Polymer Extrusion

Author: Chris Rauwendaal

Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG

ISBN: 1569905169

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 950

View: 471

Initially published "to bridge the gap between theory and practice in extrusion," this 5th edition of Polymer Extrusion continues to serve the practicing polymer engineer and chemist, providing the theoretical and the practical tools for successful extrusion operations. In its revised and expanded form, it also incorporates the many new developments in extrusion theory and machinery over the last years. Contents · Different Types of Extruders · Extruder Hardware · Instrumentation and Control · Fundamental Principles · Important Polymer Properties · Functional Process Analysis · Extruder Screw Design · Die Design · Twin Screw Extruders · Troubleshooting Extruders · Modeling and Simulation of the Extrusion Process

Polymer Extrusion

Author: Pierre G. Lafleur,Bruno Vergnes

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118827171

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 352

View: 6382

Extrusion is by far the most important and the oldest processingand shaping method for thermoplastic polymers. This processconcerns almost all synthetic polymers, as well as elastomers orfood materials. Single-screw extrusion is mainly usednowadays to manufacture finished goods or semi-finished products.More than 90 million tons of thermoplastics are therefore processedevery year. Twin-screw extrusion may be divided into two systems:contra-rotating systems used within the context of PVC extrusion,for the manufacture of pipes or profiles; and co-rotating systemsexperiencing nowadays a very significant development, because oftheir significant adaptability and flexibility, which enables themanufacture of specific materials (polymer alloys, thermoplasticelastomers, filled polymers, nanocomposites). Extrusion is carriedout by passing molten polymer through a tool called die that willgive the product its final shape (films and sheets, rolledproducts, and electric cables). Thanks to the design of dies, weobtain at the output a product with controlled dimensions, uniformspeeds and homogeneous temperatures. The book will discuss the sameproduction types, but only in the case of coextrusion flows, i.e.multilayer stratified products. First of all, we will presentin this book the physics of the mechanisms at stake, then proposemore or less complex models in order to describe these mechanismsand then go forward in the interpretation of results and thecontrol of condition flows.

Extrusion of Metals, Polymers, and Food Products

Author: Sayyad Zahid Qamar

Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand

ISBN: 9535138375

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 220

View: 8025

Extrusion is a very popular manufacturing process, especially because of its versatility in terms of materials and shapes. Representing the vast and multifaceted field of extrusion, this book contains write-ups on latest developments from experts in the field. Part (A) on Metal Extrusion contains chapters on spur gear manufacturing, stiff vacuum extrusion, and indirect extrusion for subsurface tubular expansion. Part (B) on Food and Polymer Extrusion includes chapters on extrusion cooking of functional foods, changes in nutritional properties in extrusion of cereals, physicochemical changes of starch in extrusion of corn flour, extruded aquaculture feed, optimal design of polymer extrusion dies, and extrusion cooking technology for food products.

The Complete Technology Book on Plastic Extrusion, Moulding And Mould Designs

Author: NIIR Board of Consultants and Engineers


ISBN: 8178330083


Page: 496

View: 1650

Plastics extrusion is a high volume manufacturing process in which raw plastic material is melted and formed into a continuous profile. Extrusion produces items such as pipe/tubing, weather stripping, fence, deck railing, window frames, adhesive tape and wire insulation. There are fundamentally two different methods of extruding film, namely, below extrusion and slit die extrusion. The design and operation of the extruder up to the die is the same for both methods. The moulding process is one of the most important plastic processing operations. It is an important commercial process whereby a resinous polymeric compound is converted into useful finished articles. The origin of this process is dates back about a century to the invention of a plunger type machine. The mould has its own importance, which give the required shapes of the products. The vast growth of injection moulding is reflected dramatically in many types and sizes of equipment available today. Plastic moulding especially thermoplastic items may be produced by compression moulding methods, but since they are soft at the temperature involved, it is necessary to cool down the mould before they may be ejected. Injection moulding differs from compression moulding is that the plastic material is rendered fluid in a separate chamber or barrel, outside the mould is then forced into the mould cavity by external pressure. Plastic technology is one of the most vigorous manufacturing branches, characterised by new raw materials, changing requirements, and continuous development in processing methods. The injection moulding machines manufacturers plays an important part in the creation of injection moulding technology, process control, to essential mechanical engineering. Even though design is a specialized phase in engineering field, in tool and mould engineering it is totally divided into two wings as product design and tool and die design. This book basically deals with transport phenomena in polymer films, reinforcements for thermosets, miscellaneous thermoset processes, injection molding, blow molding, extrusion, basic principles of injection moulding, correct injection speed is necessary for filling the mould, plastic melt should not suffer degradation, the mould must be controlled for better quality product, logical consideration of moulding profile and material is important than standard setting guide lines, economical setting of the machine, proper maintenance of machine;, safety operations., preliminary checking for moulding, material, component, mould, machine, injection moulding technique, the various type of injection moulding machines, specifications, platen mounting of moulds, locating spigots, mould clamping, etc. The book covers manufacturing processes of extruded and moulded products with the various mould designs. This is very useful book for new entrepreneurs, technocrats, researchers, libraries etc.

Characterization and Failure Analysis of Plastics

Author: ASM International,Steve Lampman

Publisher: ASM International

ISBN: 1615030735

Category: Plastics

Page: 489

View: 3748

The selection and application of engineered materials is an integrated process that requires an understanding of the interaction between materials properties, manufacturing characteristics, design considerations, and the total life cycle of the product. This reference book on engineering plastics provides practical and comprehensive coverage on how the performance of plastics is characterized during design, property testing, and failure analysis. The fundamental structure and properties of plastics are reviewed for general reference, and detailed articles describe the important design factors, properties, and failure mechanisms of plastics. The effects of composition, processing, and structure are detailed in articles on the physical, chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties. Other articles cover failure mechanisms such as: crazing and fracture; impact loading; fatigue failure; wear failures, moisture related failure; organic chemical related failure; photolytic degradation; and microbial degradation. Characterization of plastics in failure analysis is described with additional articles on analysis of structure, surface analysis, and fractography.

Der gleichläufige Doppelschneckenextruder

Grundlagen, Technologie, Anwendungen

Author: Klemens Kohlgrüber

Publisher: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH Co KG

ISBN: 3446452354

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 842

View: 6741

Alles zum gleichläufigen Doppelschneckenextruder Bei der Herstellung von Kunststoffen, insbesondere bei der Aufbereitung und Verarbeitung bis zum Fertigprodukt werden Extruder eingesetzt, wobei der gleichläufige Doppelschneckenextruder eine dominante Rolle spielt. Aber auch in anderen Industriezweigen, z. B. der Kautschuk- und Lebensmittelindustrie und zunehmend in der Pharmaindustrie kommen die Gleichdrallschnecken vielfältig zum Einsatz. Eine multifunktionale Maschine Das Fachbuch gibt umfassenden Einblick in die verfahrens- und maschinentechnischen Grundlagen und legt großen Fokus auf Praxisbeispiele. Meist sind die Schnecken modular aufgebaut und können damit sehr flexibel an veränderte Aufgabenstellung und Produkteigenschaften angepasst werden. Für die optimale Auslegung eines Doppelschneckenextruders sind vertiefte Kenntnisse über die Maschine und den Prozess erforderlich. Ein Praxisbuch für Einsteiger und Profis Die zweite Auflage entstand unter Mitwirkung vieler Fachautoren von renommierten Firmen und Hochschulen. Alle inzwischen erfolgten Weiterentwicklungen wurden berücksichtigt. Die zweite Auflage wurde durchgehend neu bearbeitet, ist deutlich erweitert, komplett in Farbe und in neuem Layout. Mit Zusatzmaterial auf der Website des Herausgebers: Videos, Bilder, Beispiel-Aufgaben, Rechentools EXTRA: E-Book inside

Polymer Mixing and Extrusion Technology

Author: NicholasP. Cheremisinoff

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1351423509

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 456

View: 8970

Addressing the two major unit operations-mixing and extrusion-fundamental toprocessing elastomers and plastic materials, this reference summarizes design equationsthat can be employed effectively in scaling up product performance parameters, andcontains a thorough survey of rheological principles. In addition, the book provides awealth of practical information, relating molecular and compositional properties ofpolymers to processing characteristics and end-use properties so that engineers can selectpolymers suitable for specific equipment as well as products.Polymer Mixing and Extrusion Technology examines viscometric techniquesand demonstrates their importance to product quality assurance ... reviews design-relatedliterature/correlations and calculation procedures for mixing and extrusion ... definesneeds and precision standards for setting up a polymer processing laboratory so thatproduct quality control can be implemented in physical testing and processing research.. . plus more.Illustrated with over 200 diagrams, tables, and photographs that facilitate readers'understanding of the processes, Polymer Mixing and Extrusion Technology isan authoritative source for plastics, polymer, and chemical engineers, manufacturers ofplastics processing equipment, and advanced undergraduate and graduate students in thesedisciplines.

Mathematical Modelling for Polymer Processing

Polymerization, Crystallization, Manufacturing

Author: Vincenzo Capasso

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540434122

Category: Mathematics

Page: 320

View: 6671

A large amount of relevant mathematical problems arise from the polymer industry with respect to the quality of manufactured polymer parts. This book provides the first unified presentation of the mathematical modeling of polymerization, crystallization and extrusion of polymer melts, by means of advanced methods, presented in an accessible way for applied scientists and engineers.

Plastics Extrusion Technology Handbook

Author: Sidney Levy,James F. Carley

Publisher: Industrial Press Inc.

ISBN: 9780831111854

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 388

View: 2674

Offering complete and in-depth data and information on plastics extrusion, this practical handbook presents the technology of the subject rather than the theory.

Thermal Degradation of Polymeric Materials

Author: Krzysztof Pielichowski,James Njuguna

Publisher: iSmithers Rapra Publishing

ISBN: 9781859574980

Category: Science

Page: 306

View: 6869

Understanding the thermal degradation of polymers is of paramount importance for developing a rational technology of polymer processing and higher-temperature applications. Controlling degradation requires understanding of many different phenomena, including chemical mechanisms, the influence of polymer morphology, the complexities of oxidation chemistry, and the effects of stabilisers, fillers and other additives. This book offers a wealth of information for polymer researchers and processors requiring an understanding of the implications of thermal degradation on material and product performance.

Plastic Film Technology: Extrusion of plastic film & sheeting

Author: Kier M. Finlayson

Publisher: CRC


Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 400

View: 5327

Plastic film and sheeting is an area of current growth, improvement and innovation. Now the technology behind these advances in film materials and production is presented in this new volume.The 22 technical reports, selected from the Journal of Plastic Film & Sheeting, provide in-depth information on film resins, plastic films and film constructions, film-making processes, test methods, and performance data.The reports were prepared by leading plastic film and sheeting authorities affiliated with major companies in this field. Extensive data on plastic film properties and per- formance are included in the reports. The many photographs, microphotographs and schematics illustrate films, film- making processes, and applications.

Polymer Processing and Structure Development

Author: Arthur N. Wilkinson,A.J. Ryan

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780751403633

Category: Science

Page: 577

View: 4369

Polymer science is fundamentally interdisciplinary, yet specialists in one aspect, such as chemistry or processing, frequently encounter difficulties in understanding the effects of other disciplines on their own. This book describes clearly how polymer chemistry and polymer processing interact to affect polymer properties. As such, specialists in both disciplines can gain a deeper understanding of how these subjects underpin each other. Coverage includes step-by-step introductions to polymer processing technologies; details of fluid flow and heat transfer behaviour; shaping methods and physical processes during cooking and curing, and analyses of moulding and extrusion processes.

Engineering with Polymers, 2nd Edition

Author: P. C. Powell,A. J. Ingen Housz

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780748739875

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 502

View: 2028

Plastics and rubber materials, or polymers, are increasingly the first choice of engineers when reliable, cost-effective performance and safety are essential. The volume of polymers used in the Western economy now exceeds that of metals, which requires today's engineering students to have a thorough grounding in the properties and applications of polymeric materials. The first chapters of Engineering with Polymers explain what polymers are, how they behave, and how articles are made from them. The authors then show how the standard engineering techniques of stress analysis, structures, fluid mechanics, heat transfer and design can be adopted or adapted to cover plastics and rubber materials. The book ends with chapters detailing interactions between processing and properties, and a description of a variety of approaches to designing plastics products, from practical advice to the use or further development of theoretical principles, backed up by examples and case studies. The book is aimed at mechanical engineering students and design engineers in industry and also at materials' and chemical engineers.

Applications of Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithms

Author: Carlos A. Coello Coello,Gary B. Lamont

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812561064

Category: Computers

Page: 761

View: 9334

- Detailed MOEA applications discussed by international experts - State-of-the-art practical insights in tackling statistical optimization with MOEAs - A unique monograph covering a wide spectrum of real-world applications - Step-by-step discussion of MOEA applications in a variety of domains

Polymeric Foams

Science and Technology

Author: Shau-Tarng Lee,Chul B. Park,N. S. Ramesh

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781420004625

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 220

View: 1019

Polymers are among the major hallmarks of 20th-century science, and the explosive outgrowth and tremendous importance of polymeric foams is a testament to their amazing versatility and unique properties. With applications from automotive to acoustic and medical, polymeric foams pervade all areas of our lives. If this growth is to continue into the new millennium, especially in light of stringent environmental regulations, a strong understanding of the basic science and the major technologies behind foam production is critical. Written by experienced and accomplished leaders in the field, Polymeric Foams: Science and Technology provides comprehensive coverage of the fundamentals, technologies, applications, and recent developments. The authors first outline the basic principles and fundamental foaming mechanisms, covering thermodynamics, kinetics, and the basics of blowing agents and foam formation. Foaming technologies and product applications then become the focus, with explanations of structure-property relationships, processing methods, and general types of foams. The book concludes with chapters on recent developments in composite and biodegradable foams that illustrate how to tailor processing to meet application needs. Illuminating the role of polymeric foams in the modern materials landscape, Polymeric Foams: Science and Technology is the perfect guide for developing innovative materials that achieve better performance and regulatory compliance.

Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

In Polymer Reaction Engineering

Author: Maartje F. Kemmere,Thierry Meyer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527607056

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 358

View: 6743

Recently, supercritical fluids have emerged as more sustainable alternatives for the organic solvents often used in polymer processes. This is the first book emphasizing the potential of supercritical carbon dioxide for polymer processes from an engineering point of view. It develops a state-of-the-art overview on polymer fundamentals, polymerization reactions and polymer processing in supercritical carbon dioxide. The book covers topics in a multidisciplinary approach starting from polymer chemistry and thermodynamics, going through monitoring, polymerization processes and ending with polymer shaping and post-processing. The authors are internationally recognized experts from different fields in polymer reaction engineering in supercritical fluids. The book was initiated by the Working Party on Polymer Reaction Engineering of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering and further renowned international experts.

Characterization of Polymer Blends

Miscibility, Morphology and Interfaces

Author: Sabu Thomas,Yves Grohens,P. Jyotishkumar

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 3527645616

Category: Science

Page: 994

View: 2517

Filling the gap for a reference dedicated to the characterization of polymer blends and their micro and nano morphologies, this book provides comprehensive, systematic coverage in a one-stop, two-volume resource for all those working in the field. Leading researchers from industry and academia, as well as from government and private research institutions around the world summarize recent technical advances in chapters devoted to their individual contributions. In so doing, they examine a wide range of modern characterization techniques, from microscopy and spectroscopy to diffraction, thermal analysis, rheology, mechanical measurements and chromatography. These methods are compared with each other to assist in determining the best solution for both fundamental and applied problems, paying attention to the characterization of nanoscale miscibility and interfaces, both in blends involving copolymers and in immiscible blends. The thermodynamics, miscibility, phase separation, morphology and interfaces in polymer blends are also discussed in light of new insights involving the nanoscopic scale. Finally, the authors detail the processing-morphology-property relationships of polymer blends, as well as the influence of processing on the generation of micro and nano morphologies, and the dependence of these morphologies on the properties of blends. Hot topics such as compatibilization through nanoparticles, miscibility of new biopolymers and nanoscale investigations of interfaces in blends are also addressed. With its application-oriented approach, handpicked selection of topics and expert contributors, this is an outstanding survey for anyone involved in the field of polymer blends for advanced technologies.

Engineering Polymers

Author: R.W. Dyson

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780216926783

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 196

View: 5740

In recent years various industries have demanded not only greater use of polymeric materials but also the development of polymeric materials with specific properties. Major users include the automotive and transport industries, electrical and electronics industries, and the packaging industry. Following the success of Speciality Polymers, Dr Dyson's book provides an overview of the main types of polymeric materials used in engineering, and discusses their applications - both practical and potential.