Psychological Science Under Scrutiny

Recent Challenges and Proposed Solutions

Author: Scott O. Lilienfeld,Irwin D. Waldman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118661079

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 8267

Recognizing Fads -- Intense Peer Pressure -- Restriction of Range of Questions -- Costs of Fads -- Quality of Work -- Encouraging Career Choices on the Basis of Fashion Rather than Passion -- Fueling What May Be a Foolish Fad -- Choking Off Important Areas of, or Approaches to, Research -- Methods Rather than Substance -- Fundamental Values -- An Alternative Approach -- Endnote -- References -- Afterword: Crisis? What Crisis? -- Index -- Supplemental Images -- EULA
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Psychological Science Under Scrutiny

Recent Challenges and Proposed Solutions

Author: Scott O. Lilienfeld,Irwin D. Waldman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118661044

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 2640

Psychological Science Under Scrutiny explores a range of contemporary challenges to the assumptions and methodologies of psychology, in order to encourage debate and ground the discipline in solid science. Discusses the pointed challenges posed by critics to the field of psychological research, which have given pause to psychological researchers across a broad spectrum of sub-fields Argues that those conducting psychological research need to fundamentally change the way they think about data and results, in order to ensure that psychology has a firm basis in empirical science Places the recent challenges discussed into a broad historical and conceptual perspective, and considers their implications for the future of psychological methodology and research Challenges discussed include confirmation bias, the effects of grant pressure, false-positive findings, overestimating the efficacy of medications, and high correlations in functional brain imaging Chapters are authored by internationally recognized experts in their fields, and are written with a minimum of specialized terminology to ensure accessibility to students and lay readers
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Psychological Science Under Scrutiny

Recent Challenges and Proposed Solutions

Author: Scott O. Lilienfeld,Irwin D. Waldman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118661087

Category: Psychology

Page: 400

View: 4777

Psychological Science Under Scrutiny explores a range of contemporary challenges to the assumptions and methodologies of psychology, in order to encourage debate and ground the discipline in solid science. Discusses the pointed challenges posed by critics to the field of psychological research, which have given pause to psychological researchers across a broad spectrum of sub-fields Argues that those conducting psychological research need to fundamentally change the way they think about data and results, in order to ensure that psychology has a firm basis in empirical science Places the recent challenges discussed into a broad historical and conceptual perspective, and considers their implications for the future of psychological methodology and research Challenges discussed include confirmation bias, the effects of grant pressure, false-positive findings, overestimating the efficacy of medications, and high correlations in functional brain imaging Chapters are authored by internationally recognized experts in their fields, and are written with a minimum of specialized terminology to ensure accessibility to students and lay readers
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The Seven Deadly Sins of Psychology

A Manifesto for Reforming the Culture of Scientific Practice

Author: Chris Chambers

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400884942

Category: Psychology

Page: 288

View: 6813

Why psychology is in peril as a scientific discipline—and how to save it Psychological science has made extraordinary discoveries about the human mind, but can we trust everything its practitioners are telling us? In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that a lot of research in psychology is based on weak evidence, questionable practices, and sometimes even fraud. The Seven Deadly Sins of Psychology diagnoses the ills besetting the discipline today and proposes sensible, practical solutions to ensure that it remains a legitimate and reliable science in the years ahead. In this unflinchingly candid manifesto, Chris Chambers draws on his own experiences as a working scientist to reveal a dark side to psychology that few of us ever see. Using the seven deadly sins as a metaphor, he shows how practitioners are vulnerable to powerful biases that undercut the scientific method, how they routinely torture data until it produces outcomes that can be published in prestigious journals, and how studies are much less reliable than advertised. He reveals how a culture of secrecy denies the public and other researchers access to the results of psychology experiments, how fraudulent academics can operate with impunity, and how an obsession with bean counting creates perverse incentives for academics. Left unchecked, these problems threaten the very future of psychology as a science—but help is here. Outlining a core set of best practices that can be applied across the sciences, Chambers demonstrates how all these sins can be corrected by embracing open science, an emerging philosophy that seeks to make research and its outcomes as transparent as possible.
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Psychology in Crisis

Author: Brian M. Hughes

Publisher: Macmillan International Higher Education

ISBN: 1352003015

Category:

Page: N.A

View: 9807

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Facts and Fictions in Mental Health

Author: Hal Arkowitz,Scott O. Lilienfeld

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118311299

Category: Body, Mind & Spirit

Page: 288

View: 417

Written in a lively and entertaining style, Facts and Fictions in Mental Health examines common conceptions and misconceptions surrounding mental health and its treatment. Each chapter focuses on a misconception and is followed by a discussion of related findings from scientific research. A compilation of the authors' "Facts and Fictions" columns written for Scientific American Mind, with the addition of six new columns exclusive to this book Written in a lively and often entertaining style, accessible to both the undergraduate and the interested general reader Each chapter covers a different "fiction" and allows readers to gain a more balanced and accurate view of important topics in mental health The six new columns examine myths and misconceptions of considerable interest and relevance to undergraduates in abnormal psychology courses Introductory material and references are included throughout the book
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50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology

Shattering Widespread Misconceptions about Human Behavior

Author: Scott O. Lilienfeld,Steven Jay Lynn,John Ruscio,Barry L. Beyerstein

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444360744

Category: Psychology

Page: 352

View: 1821

50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology uses popular myths as a vehicle for helping students and laypersons to distinguish science from pseudoscience. Uses common myths as a vehicle for exploring how to distinguish factual from fictional claims in popular psychology Explores topics that readers will relate to, but often misunderstand, such as 'opposites attract', 'people use only 10% of their brains', and 'handwriting reveals your personality' Provides a 'mythbusting kit' for evaluating folk psychology claims in everyday life Teaches essential critical thinking skills through detailed discussions of each myth Includes over 200 additional psychological myths for readers to explore Contains an Appendix of useful Web Sites for examining psychological myths Features a postscript of remarkable psychological findings that sound like myths but that are true Engaging and accessible writing style that appeals to students and lay readers alike
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Vision Science

Photons to Phenomenology

Author: Stephen E. Palmer

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262304015

Category: Psychology

Page: 832

View: 4502

This book revolutionizes how vision can be taught to undergraduate and graduate students in cognitive science, psychology, and optometry. It is the first comprehensive textbook on vision to reflect the integrated computational approach of modern research scientists. This new interdisciplinary approach, called "vision science," integrates psychological, computational, and neuroscientific perspectives. The book covers all major topics related to vision, from early neural processing of image structure in the retina to high-level visual attention, memory, imagery, and awareness. The presentation throughout is theoretically sophisticated yet requires minimal knowledge of mathematics. There is also an extensive glossary, as well as appendices on psychophysical methods, connectionist modeling, and color technology. The book will serve not only as a comprehensive textbook on vision, but also as a valuable reference for researchers in cognitive science, psychology, neuroscience, computer science, optometry, and philosophy.
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Personality and Psychopathology

Feminist Reappraisals

Author: Laura S. Brown,Mary Ballou

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 9780898625004

Category: Psychology

Page: 272

View: 600

Under the scrutiny of feminist theory, traditional theories of personality and psychopathology are shown to be inadequate primarily because the theories reflect the biased cultural norms in which they were developed. Some limitations include their constricted views of human nature, their narrowly constructed definitions of mental health and mental disorder, and their lack of accounting for the many forces that affect human development and functioning. Synthesizing over 20 years of feminist thinking, this volume presents original critiques of mainstream psychological theories and lays the groundwork for the development of a context-based, feminist psychological theory. The first and only volume to present a specifically feminist perspective on the theoretical and conceptual foundations of treatment, Personality and Psychopathology is an essential text for upper-level courses in personality, psychopathology, and the psychology of women. Providing invaluable insights, it is necessary reading for mainstream and feminist therapists of all disciplines.
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The New Science of Axiological Psychology

Author: Leon Pomeroy

Publisher: Rodopi

ISBN: 9042018267

Category: Philosophy

Page: 360

View: 1292

This book uses scientific validity measures to create empirical value science and a normative new science of axiological psychology by integrating cognitive psychology with Robert S. Hartman's formal theory of axiological science. It reveals a scientific way to identify and rank human values, achieving values appreciation, values clarification, and values measurement for the twenty first century.
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Thought Contagion

How Belief Spreads Through Society: The New Science Of Memes

Author: Aaron Lynch

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 9780786725649

Category: Philosophy

Page: 208

View: 8034

Fans of Douglas Hofstadter, Daniel Bennet, and Richard Dawkins (as well as science buffs and readers of Wired Magazine) will revel in Aaron Lynch’s groundbreaking examination of memetics--the new study of how ideas and beliefs spread. What characterizes a meme is its capacity for displacing rival ideas and beliefs in an evolutionary drama that determines and changes the way people think. Exactly how do ideas spread, and what are the factors that make them genuine thought contagions? Why, for instance, do some beliefs spread throughout society, while others dwindle to extinction? What drives those intensely held beliefs that spawn ideological and political debates such as views on abortion and opinions about sex and sexuality?By drawing on examples from everyday life, Lynch develops a conceptual basis for understanding memetics. Memes evolve by natural selection in a process similar to that of Genes in evolutionary biology. What makes an idea a potent meme is how effectively it out-propagates other ideas. In memetic evolution, the "fittest ideas” are not always the truest or the most helpful, but the ones best at self replication.Thus, crash diets spread not because of lasting benefit, but by alternating episodes of dramatic weight loss and slow regain. Each sudden thinning provokes onlookers to ask, "How did you do it?” thereby manipulating them to experiment with the diet and in turn, spread it again. The faster the pounds return, the more often these people enter that disseminating phase, all of which favors outbreaks of the most pathogenic diets. Like a software virus traveling on the Internet or a flu strain passing through a city, thought contagions proliferate by programming for their own propagation. Lynch argues that certain beliefs spread like viruses and evolve like microbes, as mutant strains vie for more adherents and more hosts. In its most revolutionary aspect, memetics asks not how people accumulate ideas, but how ideas accumulate people. Readers of this intriguing theory will be amazed to discover that many popular beliefs about family, sex, politics, religion, health, and war have succeeded by their "fitness” as thought contagions.
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Agency and Self-awareness

Issues in Philosophy and Psychology

Author: Johannes Roessler,Naomi Eilan

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199245628

Category: Philosophy

Page: 415

View: 7927

Leading philosophers and psychologists join forces to investigate a set of problems to do with agency and self-awareness, in seventeen specially written essays. In recent years there has been much psychological and neurological work purporting to show that consciousness and self-awareness play no role in causing actions, and indeed to demonstrate that free will is an illusion. The essays in this volume subject the assumptions that motivate such claims to sustained interdisciplinary scrutiny. Patients with Anarchic Hand syndrome sometimes find their hands perform apparently goal-directed actions which the patients disown, yet seem to be unable to suppress (for example, reaching out for someone else's food in a restaurant). On the face of it, these patients lack the kind of control and self-awareness we ordinarily take ourselves to have when acting intentionally. Questions raised by this phenomenon include: What is involved in being aware of an action as one's own? What is thenature of the control these patients are lacking and which characterizes normal intentional actions? What is the relation between a priori explanations of consciousness and self-consciousness, on the one hand, and empirical work on the information-processing mechanisms involved in action control, on the other? Questions of action control and self-awareness tend to be treated separately in both philosophy and psychology. The central idea behind this volume is that outstanding unresolved issues on both topics, and in both disciplines, can only be resolved by an interdisciplinary examination of the relations between them. The editors' useful introductory essay offers a guide to cross-disciplinary reading of the contributions, and makes connections between them explicit. The book will be compulsory reading for psychologists and philosophers working on action explanation, and for anyone interested in the relation between the brain sciences and consciousness.
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Remembering Trauma

Author: Richard J. McNally

Publisher: Harvard University Press

ISBN: 9780674018020

Category: Psychology

Page: 420

View: 6172

Are horrific experiences indelibly fixed in a victim's memory? Or does the mind protect itself by banishing traumatic memories from consciousness? How victims remember trauma is the most controversial issue in psychology today, spilling out of consulting rooms and laboratories to capture headlines, rupture families, provoke legislative change, and influence criminal trials and civil suits. This book, by a clinician who is also a laboratory researcher, is the first comprehensive, balanced analysis of the clinical and scientific evidence bearing on this issue--and the first to provide definitive answers to the urgent questions at the heart of the controversy. Synthesizing clinical case reports and the vast research literature on the effects of stress, suggestion, and trauma on memory, Richard McNally arrives at significant conclusions, first and foremost that traumatic experiences are indeed unforgettable. Though people sometimes do not think about disturbing experiences for long periods of time, traumatic events rarely slip from awareness for very long; furthermore, McNally reminds us, failure to think about traumas--such as early sexual abuse--must not be confused with amnesia or an inability to remember them. In fact, the evidence for repressed memories of trauma--or even for repression at all--is surprisingly weak. A magisterial work of scholarship, panoramic in scope and nonpartisan throughout, this unfailingly lucid work will prove indispensable to anyone seeking to understand how people remember trauma.
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The Oxford Handbook of Compassion Science

Author: Emma M. Seppälä,Emiliana Simon-Thomas,Stephanie L. Brown,Monica C. Worline,C. Daryl Cameron,James R. Doty

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190667281

Category: Psychology

Page: 576

View: 4357

How do we define compassion? Is it an emotional state, a motivation, a dispositional trait, or a cultivated attitude? How does it compare to altruism and empathy? Chapters in this Handbook present critical scientific evidence about compassion in numerous conceptions. All of these approaches to thinking about compassion are valid and contribute importantly to understanding how we respond to others who are suffering. Covering multiple levels of our lives and self-concept, from the individual, to the group, to the organization and culture, The Oxford Handbook of Compassion Science gathers evidence and models of compassion that treat the subject of compassion science with careful scientific scrutiny and concern. It explores the motivators of compassion, the effect on physiology, the co-occurrence of wellbeing, and compassion training interventions. Sectioned by thematic approaches, it pulls together basic and clinical research ranging across neurobiological, developmental, evolutionary, social, clinical, and applied areas in psychology such as business and education. In this sense, it comprises one of the first multidisciplinary and systematic approaches to examining compassion from multiple perspectives and frames of reference. With contributions from well-established scholars as well as young rising stars in the field, this Handbook bridges a wide variety of diverse perspectives, research methodologies, and theory, and provides a foundation for this new and rapidly growing field. It should be of great value to the new generation of basic and applied researchers examining compassion, and serve as a catalyst for academic researchers and students to support and develop the modern world.
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The Meme Machine

Author: Susan Blackmore

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191574619

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 4803

Humans are extraordinary creatures, with the unique ability among animals to imitate and so copy from one another ideas, habits, skills, behaviours, inventions, songs, and stories. These are all memes, a term first coined by Richard Dawkins in 1976 in his book The Selfish Gene. Memes, like genes, are replicators, and this enthralling book is an investigation of whether this link between genes and memes can lead to important discoveries about the nature of the inner self. Confronting the deepest questions about our inner selves, with all our emotions, memories, beliefs, and decisions, Susan Blackmore makes a compelling case for the theory that the inner self is merely an illusion created by the memes for the sake of replication.
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Mindless Eating

Why We Eat More Than We Think

Author: Brian Wansink

Publisher: Bantam

ISBN: 0553384481

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 292

View: 4886

A food psychologist identifies hidden factors, motivations, and cues that cause overeating and offers practical solutions to help avoid these hidden traps and enjoy food without putting on excess pounds.
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What's Wrong With The Rorschach

Science Confronts the Controversial Inkblot Test

Author: James M. Wood,M. Teresa Nezworski,Scott O. Lilienfeld,Howard N. Garb

Publisher: Jossey-Bass

ISBN: 9781118087121

Category: Psychology

Page: 464

View: 5914

Since its creation more than eighty years ago, the famous Rorschach inkblot test has become an icon of clinical psychology and popular culture. Administered over one million times world-wide each year, the Rorschach is used to assess personality and mental illness across a wide range of circumstances: child custody disputes, educational placement decisions, employment and termination proceedings, parole determinations, and even investigations of child abuse allegations. The test's enormous power shapes the lives of hundreds of thousands of people -- often without their knowledge. In the 1970s, this notoriously subjective test was supposedly systematized and improved. But is the Rorschach more than a modern variant on tea leaf reading? What's Wrong With the Rorschach? challenges the validity and utility of the Rorschach and explains why psychologists continue to judge people by their reactions to ink blots, in spite of a half century of largely negative scientific evidence. What's Wrong With the Rorschach? offers a provocative critique of one of the most widely applied and influential - and still intensely controversial - psychological tests in the world today. Surveying more than fifty years of clinical and scholarly research, the authors provide compelling scientific evidence that the Rorschach has relatively little value for diagnosing mental illness, assessing personality, predicting behavior, or uncovering sexual abuse or other trauma. In this highly engaging, novelistic account of the Rorschach's origins and history, the authors detail the wealth of scientific evidence that the test is of questionable utility for real-world decision making. What's Wrong With the Rorschach? presents a powerfully reasoned case against using the test in the courtroom or consulting room - and reveals the strong psychological, economic, and political forces that continue to support the Rorschach despite the research that has exposed its shortcomings and dangers.
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Handbook of Self and Identity

Author: Mark R. Leary,June Price Tangney

Publisher: Guilford Press

ISBN: 1462503055

Category: Psychology

Page: 754

View: 883

Widely regarded as the authoritative reference in the field, this volume comprehensively reviews theory and research on the self. Leading investigators address this essential construct at multiple levels of analysis, from neural pathways to complex social and cultural dynamics. Coverage includes how individuals gain self-awareness, agency, and a sense of identity; self-related motivation and emotion; the role of the self in interpersonal behavior; and self-development across evolutionary time and the lifespan. Connections between self-processes and psychological problems are also addressed. New to This Edition *Incorporates significant theoretical and empirical advances. *Nine entirely new chapters. *Coverage of the social and cognitive neuroscience of self-processes; self-regulation and health; self and emotion; and hypoegoic states, such as mindfulness.
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The Broken Ladder

How Inequality Affects the Way We Think, Live, and Die

Author: Keith Payne

Publisher: Penguin

ISBN: 069840937X

Category: Social Science

Page: 256

View: 6893

A timely examination by a leading scientist of the physical, psychological, and moral effects of inequality. Today’s inequality is on a scale that none of us has seen in our lifetimes, yet this disparity between rich and poor has ramifications that extend far beyond mere financial means. In The Broken Ladder psychologist Keith Payne examines how inequality divides us not just economically, but has profound consequences for how we think, how our cardiovascular systems respond to stress, how our immune systems function, and how we view moral ideas like justice and fairness. Experiments in psychology, neuroscience, and behavioral economics have not only revealed important new insights on how inequality changes people in predictable ways, but have provided a corrective to our flawed way of viewing poverty as the result of individual character failings. Among modern, developed societies, economic inequality is not primarily about money, but rather about relative status: where we stand in relation to other people. Regardless of their average income, countries or states with greater levels of income inequality have much higher rates of all the social problems we associate with poverty, including lower average life expectancies, serious health issues, mental illness, and crime. The Broken Ladder explores such issues as why women in poor societies often have more children, and have them younger; why there is little trust among the working class that investing for the future will pay off; why people’s perception of their relative social status affects their political beliefs, and why growing inequality leads to greater political divisions; how poverty raises stress levels in the same way as a physical threat; inequality in the workplace, and how it affects performance; why unequal societies become more religious; and finally offers measures people can take to lessen the harm done by inequality in their own lives and the lives of their children.
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Inferior

How Science Got Women Wrong - and the New Research That's Rewriting the Story

Author: Angela Saini

Publisher: Beacon Press

ISBN: 0807071706

Category: SCIENCE

Page: 213

View: 2469

For hundreds of years it was common sense: women were the inferior sex. Their bodies were weaker, their minds feebler, their role subservient. Science has continued to tell us that men and women are fundamentally different. But a huge wave of research is now revealing that women are as strong, powerful, strategic, and smart as anyone else. Saini takes readers on a journey to uncover science's failure to understand women and to show how women's bodies and minds are finally being rediscovered.
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