Automatic Control System
Author: John Wiley & Sons, Inc
Category: Technology & Engineering
Preface (Readme) This is the ninth edition of the text but the first with Farid Golnaraghi as the lead author. For this edition, we increased the number of examples, added MATLAB'" ' toolboxes, and enhanced the MATLAB GUI software, ACSYS. We added more computer-aided tools for students and teachers. The prepublication manuscript was reviewed by many professors, and most of the relevant suggestions have been adopted. In this edition, Chapters 1 through 4 are organized to contain all background material, while Chapters 5 through 10 contain material directly related to the subject of control. In this edition, the following materials have been moved into appendices on this book's Web site at www.wiley.com/college/golnaraghi. Appendix A: Elementary Matrix Theory and Algebra Appendix B: Difference Equations Appendix C: Laplace Transform Table Appendix D: z-Transform Table Appendix E: Properties and Construction of the Root Loci Appendix F: General Nyquist Criterion Appendix G: ACSYS 2008: Description of the Software Appendix H: Discrete-Data Control Systems In addition, the Web site contains the MATLAB files for ACSYS, which are software tools for solving control-system problems, and PowerPoint files for the illustrations in the text. The following paragraphs are aimed at three groups: professors who have adopted the book or who we hope will select it as their text; practicing engineers looking for answers to solve their day-to-day design problems; and, finally, students who are going to live with the book because it has been assigned for the control-systems course they are taking. To the Professor: The material assembled in this book is an outgrowth of senior-level control-system courses taught by the authors at their universities throughout their teaching careers. The first eight editions have been adopted by hundreds of universities in the United States and around the world and have been translated into at least six languages. Practically all the design topics presented in the eighth edition have been retained. This text contains not only conventional MATLAB toolboxes, where students can learn MATLAB and utilize their programming skills, but also a graphical MATLAB-based software, ACSYS. The ACSYS software added to this edition is very different from the software accompanying any other control book. Here, through extensive use of MATLAB GUI programming, we have created software that is easy to use. As a result, students will need to focus only on learning control problems, not programming! We also have added two new applications, SIMLab and Virtual Lab, through which students work on realistic problems and conduct speed and position control labs in a software environment. In SIMLab, students have access to the system parameters and can alter them (as in any simulation). In Virtual Lab, we have introduced a black-box approach in which the students have no access to the plant parameters and have to use some sort of system identification technique to find them. Through Virtual Lab we have essentially provided students with a realistic online lab with all the problems they would encounter in a real speed- or positioncontrol lab—for example, amplifier saturation, noise, and nonlinearity. We welcome your ideas for the future editions of this book. Finally, a sample section-by-section for a one-semester course is given in the Instructor's Manual, which is available from the publisher to qualified instructors. The Manual also contains detailed solutions to all the problems in the book. To Practicing Engineers: This book was written with the readers in mind and is very suitable for self-study. Our objective was to treat subjects clearly and thoroughly. The book does not use the theorem-proof-Q.E.D. style and is without heavy mathematics. The authors have consulted extensively for wide sectors of the industry for many years and have participated in solving numerous control-systems problems, from aerospace systems to industrial controls, automotive controls, and control of computer peripherals. Although it is difficult to adopt all the details and realism of practical problems in a textbook at this level, some examples and problems reflect simplified versions of real-life systems. To Students: You have had it now that you have signed up for this course and your professor has assigned this book! You had no say about the choice, though you can form and express your opinion on the book after reading it. Worse yet, one of the reasons that your professor made the selection is because he or she intends to make you work hard. But please don't misunderstand us: what we really mean is that, though this is an easy book to study (in our opinion), it is a no-nonsense book. It doesn't have cartoons or nice-looking photographs to amuse you. From here on, it is all business and hard work. You should have had the prerequisites on subjects found in a typical linear-systems course, such as how to solve linear ordinary differential equations, Laplace transform and applications, and timeresponse and frequency-domain analysis of linear systems. In this book you will not find too much new mathematics to which you have not been exposed before. What is interesting and challenging is that you are going to learn how to apply some of the mathematics that you have acquired during the past two or three years of study in college. In case you need to review some of the mathematical foundations, you can find them in the appendices on this book's Web site. The Web site also contains lots of other goodies, including the ACSYS software, which is GUI software that uses MATLAB-based programs for solving linear control systems problems. You will also find the Simulink"12-based SIMLab and Virtual Lab, which will help you to gain understanding of real-world control systems. This book has numerous illustrative examples. Some of these are deliberately simple for the purpose of illustrating new ideas and subject matter. Some examples are more elaborate, in order to bring the practical world closer to you. Furthermore, the objective of this book is to present a complex subject in a clear and thorough way. One of the important learning strategies for you as a student is not to rely strictly on the textbook assigned. When studying a certain subject, go to the library and check out a few similar texts to see how other authors treat the same subject. You may gain new perspectives on the subject and discover that one author may treat the material with more care and thoroughness than the others. Do not be distracted by written-down coverage with oversimplified examples. The minute you step into the real world, you will face the design of control systems with nonlinearities and/or time-varying elements as well as orders that can boggle your mind. It may be discouraging to tell you now that strictly linear and first-order systems do not exist in the real world. Some advanced engineering students in college do not believe that the material they learn in the classroom is ever going to be applied directly in industry. Some of our students come back from field and interview trips totally surprised to find that the material they learned in courses on control systems is actually being used in industry today. They are surprised to find that this book is also a popular reference for practicing engineers. Unfortunately, these fact-finding, eye-opening, and self-motivating trips usually occur near the end of their college days, which is often too late for students to get motivated. There are many learning aids available to you: the MATLAB-based ACSYS software will assist you in solving all kinds of control-systems problems. The SIMLab and Virtual Lab software can be used for simulation of virtual experimental systems. These are all found on the Web site. In addition, the Review Questions and Summaries at the end of each chapter should be useful to you. Also on the Web site, you will find the errata and other supplemental material. We hope that you will enjoy this book. It will represent another major textbook acquisition (investment) in your college career. Our advice to you is not to sell it back to the bookstore at the end of the semester. If you do so but find out later in your professional career that you need to refer to a control systems book, you will have to buy it again at a higher price. Special Acknowledgments: The authors wish to thank the reviewers for their invaluable comments and suggestions. The prepublication reviews have had a great impact on the revision project. The authors thank Simon Fraser students and research associates Michael Ages, Johannes Minor, Linda Franak, Arash Jamalian, Jennifer Leone, Neda Parnian, Sean MacPherson, Amin Kamalzadeh, and Nathan (Wuyang) Zheng for their help. Farid Golnaraghi also wishes to thank Professor Benjamin Kuo for sharing the pleasure of writing this wonderful book, and for his teachings, patience, and support throughout this experience. M. F. Golnaraghi, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada B. C. Kuo, Champaign, Illinois, U.S.A. 2009.