Protocols for Cytogenetic Mapping of Arthropod Genomes

Author: Igor V. Sharakhov

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466598166

Category: Science

Page: 526

View: 3932

Arthropods are important to worldwide agriculture, food safety, human health, and energy production. Besides their practical significance, various species represent excellent model systems for biological investigations of evolution, development, physiology, reproduction, and social interaction. For these reasons, arthropod genomics is receiving increasing attention from researchers around the globe. Protocols for Cytogenetic Mapping of Arthropod Genomes is a collection of up-to-date, detailed protocols for physical chromosome mapping and their applications for studying genome organization and evolution in insects and ticks. This book brings together the expertise of cytogeneticists working on diverse groups of arthropods. Each chapter demonstrates approaches to tissue dissection, chromosome preparation, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and imaging. The book is a timely and complementary effort to the i5K initiative, which will obtain whole-genome sequences for 5,000 insect and related arthropod species. This comprehensive resource provides cytogeneticists with the necessary background and protocols to understand and develop chromosome-based genome assemblies from such whole-genome sequence data.
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Insect Genomics

Methods and Protocols

Author: Susan J. Brown,Michael E. Pfrender

Publisher: Humana Press

ISBN: 9781493987740

Category: Medical

Page: 239

View: 7301

This volume focuses on the latest methods used to sequence, assemble, and analyze insect genomes. The collection of protocols in this book provides an introduction to the workflows and bioinformatics tools available for researchers. The chapters cover a range of useful topics such as determining genome size by flow cytometry; High Molecular Weight DNA extraction; improvements to a genome assembly provided by long-range sequencing approaches; assessments of orthology and single-copy genes at different phylogenetic levels; detecting regulatory regions with FAIRE, RAMPAGE, and computational analysis of cis-regulatory modules in insects; bioinformatics analysis of epigenetic modifications, high-throughput scanning of insect genomes (TEEseq) for the presence of endosymbionts, and leveraging genome sequence information to design RNAi strategies. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting-edge and thorough, Insect Genomics: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for graduate students, postdocs, and novice research scientists who are interested in learning more about this developing field.
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Insect Histology

Practical Laboratory Techniques

Author: Pedro Barbosa,Deborah Berry,Christina K. Kary

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118875001

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 2697

This title is a much needed update of Barbosa's self-published Manual of Basic Techniques in Insect Histology. It is a laboratory manual of 'traditional' and 'modern' insect histology techniques, completely revised using cutting-edge methodology carried out today and includes new immunohistochemical techniques not previously looked at. Insect Histology is designed as a resource for student and professional researchers, in academia and industry, who require basic information on the procedures that are essential for the histological display of the tissues of insects and related organisms.
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Modern Observational Physical Oceanography

Understanding the Global Ocean

Author: Carl Wunsch

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400866537

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 3115

With the advent of computers, novel instruments, satellite technology, and increasingly powerful modeling tools, we know more about the ocean than ever before. Yet we also have a new generation of oceanographers who have become increasingly distanced from the object of their study. Ever fewer scientists collect the observational data on which they base their research. Instead, many download information without always fully understanding how far removed it is from the original data, with opportunity for great misinterpretation. This textbook introduces modern physical oceanography to beginning graduate students in marine sciences and experienced practitioners in allied fields. Real observations are strongly emphasized, as are their implications for understanding the behavior of the global ocean. Written by a leading physical oceanographer, Modern Observational Physical Oceanography explains what the observational revolution of the past twenty-five years has taught us about the real, changing fluid ocean. Unlike any other book, it provides a broad and accessible treatment of the subject, covering everything from modern methods of observation and data analysis to the fluid dynamics and modeling of ocean processes and variability. Fully illustrated in color throughout, the book describes the fundamental concepts that are needed before delving into more advanced topics, including internal-inertial waves, tides, balanced motions, and large-scale circulation physics. Provides an accessible introduction to modern physical oceanography Written by a leading physical oceanographer Emphasizes real observations of the fluid ocean Features hundreds of color illustrations An online illustration package is available to professors
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Genetics and Genomics of Rice

Author: Qifa Zhang,Rod A. Wing

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1461479037

Category: Science

Page: 402

View: 579

This book provides a comprehensive coverage of the advances in genetics and genomics research on rice. The chapters feature the latest developments in rice research and cover such topics as the tools and resources for the functional analysis of rice genes, the identification of useful genes for rice improvement, the present understanding of rice development and biological processes, and the application of this present understanding towards rice improvement. The volume also features a perspective on synthesis and prospects, laying the groundwork for future advances in rice genetics and genomics. Written by authorities in the field, Genetics and Genomics of Rice will serve as an invaluable reference for rice researchers for years to come.
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Anopheline Species Complexes in South and South-East Asia

Author: N.A

Publisher: World Health Organization

ISBN: 9290222948

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 102

View: 1301

Vector-borne diseases are a major health problem in South-East Asia and in other parts of the world. There are about 4,500 mosquito species in existence; species belonging to the Anopheles genus transmit malaria. Combating malaria is part of the Millennium Development Goals, and vector control is a key strategy both regionally and globally. Therefore, the review and dissemination of information on vector species is critically important. Most of the anophelines that are involved in the transmission of malaria in South and South-East Asia have been identified as species complexes. Members of a species complex are reproductively isolated evolutionary units with distinct gene pools and hence they differ in their biological characteristics. In 1998 WHO published Anopheline Species Complexes in South-East Asia. New identification tools have been developed since then, and therefore this updated edition was needed. It summarizes work that has been done on anopheline cryptic species and will be highly valuable to researchers, field entomologists and malaria-control program managers.
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Insect Molecular Genetics

An Introduction to Principles and Applications

Author: Marjorie A. Hoy

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0240821319

Category: Science

Page: 838

View: 9848

Insect Molecular Genetics, Third Edition, summarizes and synthesizes two rather disparate disciplines—entomology and molecular genetics. This volume provides an introduction to the techniques and literature of molecular genetics; defines terminology; and reviews concepts, principles, and applications of these powerful tools. The world of insect molecular genetics, once dominated by Drosophila, has become much more diverse, especially with the sequencing of multiple arthropod genomes (from spider mites to mosquitoes). This introduction includes discussion of honey bees, mosquitoes, flour beetles, silk moths, fruit flies, aphids, house flies, kissing bugs, cicadas, butterflies, tsetse flies and armyworms. This book serves as both a foundational text and a review of a rapidly growing literature. With fully revised and updated chapters, the third edition will be a valuable addition to the personal libraries of entomologists, geneticists, and molecular biologists. Up-to-date references to important review articles, websites, and seminal citations in the disciplines Well crafted and instructive illustrations integral to explaining the techniques of molecular genetics Glossary of terms to help beginners learn the vocabulary of molecular biology
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Comparative and Evolutionary Genomics of Angiosperm Trees

Author: Andrew Groover,Quentin Cronk

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319493299

Category: Science

Page: 366

View: 7690

Marking the change in focus of tree genomics from single species to comparative approaches, this book covers biological, genomic, and evolutionary aspects of angiosperm trees that provide information and perspectives to support researchers broadening the focus of their research. The diversity of angiosperm trees in morphology, anatomy, physiology and biochemistry has been described and cataloged by various scientific disciplines, but the molecular, genetic, and evolutionary mechanisms underlying this diversity have only recently been explored. Excitingly, advances in genomic and sequencing technologies are ushering a new era of research broadly termed comparative genomics, which simultaneously exploits and describes the evolutionary origins and genetic regulation of traits of interest. Within tree genomics, this research is already underway, as the number of complete genome sequences available for angiosperm trees is increasing at an impressive pace and the number of species for which RNAseq data are available is rapidly expanding. Because they are extensively covered by other literature and are rapidly changing, technical and computational approaches—such as the latest sequencing technologies—are not a main focus of this book. Instead, this comprehensive volume provides a valuable, broader view of tree genomics whose relevance will outlive the particulars of current-day technical approaches. The first section of the book discusses background on the evolution and diversification of angiosperm trees, as well as offers description of the salient features and diversity of the unique physiology and wood anatomy of angiosperm trees. The second section explores the two most advanced model angiosperm tree species (poplars and eucalypts) as well as species that are soon to emerge as new models. The third section describes the structural features and evolutionary histories of angiosperm tree genomes, followed by a fourth section focusing on the genomics of traits of biological, ecological, and economic interest. In summary, this book is a timely and well-referenced foundational resource for the forest tree community looking to embrace comparative approaches for the study of angiosperm trees.
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Introduction to Evolutionary Genomics

Author: Naruya Saitou

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1447153049

Category: Computers

Page: 461

View: 6861

This book is the first of its kind to explain the fundamentals of evolutionary genomics. The comprehensive coverage includes concise descriptions of a variety of genome organizations, a thorough discussion of the methods used, and a detailed review of genome sequence processing procedures. The opening chapters also provide the necessary basics for readers unfamiliar with evolutionary studies. Features: introduces the basics of molecular biology, DNA replication, mutation, phylogeny, neutral evolution, and natural selection; presents a brief evolutionary history of life from the primordial seas to the emergence of humans; describes the genomes of prokaryotes, eukaryotes, vertebrates, and humans; reviews methods for genome sequencing, phenotype data collection, homology searches and analysis, and phylogenetic tree and network building; discusses databases of genome sequences and related information, evolutionary distances, and population genomics; provides supplementary material at an associated website.
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Insect Cell Cultures

Fundamental and Applied Aspects

Author: Just M. Vlak,Cornelis D. de Gooijer,Johannes Tramper,Herbert G. Miltenburger

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306468506

Category: Science

Page: 316

View: 6537

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Karyotypes of Parasitic Hymenoptera

Author: Vladimir E. Gokhman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1402098073

Category: Science

Page: 183

View: 8463

Not so long ago, karyology was considered a vanguard biological discipline, which could solve nearly all problems of systematics and phylogenetics. We liked to believe in the bright future, in a magician who will appear like a Jack-in-the-box and reveal the truth to us. However, excessive hopes related to the chromosomal study came true only in part. In the meantime, new candidates claimed the place of the magician, i. e. phenetics succeeded by cladistics and now by molecular methods in systematics and phylogeny. Nevertheless, it becomes progressively more ob- ous nowadays that cladistics is just a bright envelope for the fairly primitive and theoretically vulnerable approach that deprives living organisms and their groups of the traces of integrity and reduces them to the plain sum of characters. Modern molecular techniques look more perceptive and may yield more reliable results, although the details are sometimes embarrassing, and comparison with the fossil record does not necessarily reveal their superiority over cladistics. These methods are accessible by research teams with massive funding and good equipment and this strongly decreases the range and diversity of the material studied. However, classi?cations are often created by individual systematists with the restricted access to molecular methods. In this context, karyological techniques are in the preferable position, although they certainly do not provide direct and immaculate markers of taxonomic and p- logenetic relationships: chromosomal study is a morphological method with all its advantages and drawbacks.
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Gene Drives on the Horizon

Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values

Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Board on Life Sciences,Committee on Gene Drive Research in Non-Human Organisms: Recommendations for Responsible Conduct

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309437873

Category: Science

Page: 230

View: 8609

Research on gene drive systems is rapidly advancing. Many proposed applications of gene drive research aim to solve environmental and public health challenges, including the reduction of poverty and the burden of vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue, which disproportionately impact low and middle income countries. However, due to their intrinsic qualities of rapid spread and irreversibility, gene drive systems raise many questions with respect to their safety relative to public and environmental health. Because gene drive systems are designed to alter the environments we share in ways that will be hard to anticipate and impossible to completely roll back, questions about the ethics surrounding use of this research are complex and will require very careful exploration. Gene Drives on the Horizon outlines the state of knowledge relative to the science, ethics, public engagement, and risk assessment as they pertain to research directions of gene drive systems and governance of the research process. This report offers principles for responsible practices of gene drive research and related applications for use by investigators, their institutions, the research funders, and regulators.
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Mobile Genetic Elements

Protocols and Genomic Applications

Author: Wolfgang J. Miller,Pierre Capy

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1592597556

Category: Science

Page: 289

View: 640

Leading experts describe in step-by-step detail their most productive transposon-based methods and strategies for studying genome structure, function, and evolution. These readily reproducible techniques cover a wide range, including mutagenesis, transgenesis, gene silencing, and molecular systematics. Among the highlights are a series of DNA hybridization methods for analyzing the distribution and dynamics of mobile DNA at the hosts' genomic level, techniques for studying LTR retrotransposons in heterologous host systems, and mutagenesis protocols for investigating gene functions in a broad range of organisms. These cutting-edge methods offer investigators powerful genetic tools for dissecting the function of a specific gene, elaborating on the mechanisms leading to genetic change and diversity, and studying the evolutionary impact of mobile DNA on the biology and evolution of organisms.
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Principles of Genome Analysis and Genomics

Author: Sandy B. Primrose,Richard Twyman

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 144431128X

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 8919

With the first draft of the human genome project in the public domain and full analyses of model genomes now available, the subject matter of 'Principles of Genome Analysis and Genomics' is even 'hotter' now than when the first two editions were published in 1995 and 1998. In the new edition of this very practical guide to the different techniques and theory behind genomes and genome analysis, Sandy Primrose and new author Richard Twyman provide a fresh look at this topic. In the light of recent exciting advancements in the field, the authors have completely revised and rewritten many parts of the new edition with the addition of five new chapters. Aimed at upper level students, it is essential that in this extremely fast moving topic area the text is up to date and relevant. Completely revised new edition of an established textbook. Features new chapters and examples from exciting new research in genomics, including the human genome project. Excellent new co-author in Richard Twyman, also co-author of the new edition of hugely popular Principles of Gene Manipulation. Accompanying web-page to help students deal with this difficult topic at www.blackwellpublishing.com/primrose
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Computational Design of Chemicals for the Control of Mosquitoes and Their Diseases

Author: James Devillers

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351647695

Category: Medical

Page: 468

View: 4813

There is a compelling need for new drugs and efficient treatments against mosquito-borne diseases. Environmentally safe, but effective insecticides that address the problems of resistance are required. Computational Design of Chemicals for the Control of Mosquitoes and Their Diseases explains how the search for new substances effective against mosquitoes and their diseases has benefited from the use of in silico techniques. QSAR modeling is suited to identify the key structural features and/or physicochemical properties explaining an activity and to propose candidate molecules for further evaluation by laboratory tests. Homology modeling is useful to approximate the 3D structure of proteins of interest. Pharmacophore modeling is a powerful means to capture the chemical features responsible for an activity and to identify new potentially active compounds via the virtual screening of databases. Fugacity modeling and a wealth of other modeling paradigms are useful for risk assessment in vector borne disease control.
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Forensic Entomology

An Introduction

Author: Dorothy Gennard

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118684885

Category: Science

Page: 248

View: 6448

This invaluable text provides a concise introduction to entomology in a forensic context and is also a practical guide to collecting entomological samples at the crime scene. Forensic Entomology: An Introduction: Assumes no prior knowledge of either entomology or biology Provides background information about the procedures carried out by the professional forensic entomologist in order to determine key information about post-mortem interval presented by insect evidence Includes practical tasks and further reading to enhance understanding of the subject and to enable the reader to gain key laboratory skills and a clear understanding of insect life cycles, the identification features of insects, and aspects of their ecology Glossary, photographs, the style of presentation and numerous illustrations have been designed to assist in the identification of insects associated with the corpse; keys are included to help students make this identification This book is an essential resource for undergraduate Forensic Science and Criminology students and those on conversion postgraduate M.Sc. courses in Forensic Science. It is also useful for Scenes of Crime Officers undertaking diploma studies and Scene Investigating Officers.
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Adventures among Ants

A Global Safari with a Cast of Trillions

Author: Mark W. Moffett

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 0520945417

Category: Science

Page: 288

View: 2668

Intrepid international explorer, biologist, and photographer Mark W. Moffett, "the Indiana Jones of entomology," takes us around the globe on a strange and colorful journey in search of the hidden world of ants. In tales from Nigeria, Indonesia, the Amazon, Australia, California, and elsewhere, Moffett recounts his entomological exploits and provides fascinating details on how ants live and how they dominate their ecosystems through strikingly human behaviors, yet at a different scale and a faster tempo. Moffett’s spectacular close-up photographs shrink us down to size, so that we can observe ants in familiar roles; warriors, builders, big-game hunters, and slave owners. We find them creating marketplaces and assembly lines and dealing with issues we think of as uniquely human—including hygiene, recycling, and warfare. Adventures among Ants introduces some of the world’s most awe-inspiring species and offers a startling new perspective on the limits of our own perception. • Ants are world-class road builders, handling traffic problems on thoroughfares that dwarf our highway systems in their complexity • Ants with the largest societies often deploy complicated military tactics • Some ants have evolved from hunter-gatherers into farmers, domesticating other insects and growing crops for food
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The Logic of Chance

The Nature and Origin of Biological Evolution

Author: Eugene V. Koonin

Publisher: FT Press

ISBN: 9780132623179

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 8356

The Logic of Chance offers a reappraisal and a new synthesis of theories, concepts, and hypotheses on the key aspects of the evolution of life on earth in light of comparative genomics and systems biology. The author presents many specific examples from systems and comparative genomic analysis to begin to build a new, much more detailed, complex, and realistic picture of evolution. The book examines a broad range of topics in evolutionary biology including the inadequacy of natural selection and adaptation as the only or even the main mode of evolution; the key role of horizontal gene transfer in evolution and the consequent overhaul of the Tree of Life concept; the central, underappreciated evolutionary importance of viruses; the origin of eukaryotes as a result of endosymbiosis; the concomitant origin of cells and viruses on the primordial earth; universal dependences between genomic and molecular-phenomic variables; and the evolving landscape of constraints that shape the evolution of genomes and molecular phenomes. "Koonin's account of viral and pre-eukaryotic evolution is undoubtedly up-to-date. His "mega views" of evolution (given what was said above) and his cosmological musings, on the other hand, are interesting reading." Summing Up: Recommended Reprinted with permission from CHOICE, copyright by the American Library Association.
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Conservation and the Genetics of Populations

Author: Fred W. Allendorf,Gordon H. Luikart,Sally N. Aitken

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118408578

Category: Science

Page: 632

View: 7859

Loss of biodiversity is among the greatest problems facing the world today. Conservation and the Genetics of Populations gives a comprehensive overview of the essential background, concepts, and tools needed to understand how genetic information can be used to conserve species threatened with extinction, and to manage species of ecological or commercial importance. New molecular techniques, statistical methods, and computer programs, genetic principles, and methods are becoming increasingly useful in the conservation of biological diversity. Using a balance of data and theory, coupled with basic and applied research examples, this book examines genetic and phenotypic variation in natural populations, the principles and mechanisms of evolutionary change, the interpretation of genetic data from natural populations, and how these can be applied to conservation. The book includes examples from plants, animals, and microbes in wild and captive populations. This second edition contains new chapters on Climate Change and Exploited Populations as well as new sections on genomics, genetic monitoring, emerging diseases, metagenomics, and more. One-third of the references in this edition were published after the first edition. Each of the 22 chapters and the statistical appendix have a Guest Box written by an expert in that particular topic (including James Crow, Louis Bernatchez, Loren Rieseberg, Rick Shine, and Lisette Waits). This book is essential for advanced undergraduate and graduate students of conservation genetics, natural resource management, and conservation biology, as well as professional conservation biologists working for wildlife and habitat management agencies. Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/allendorf/populations.
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Biology, Physiology and Molecular Biology of Weeds

Author: Mithila Jugulam

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1351647350

Category: Science

Page: 230

View: 9294

The book provides comprehensive information on a wide range of topics from biology, physiology, genetics to the use of genomic tools in weed science. The book covers information at a more advanced level than the previously published books in weed science. It covers not only weed genetics and genomics research, but also weed management from an ecological perspective. Furthermore, the book also gives a broad coverage of novel mechanisms of weed resistance to herbicides. More importantly, it includes next generation sequencing techniques and bioinformatics of herbicide resistant genes in weeds.
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