Pollution of Lakes and Rivers

A Paleoenvironmental Perspective

Author: John P. Smol

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444307576

Category: Science

Page: 396

View: 3379

Now in its second edition, Pollution of Lakes and Rivers provides essential insights into present-day water quality problems from an international perspective. Explains simply and effectively how lake sediments can be used to reconstruct pollution history Includes over 200 additional references and a new chapter on recent climatic change and its effects on water quality and quantity Tackles present-day water quality problems from an international perspective Previously published by Hodder Arnold PowerPoint slides of the artwork from the book are available from: http://post.queensu.ca/~pearl/textbook.htm Reviews: "This is a very well-written and wide-ranging volume that is both instructive and topical. It is likely to prove useful as an introduction to the general area, a reference source and for teaching purposes." (The Holocene, November 2008) "If you thought that paleolimnology was just mud, pollen, and diatoms then you will likely be both struck by the complexity of this field of research and grateful that John Smol, FRSC, has described it so clearly and broadly. Simply put, the second edition is an excellent book." ( Journal of Phycology, 2008) “This is a useful text. It provides a good level of detail so that the beginner in this area can appreciate what palaeolimnology can (and cannot) achieve. It goes beyond the simple introduction to provide a detailed understanding of how techniques can be applied ... This is a different take on the usual pollution text and would be of great use to those wishing to understand more from sedimentary records.” Taken from the British Ecological Society’s Teaching Ecology website "John Smol has extensive experience in this field of paleoenvironmental research which he combines well with his excellent written communication skills to produce a text that is easy to read but also thought provoking." (Quaternary Science Reviews, 2009) “The breadth of coverage in this text is impressive.” (Lake and Reservoir Management, 2009) “If I could speak with fluidity and clarity in my lectures as consistently as John Smol writes my students would be very grateful.” (Journal of Paleolimnology, 2009)
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Pollution of Lakes and Rivers

A Paleoenvironmental Perspective

Author: John P. Smol

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780340691670

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 9343

This book provides an overview of the use of sedimentary records to study the environmental degradation and recovery of lakes and rivers. Written by an internationally-acknowledged expert in the field, it includes the results of the most recent research and up-to-date data taken from a wide range of technical sources.
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Water Quality

Diffuse Pollution and Watershed Management

Author: Vladimir Novotny

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780471396338

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 864

View: 7982

Water resources professionals need sound practical advice on what to look for, what tools are best to use, what the regulations are, and what recommendations to make concerning management and control of non-point source water pollution. This revised edition provides up-to-date material reflecting the huge advances made, since the original edition was published, in understanding atmospheric deposition, pollutant interaction with soils, and modeling and monitoring using GIS systems.
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Paleolimnology

The History and Evolution of Lake Systems

Author: Andrew S. Cohen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195350890

Category: Science

Page: 528

View: 7289

This text, written by a leading researcher in the field, describes the origin and formation of lakes in order to give context to the question of how lacustrine deposits form. It explains the process of sedimentation in lakes and the chemistry of those deposits and describes how the age of lake deposits are determined. Additionally, this book shows how different groups of fossils are used in interpreting the paleontological record of lakes. In order to illustrate the more synthetic approaches to interpreting the history of lakes, the author also discusses such special topics as lake-level history, lake evolution, and the impact of environmental change on lakes.
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Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments

Volume 4: Zoological Indicators

Author: John P. Smol,H.J. Birks,William M. Last

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 0306476711

Category: Science

Page: 218

View: 4977

Paleolimnology is a rapidly developing science that is now being used to study a suite of environmental and ecological problems. This volume is the fourth handbook in the Developments in Paleoenvironmental Research book series. The first volume (Last & Smol, 2001a) examined the acquisition and archiving of sediment cores, chronological techniques, and large-scale basin analysis methods. Volume 2 (Last & Smol, 2001b) focused on physical and chemical methods. Volume 3 (Smol et al. , 2001), along with this book, summarize the many biological methods and techniques that are available to study long-term environmental changeusing information preserved in sedimentary profiles. A subsequent volume (Birks et al. , in preparation) will deal with statistical and data handling procedures. It is our intent that these books will provide sufficient detail and breadth to be useful handbooks for both seasoned practitioners as well as newcomers to the area of paleolimnology. These books will also hopefully be useful to non-paleolimnologists (e. g. , limnologists, archeologists, palynologists, geographers, geologists, etc. ) who continue to hear and read about pal- limnology, but have little chance to explore the vast and sometimes difficult to access journal-based reference material for this rapidly expanding field. Although the chapters in these volumes target mainly lacustrine settings, many of the techniques described can also be readily applied to fluvial, glacial, marine, estuarine, and peatland environments. This current volume focuses on zoological indicators preserved in lake sediments, whilst Volume 3 focused on terrestrial, algal, and siliceous indicators.
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Applications of Paleoenvironmental Techniques in Estuarine Studies

Author: Kaarina Weckström,Krystyna M. Saunders,Peter A. Gell,C. Gregory Skilbeck

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9402409904

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 700

View: 4245

The aim of this edited volume is to introduce the scientific community to paleoenvironmental studies of estuaries, to highlight the types of information that can be obtained from such studies, and to promote the use of paleoenvironmental studies in estuarine management. Readers will learn about the the application of different paleoecological approaches used in estuaries that develop our understanding of their response to natural and human influences. Particular attention is given to the essential steps required for undertaking a paleoecological study, in particular with regard to site selection, core extraction and chronological techniques, followed by the range of indicators that can be used. A series of case studies are discussed in the book to demonstrate how paleoecological studies can be used to address key questions, and to sustainably manage these important coastal environments in the future. This book will appeal to professional scientists interested in estuarine studies and/or paleoenvironmental research, as well as estuarine managers who are interested in the incorporation of paleoenvironmental research into their management programs.
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Aquatic Biodiversity II

The Diversity of Aquatic Ecosystems

Author: H. Segers,K. Martens

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 140204111X

Category: Science

Page: 390

View: 7211

Freshwater Biodiversity is a much underestimated component of global biodiversity, both in its diversity and in its potential to act as models for fundamental research in evolutionary biology and ecosystem studies. Freshwater organisms also reflect quality of water bodies and can thus be used to monitor changes in ecosystem health. The present book comprises a unique collection of primary research papers spanning a wide range of topics in aquatic biodiversity studies, and including a first global assessment of specific diversity of freshwater animals. The book also presents a section on the interaction between scientists and science policy managers. A target opinion paper lists priorities in aquatic biodiversity research for the next decade and several reactions from distinguished scientists discuss the relevance of these items from different points of view: fundamental ecology, taxonomy and systematics, needs of developing countries, present-day biodiversity policy at European and at global scales. It is believed that such a platform for the interaction between science and science policy is an absolute necessity for the efficient use of research budgets in the future.
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Paleoclimatology

Reconstructing Climates of the Quaternary

Author: Raymond S. Bradley

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0123869951

Category: Science

Page: 696

View: 9925

Paleoclimatology: Reconstructing Climates of the Quaternary, Third Edition—winner of a 2015 Textbook Excellence Award (Texty) from The Text and Academic Authors Association—provides a thorough overview of the methods of paleoclimatic reconstruction and of the historical changes in climate during the past three million years. This thoroughly updated and revised edition systematically examines each type of proxy and elucidates the major attributes and the limitations of each. Paleoclimatology, Third Edition provides necessary context for those interested in understanding climate changes at present and how current trends in climate compare with changes that have occurred in the past. The text is richly illustrated and includes an extensive bibliography for further research. Winner of a 2015 Texty Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association A comprehensive overview of the methods of paleoclimate reconstruction, and the record of past changes in climate during the last ~3 million years Addresses all the techniques used in paleoclimatic reconstruction from climate proxies With full-color throughout, and thoroughly revised chapters on dating methods, climate forcing, ice cores, marine sediments, pollen analysis, dendroclimatology, and historical records Includes new chapters on speleothems, loess, and lake sediments More than 1,000 new references and 190 new figures Essential reading for those interested in how present trends in climate compare with changes that have occurred in the past
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Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology

Author: C. Kendall,J.J. McDonnell

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 008092915X

Category: Science

Page: 870

View: 7246

This book represents a new "earth systems" approach to catchments that encompasses the physical and biogeochemical interactions that control the hydrology and biogeochemistry of the system. The text provides a comprehensive treatment of the fundamentals of catchment hydrology, principles of isotope geochemistry, and the isotope variability in the hydrologic cycle -- but the main focus of the book is on case studies in isotope hydrology and isotope geochemistry that explore the applications of isotope techniques for investigating modern environmental problems. Isotope Tracers in Catchment Hydrology is the first synthesis of physical hydrology and isotope geochemistry with catchment focus, and is a valuable reference for professionals and students alike in the fields of hydrology, hydrochemistry, and environmental science. This important interdisciplinary text provides extensive guidelines for the application of isotope techniques for all investigatores facing the challenge of protecting precious water, soil, and ecological resources from the ever-increasing problems associated with population growth and environmental change, including those from urban development and agricultural land uses.
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Physics and Chemistry of Lakes

Author: Abraham Lerman,Dieter M. Imboden,Joel R. Gat

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 3642851320

Category: Science

Page: 334

View: 3083

A lake, as a body of water, is in continuous interaction with the rocks and soils in its drainage basin, the atmosphere, and surface and groundwaters. Human industrial and agricultural activities introduce new inputs and processes into lake systems. This volume is a selection of ten contributions dealing with diverse aspects of lake systems, including such subjects as the geological controls of lake basins and their histories, mixing and circulation patterns in lakes, gaseous exchange between the water and atmosphere, and human input to lakes through atmospheric precipitation and surficial runoff. This work was written with a dual goal in mind: to serve as a textbook and to provide professionals with in-depth expositions and discussions of the more important aspects of lake systems.
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Global Change in the Holocene

Author: John Birks,Rick Battarbee,Anson Mackay,Frank Oldfield

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1444119176

Category: Science

Page: 480

View: 3007

The Holocene spans the 11,500 years since the end of the last Ice Age and has been a period of major global environmental change. However the rate of change has accelerated during the last hundred years, due largely to human impacts and this has led to a growing concern for the future of our environmental resources. Global Change in the Holocene demonstrates how reconstructing the record of past environmental change can provide us with essential knowledge about how our environment works and presents the reader with an informed viewpoint from which to project realistic future scenarios. The book brings together key techniques that are widely used in Holocene research, such as radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology and sediment analysis and offers a comprehensive analysis of various archives of environmental change including instrumental and documentary records, corals, lake sediments, glaciers and ice cores. This reference will be an informative and cutting-edge resource for all researchers in the fields of climate change, environmental science, geography, palaeoecology and archaeology.
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Dynamics of the Pantanal Wetland in South America

Author: Ivan Bergier,Mario Luis Assine

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 331918735X

Category: Science

Page: 243

View: 8552

This book provides readers with in-depth insights into the changes in the Pantanal wetland from its formation to the actual and likely future states. It reveals that today’s Pantanal is an evolutionary consequence of geological, ecological and, more recently, man-made events taking place at distinct space-time intervals. Topics include geotectonics and sun-earth interactions, which largely dictate the rate of drastic changes that eventually disrupt ecological stability and radically rebuild the regional landscape. Furthermore, the biota-climate system is discussed as a major driver reshaping the ecohydrology functioning of the landscape on an intermediate timescale. Also covered are major changes in the landscape ecohydrology and biodiversity due to recent land-use and climate changes induced by humankind in the Anthropocene. The ability to recognize how those temporal scales impact the Pantanal wetland provides the opportunity for wise management approaches and the sustainable development of the region.
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Drought and Aquatic Ecosystems

Effects and Responses

Author: P. Sam Lake

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444341790

Category: Science

Page: 400

View: 4536

Droughts are a major hazard to both natural and human-dominated environments and those, especially of long duration and high intensity, can be highly damaging and leave long-lasting effects. This book describes the climatic conditions that give rise to droughts, and their various forms and chief attributes. Past droughts are described including those that had severe impacts on human societies. As a disturbance, droughts can be thought of as “ramps” in that they usually build slowly and take time to become evident. As precipitation is reduced, flows from catchments into aquatic systems decline. As water declines in water bodies, ecological processes are changed and the biota can be drastically reduced, though species and populations may survive by using refuges. Recovery from drought varies in both rates and in degrees of completeness and may be a function of both refuge availability and connectivity. For the first time, this book reviews the available rather scattered literature on the impacts of drought on the flora, fauna and ecological processes of aquatic ecosystems ranging from small ponds to lakes and from streams to estuaries. The effects of drought on the biota of standing waters and flowing waters and of temporary waters and perennial systems are described and compared. In addition, the ways in which human activity can exacerbate droughts are outlined. In many parts of the world especially in the mid latitudes, global warming may result in increases in the duration and intensity of droughts. Drought and Aquatic Ecosystems is essential reading for freshwater ecologists, water resource managers and advanced students.
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Palaeolimnological Proxies as Tools of Environmental Reconstruction in Fresh Water

Author: Krisztina Buczkó,János Korponai,Judit Padisák,Scott W. Starratt

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789048133871

Category: Science

Page: 327

View: 9549

Palaeolimnology is one of the most rapidly developing fields of limnology. The primary objective of this volume is to present new palaeolimnological findings from eastern and central Europe. Although this area has sometimes received less attention than other areas of Europe, the lakes and mires, coupled with the variability in landscape and the local differences in climate, provide unique opportunity for studying palaeolimnology. The volume starts with a review on late Quaternary records form the Carpathian region, followed by new results on the history of a crater lake, Lake Saint Ana, glacial lakes in the Tatra Mountains and Lake Bled in Slovenia. In addition, the various papers provide new insights on the development of lakes and bogs during the late glacial and Holocene, using a wide range of palaeolimnological proxies, including diatoms, pollen, macrofossils, pigments, cladoceran remains, chironomids, chaoborids, stable isotopes and geochemistry. The motivation for collecting recent knowledge derives from the recognition of the importance, and applicability of palaeolimnological tools to help in defining "reference conditions" as designated within the Water Framework Directives and estimating influence of global climate change on surface waters.
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Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments

Data Handling and Numerical Techniques

Author: H. John B. Birks,André F. Lotter,Steve Juggins,John P. Smol

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9400727453

Category: Science

Page: 745

View: 3742

Numerical and statistical methods have rapidly become part of a palaeolimnologist’s tool-kit. They are used to explore and summarise complex data, reconstruct past environmental variables from fossil assemblages, and test competing hypotheses about the causes of observed changes in lake biota through history. This book brings together a wide array of numerical and statistical techniques currently available for use in palaeolimnology and other branches of palaeoecology. ​ Visit http://extras.springer.com the Springer's Extras website to view data-sets, figures, software, and R scripts used or mentioned in this book.
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The Diatoms

Applications for the Environmental and Earth Sciences

Author: John P. Smol,Eugene F. Stoermer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139492624

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 6385

This much revised and expanded edition provides a valuable and detailed summary of the many uses of diatoms in a wide range of applications in the environmental and earth sciences. Particular emphasis is placed on the use of diatoms in analysing ecological problems related to climate change, acidification, eutrophication, and other pollution issues. The chapters are divided into sections for easy reference, with separate sections covering indicators in different aquatic environments. A final section explores diatom use in other fields of study such as forensics, oil and gas exploration, nanotechnology, and archaeology. Sixteen new chapters have been added since the first edition, including introductory chapters on diatom biology and the numerical approaches used by diatomists. The extensive glossary has also been expanded and now includes over 1,000 detailed entries, which will help non-specialists to use the book effectively.
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Understanding Climate's Influence on Human Evolution

Author: Committee on the Earth system Context for Hominin Evolution,Board on Earth Sciences and Resources,Division on Earth and Life Studies,National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 0309148383

Category: Science

Page: 128

View: 6617

The hominin fossil record documents a history of critical evolutionary events that have ultimately shaped and defined what it means to be human, including the origins of bipedalism; the emergence of our genus Homo; the first use of stone tools; increases in brain size; and the emergence of Homo sapiens, tools, and culture. The Earth's geological record suggests that some evolutionary events were coincident with substantial changes in African and Eurasian climate, raising the possibility that critical junctures in human evolution and behavioral development may have been affected by the environmental characteristics of the areas where hominins evolved. Understanding Climate's Change on Human Evolution explores the opportunities of using scientific research to improve our understanding of how climate may have helped shape our species. Improved climate records for specific regions will be required before it is possible to evaluate how critical resources for hominins, especially water and vegetation, would have been distributed on the landscape during key intervals of hominin history. Existing records contain substantial temporal gaps. The book's initiatives are presented in two major research themes: first, determining the impacts of climate change and climate variability on human evolution and dispersal; and second, integrating climate modeling, environmental records, and biotic responses. Understanding Climate's Change on Human Evolution suggests a new scientific program for international climate and human evolution studies that involve an exploration initiative to locate new fossil sites and to broaden the geographic and temporal sampling of the fossil and archeological record; a comprehensive and integrative scientific drilling program in lakes, lake bed outcrops, and ocean basins surrounding the regions where hominins evolved and a major investment in climate modeling experiments for key time intervals and regions that are critical to understanding human evolution.
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Chemical Biomarkers in Aquatic Ecosystems

Author: Thomas S. Bianchi,Elizabeth A. Canuel

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9781400839100

Category: Science

Page: 392

View: 2293

This textbook provides a unique and thorough look at the application of chemical biomarkers to aquatic ecosystems. Defining a chemical biomarker as a compound that can be linked to particular sources of organic matter identified in the sediment record, the book indicates that the application of these biomarkers for an understanding of aquatic ecosystems consists of a biogeochemical approach that has been quite successful but underused. This book offers a wide-ranging guide to the broad diversity of these chemical biomarkers, is the first to be structured around the compounds themselves, and examines them in a connected and comprehensive way. This timely book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate students seeking training in this area; researchers in biochemistry, organic geochemistry, and biogeochemistry; researchers working on aspects of organic cycling in aquatic ecosystems; and paleoceanographers, petroleum geologists, and ecologists. Provides a guide to the broad diversity of chemical biomarkers in aquatic environments The first textbook to be structured around the compounds themselves Describes the structure, biochemical synthesis, analysis, and reactivity of each class of biomarkers Offers a selection of relevant applications to aquatic systems, including lakes, rivers, estuaries, oceans, and paleoenvironments Demonstrates the utility of using organic molecules as tracers of processes occurring in aquatic ecosystems, both modern and ancient
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Large Rivers

Geomorphology and Management

Author: Avijit Gupta

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9780470723715

Category: Science

Page: 712

View: 9176

Large Rivers: Geomorphology and Management explores an important topic in geomorphology and sedimentology: the form and function of major rivers. Our knowledge of the big rivers of the world is limited. It is currently difficult to recognise large rivers of the past from relict sedimentary deposits or to structure management policies for long international rivers. This exciting book brings together a set of papers on large rivers of the world, as a unique introduction to a demanding subject. The book includes thirty chapters and is organised into three sections. The first part is on the environmental requirements for creating and maintaining a major river system. The second is a collection of case studies on 14 large rivers from different continents, covering a range of physical environments. The third section includes chapters on the measurement and management of large rivers. First book to offer in a single volume state-of-the-art knowledge on management and geomorphology of large rivers of the world A pioneering study, pushing the boundaries of our knowledge related to big rivers Includes comprehensive case studies covering the major large rivers of the world including Amazon, Mississippi, Nile, Congo, Indus, and Mekong Written by a leading team of distinguished, international contributors Large Rivers: Geomorphology and Management is essential reading for postgraduate students and researchers in fluvial geomorphology, hydrology, sedimentary geology, and river management. It is also of relevance to engineers and environmental consultants in the private and public sectors working on major rivers of the world.
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