on the grounds of nationality, and to embracing strategies for managing its interaction with other sites of authority, such as the United Nations. The second, administrative, face of the cosmopolitan constitution reveals the demise of political authority, which has been traditionally vested in representative bodies. Political processes yield to various, and often informal, strategies of policy co-ordination so long as there are no reasons to fear that the elementary civil rights might be severely interfered with. It represents constitutional authority for an administered world.
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The Legal Order of the European Union

The Institutional Role of the Court of Justice

Author: Timothy Moorhead

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134446209

Category: Law

Page: 162

View: 3478

The objective of European integration serves as an ideal of the legal order of the European Union and invites reconsideration of law’s conceptual features. This book critically assesses the legal order of the European Union, focusing on the operative aspects of the Union constitution with particular reference to the institutional practices of the Court of Justice in expressing the values underlying this constitution. Drawing together positivist and non-positivist accounts within an institutional understanding of law, Timothy Moorhead breaks new ground in applying a range of analytic jurisprudential perspectives to the Union legal order, and in employing the theoretical resources provided by the Union to model a revised conceptual viewpoint concerning legal order generally. In offering this conceptual approach, Moorhead emphasises the flexibility inherent in law’s institutional character as the basis for a theoretical rationalisation of the Union legal order. This book will be of great use and interest to scholars and students of European Union Law, Jurisprudence and European Constitutionalism.
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Philosophical Foundations of Fiduciary Law

Author: Andrew S. Gold,Paul B. Miller

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191005290

Category: Law

Page: 450

View: 7194

Fiduciary law is a critically important body of law. Fiduciary duties ensure the integrity of a remarkable variety of relationships, institutions, and organizations. They apply to relationships of great personal significance, including in some jurisdictions the relationship between parents and children. They structure a wide variety of commercial relationships, and they are essential to the regulation of relationships between professional service providers and their clients, including relationships between lawyer and client, doctor and patient, and investment manager and client. Fiduciary duties, perhaps uniquely in private law, challenge traditional ways of marking the boundaries between private and public law, inasmuch as they figure prominently in public governance. Indeed, there is even a storied tradition of thinking of the authority of the state in fiduciary terms. Notwithstanding its importance, fiduciary law has been woefully under-analysed by legal theorists. Filling this gap with a series of chapters by leading theorists, this book includes chapters on: the nature of fiduciary relationships, the connection between fiduciary duties and morality, the content and significance of fiduciary loyalty, the economic significance of fiduciary law, the application of fiduciary principles to public law and international law, the import of fiduciary relationships to theories of authority, and various other fundamental topics in the field. In many cases, new and important questions are raised by the book's chapters. Indeed, this book not only offers a much-needed theoretical assessment of fiduciary topics, it defines the field going forward, setting an agenda for future philosophical study of fiduciary law.
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