Plant Systematics

A Phylogenetic Approach

Author: Walter S. Judd,Michael J. Donoghue

Publisher: Sinauer Associates

ISBN: 9781605353890

Category: Plants

Page: 565

View: 8432

Fourth Edition of Plant Systematics reflects changes in the circumscription of many orders and families to represent monophyletic groups, following the most recent classification of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group.
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Vascular Plant Taxonomy

Author: Dirk R. Walters,David J. Keil

Publisher: Kendall Hunt

ISBN: 9780787221089

Category: Botany

Page: 608

View: 9354

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Plant Systematics

Author: Michael G. Simpson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0080514049

Category: Science

Page: 608

View: 2152

Plant Systematics is a comprehensive and beautifully illustrated text, covering the most up-to-date and essential paradigms, concepts, and terms required for a basic understanding of plant systematics. This book contains numerous cladograms that illustrate the evolutionary relationships of major plant groups, with an emphasis on the adaptive significance of major evolutionary novelties. It provides descriptions and classifications of major groups of angiosperms, including over 90 flowering plant families; a comprehensive glossary of plant morphological terms, as well as appendices on botanical illustration and plant descriptions. Pedagogy includes review questions, exercises, and references that complement each chapter. This text is ideal for graduate and undergraduate students in botany, plant taxonomy, plant systematics, plant pathology, ecology as well as faculty and researchers in any of the plant sciences. * The Henry Allan Gleason Award of The New York Botanical Garden, awarded for "Outstanding recent publication in the field of plant taxonomy, plant ecology, or plant geography" (2006) * Contains numerous cladograms that illustrate the evolutionary relationships of major plant groups, with an emphasis on the adaptive significance of major evolutionary novelties *Provides descriptions and classifications of major groups of angiosperms, including over 90 flowering plant families * Includes a comprehensive glossary of plant morphological terms as well as appendices on botanical illustration and plant description
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Integrative Plant Anatomy

Author: William C. Dickison

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0122151704

Category: Nature

Page: 533

View: 1879

Presents the basic concepts and terminology of plant anatomy with a special emphasis on its significance and applications to other disciplines. This book also highlights the important contribution made by studying anatomy to the solutions of a number of problems. It is illustrated with line drawings and photographs.
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Homology and Systematics

Coding Characters for Phylogenetic Analysis

Author: Robert Scotland,R. Toby Pennington

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1482268248

Category: Science

Page: 217

View: 4633

Systematists, comparative biologists, taxonomists and evolutionary biologists all concern themselves with the evolutionary relationships between animals and plants. Homology is the principle underlying these disciplines. When looking at groups of organisms, shared positional similarities (homologues) provide the raw data from which hypotheses of common ancestry (homology) may be suggested. In order to explore the relationship between homologues (characters) and particular hypotheses of common ancestry, complex matrices are devised, where homologues are coded, allowing theories of homology to be developed and tested. Practically nothing has been written about this matrix-building process and yet it is of fundamental importance to our understanding of diversity and evolutionary history. This book fills the gap by discussing the different ways observations are coded and the consequences for the resulting hypotheses. It takes a pragmatic approach and uses case studies as well as theoretical examples to offer practical solutions.
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The Yeasts

A Taxonomic Study

Author: Cletus Kurtzman,J.W. Fell,Teun Boekhout

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080931272

Category: Science

Page: 2354

View: 4115

The Yeasts: A Taxonomic Study is a three-volume book that covers the taxonomic aspect of yeasts. The main goal of this book is to provide important information about the identification of yeasts. It also discusses the growth tests that can be used to identify different species of yeasts, and it examines how the more important species of yeasts provide information for the selection of species needed for biotechnology. • Volume 1 discusses the identification, classification and importance of yeasts in the field of biotechnology. • Volume 2 focuses on the identification and classification of ascomycetous yeasts. • Volume 3 deals with the identification and classification of basidiomycetous yeasts, along with the genus Prototheca. High-quality photomicrographs and line drawings Detailed phylogenetic trees Up-to-date, clearly presented yeast taxonomy and systematic, easy-to-use reference sequence accession numbers to allow for correct identification
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Molecular Systematics and Plant Evolution

Author: Peter M. Hollingsworth,Richard M. Bateman,Richard J. Gornall

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439833278

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 945

Molecular Systematics and Plant Evolution discusses the diversity and evolution of plants with a molecular approach. It looks at population genetics, phylogeny (history of evolution) and developmental genetics, to provide a framework from which to understand evolutionary patterns and relationships amongst plants. The international panel of contributors are all respected systematists and evolutionary biologists, who have brought together a wide range of topics from the forefront of research while keeping the text accessible to students. It has been written for senior undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers in the fields of botany, systematics, population / conservation genetics, phylogenetics and evolutionary biology.
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Plant Life of Kentucky

An Illustrated Guide to the Vascular Flora

Author: Ronald Jones

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813171946

Category: Nature

Page: 856

View: 3086

Plant Life of Kentucky is the first comprehensive guide to all the ferns, flowering herbs, and woody plants of the state. This long-awaited work provides identification keys for Kentucky’s 2,600 native and naturalized vascular plants, with notes on wildlife/human uses, poisonous plants, and medicinal herbs. The common name, flowering period, habitat, distribution, rarity, and wetland status are given for each species, and about 80 percent are illustrated with line drawings. The inclusion of 250 additional species from outside the state (these species are “to be expected” in Kentucky) broadens the regional coverage, and most plants occurring from northern Alabama to southern Ohio to the Mississippi River (an area of wide similarity in flora) are examined, including nearly all the plants of western and central Tennessee. The author also describes prehistoric and historical changes in the flora, natural regions and plant communities, significant botanists, current threats to plant life, and a plan for future studies. Plant Life of Kentucky is intended as a research tool for professionals in biology and related fields, and as a resource for students, amateur naturalists, and others interested in understanding and preserving our rich botanical heritage.
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Plant Biosystematics

Author: William F. Grant

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 1483273709

Category: Nature

Page: 690

View: 2126

Plant Biosystematics is a compendium of papers from a symposium titled "Plant Biosystematics: Forty Years Later" held in Montreal in July 1983. This collection reviews the current field of biosystematics, particularly the evolution of natural biota, and how plant biosystematics can contribute to the welfare of humans. One paper reviews biosystematics, compares new approaches, and discusses the latest trend in comparative, molecular evolution of genes. One author discusses the cytology and biosystematics concerning the discontinuities and genetic independence occurring in the evolutionary process. Another author discusses chromosome pairing in species and hybrids that includes models of chromosome pairing in diploids. The text also describes chromosome banding and biosystematics, as well as the problems of chromosome banding that should be addressed to in future research. With estimates of the number of species being threatened with extinction numbering around 20,000 one paper address the issue of conservation and biosystematics. The author suggests that more biological information should be published to avoid duplication of effort, and possibly drive scientists to have their views more widely felt. Agriculturists, botanists, conservationists, environmentalists, and researchers in the field of botany, conservation, and plant genealogy will find this book valuable.
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Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics

Author: Masatoshi Nei,Sudhir Kumar

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0199881227

Category: Science

Page: 352

View: 9152

During the last ten years, remarkable progress has occurred in the study of molecular evolution. Among the most important factors that are responsible for this progress are the development of new statistical methods and advances in computational technology. In particular, phylogenetic analysis of DNA or protein sequences has become a powerful tool for studying molecular evolution. Along with this developing technology, the application of the new statistical and computational methods has become more complicated and there is no comprehensive volume that treats these methods in depth. Molecular Evolution and Phylogenetics fills this gap and present various statistical methods that are easily accessible to general biologists as well as biochemists, bioinformatists and graduate students. The text covers measurement of sequence divergence, construction of phylogenetic trees, statistical tests for detection of positive Darwinian selection, inference of ancestral amino acid sequences, construction of linearized trees, and analysis of allele frequency data. Emphasis is given to practical methods of data analysis, and methods can be learned by working through numerical examples using the computer program MEGA2 that is provided.
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Biological Approaches and Evolutionary Trends in Plants

Author: Shoichi Kawano

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0323150748

Category: Science

Page: 430

View: 8996

Biological Approaches and Evolutionary Trends in Plants is a collection of papers presented at the Fourth International Symposium of Plant Biosystematics held on July 10-14, 1989 in Kyoto, Japan. Contributors, some are world's leading plant biologists, discuss the findings in evolutionary biology and issues in plant biosystematics in light of the evidence and ideas brought forward at various levels of biological organization, from molecule to cell, individual, population, species, and community levels. This volume is organized into four sections encompassing 22 chapters and begins with an overview of discoveries concerning parapatric differentiation of weed populations, including adaptive evolution in herbicide resistant biotypes and complex evolutionary patterns in weed-crop complexes of various groups. The next section explores molecular approaches in plant biosystematics, focusing on amino acid sequencing of proteins; restriction-site variations of cpDNA, mitDNA, rDNA, etc.; and chromosome-banding patterns revealed by differential staining. The discussion shifts to a wave of research in plant population biology and evolutionary ecology since the 1970s and its impact on biology and biosystematics. The book considers various aspects of reproductive biology and evolutionary changes in significant reproductive parameters and attempts to demographically quantify these parameters. The final chapter is devoted to the use of functional phylogenetic systematics for predictive ecology. This book will be of interest to plant biologists and scientists and researchers in fields such as biochemistry, botany, microbiology, ecology, and evolutionary biology.
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Biodiversity Conservation and Phylogenetic Systematics

Preserving our evolutionary heritage in an extinction crisis

Author: Roseli Pellens,Philippe Grandcolas

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319224611

Category: Science

Page: 390

View: 7410

This book is about phylogenetic diversity as an approach to reduce biodiversity losses in this period of mass extinction. Chapters in the first section deal with questions such as the way we value phylogenetic diversity among other criteria for biodiversity conservation; the choice of measures; the loss of phylogenetic diversity with extinction; the importance of organisms that are deeply branched in the tree of life, and the role of relict species. The second section is composed by contributions exploring methodological aspects, such as how to deal with abundance, sampling effort, or conflicting trees in analysis of phylogenetic diversity. The last section is devoted to applications, showing how phylogenetic diversity can be integrated in systematic conservation planning, in EDGE and HEDGE evaluations. This wide coverage makes the book a reference for academics, policy makers and stakeholders dealing with biodiversity conservation.
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Plant Identification Terminology

An Illustrated Glossary

Author: James G. Harris,Melinda Woolf Harris

Publisher: Spring Lake Pub

ISBN: 9780964022164

Category: Science

Page: 206

View: 4825

Illustrated glossary. Terminology by category. Roots. Stems. Leaves. Surfaces. Inflorescences. Flowers. Fruits.
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Tree Thinking

An Introduction to Phylogenetic Biology

Author: David A. Baum,Stacey D. Smith

Publisher: Roberts & Company

ISBN: 9781936221165

Category: Science

Page: 476

View: 9118

Baum and Smith, both professors evolutionary biology and researchers in the field of systematics, present this highly accessible introduction to phylogenetics and its importance in modern biology. Ever since Darwin, the evolutionary histories of organisms have been portrayed in the form of branching trees or "phylogenies." However, the broad significance of the phylogenetic trees has come to be appreciated only quite recently. Phylogenetics has myriad applications in biology, from discovering the features present in ancestral organisms, to finding the sources of invasive species and infectious diseases, to identifying our closest living (and extinct) hominid relatives. Taking a conceptual approach, Tree Thinking introduces readers to the interpretation of phylogenetic trees, how these trees can be reconstructed, and how they can be used to answer biological questions. Examples and vivid metaphors are incorporated throughout, and each chapter concludes with a set of problems, valuable for both students and teachers. Tree Thinking is must-have textbook for any student seeking a solid foundation in this fundamental area of evolutionary biology.
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Plant Physiological Ecology

Author: Hans Lambers,F. Stuart Chapin III,Thijs L. Pons

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 1475728557

Category: Science

Page: 540

View: 7220

This textbook is remarkable for emphasising that the mechanisms underlying plant physiological ecology can be found at the levels of biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology and whole-plant physiology. The authors begin with the primary processes of carbon metabolism and transport, plant-water relations, and energy balance. After considering individual leaves and whole plants, these physiological processes are then scaled up to the level of the canopy. Subsequent chapters discuss mineral nutrition and the ways in which plants cope with nutrient-deficient or toxic soils. The book then looks at patterns of growth and allocation, life-history traits, and interactions between plants and other organisms. Later chapters deal with traits that affect decomposition of plant material and with plant physiological ecology at the level of ecosystems and global environmental processes.
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Flora of Middle-Earth

Plants of J.R.R. Tolkien's Legendarium

Author: Walter S. Judd,Graham A. Judd

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0190276339

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 4612

Few settings in literature are as widely known or celebrated as J.R.R. Tolkien's Middle-Earth. The natural landscape plays a major role in nearly all of Tolkien's major works, and readers have come to view the geography of this fictional universe as integral to understanding and enjoying Tolkien's works. And in laying out this continent, Tolkien paid special attention to its plant life; in total, over 160 plants are explicitly mentioned and described as a part of Middle-Earth. Nearly all of these plants are real species, and many of the fictional plants are based on scientifically grounded botanic principles. In Flora of Middle Earth: Plants of Tolkien's Legendarium, botanist Walter Judd gives a detailed species account of every plant found in Tolkien's universe, complete with the etymology of the plant's name, a discussion of its significance within Tolkien's work, a description of the plant's distribution and ecology, and an original hand-drawn illustration by artist Graham Judd in the style of a woodcut print. Among the over three-thousand vascular plants Tolkien would have seen in the British Isles, the authors show why Tolkien may have selected certain plants for inclusion in his universe over others, in terms of their botanic properties and traditional uses. The clear, comprehensive alphabetical listing of each species, along with the visual identification key of the plant drawings, adds to the reader's understanding and appreciation of the Tolkien canon.
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Bayesian Phylogenetics

Methods, Algorithms, and Applications

Author: Ming-Hui Chen,Lynn Kuo,Paul O. Lewis

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1466500794

Category: Mathematics

Page: 396

View: 954

Offering a rich diversity of models, Bayesian phylogenetics allows evolutionary biologists, systematists, ecologists, and epidemiologists to obtain answers to very detailed phylogenetic questions. Suitable for graduate-level researchers in statistics and biology, Bayesian Phylogenetics: Methods, Algorithms, and Applications presents a snapshot of current trends in Bayesian phylogenetic research. Encouraging interdisciplinary research, this book introduces state-of-the-art phylogenetics to the Bayesian statistical community and, likewise, presents state-of-the-art Bayesian statistics to the phylogenetics community. The book emphasizes model selection, reflecting recent interest in accurately estimating marginal likelihoods. It also discusses new approaches to improve mixing in Bayesian phylogenetic analyses in which the tree topology varies. In addition, the book covers divergence time estimation, biologically realistic models, and the burgeoning interface between phylogenetics and population genetics.
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Phylogenetic Analysis of DNA Sequences

Author: Michael M. Miyamoto,Joel Cracraft

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780195361971

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 321

With increasing frequency, systematic and evolutionary biologists have turned to the techniques of molecular biology to complement their traditional morphological and anatomical approaches to questions of the historical relationship and descent among groups of animals and plants. In particular, the comparative analysis of DNA sequences is becoming a common and important focus of research attention today. The objective of this volume is to survey the emerging field of molecular systematics of DNA sequences, and to appraise the strengths and limitations of the different approaches yielded by these techniques. The contributors are an internationally recognized group of investigators from different schools and disciplines who critically address a diversity of crucial questions about DNA systematics, including DNA sequence data acquisition, phylogenetic inference, congruence and consensus problems, limitations of molecular data, and the integration of molecular and morphological data sets. The work will interest all botanists and zoologists involved in systematics, taxonomy, and evolution.
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Fungal Phylogenetics and Phylogenomics

Author: N.A

Publisher: Academic Press

ISBN: 0128132620

Category: Science

Page: 344

View: 6999

Fungal Phylogenetics and Phylogenomics, Volume 99, the latest release in the Advances in Genetics series, presents users with new chapters that delve into such topics as the Advances of fungal phylogenomics and the impact on fungal systematics, Data crunching for fungal phylogenomics: insights into data collection and phylogenetic inference based on genome data for fungi, Genomic and epigenomic traits of emerging fungal pathogens, Advances in fungal gene cluster diversity and evolution, Phylogenomics of Fusarium oxysporum species complex, Phylogenomic analyses of pathogenic yeasts, and the Phylogenetics and phylogenomics of rust fungi. The series continually publishes important reviews of the broadest interest to geneticists and their colleagues in affiliated disciplines, critically analyzing future directions. Critically analyzes future directions for the study of clinical genetics Written and edited by recognized leaders in the field Presents new medical breakthroughs that are occurring as a result of advances in our knowledge of genetics
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Systematic botany of flowering plants

a new phylogenetic approach to angiosperms of the temperate and tropical regions

Author: Rodolphe Spichiger

Publisher: Science Pub Inc

ISBN: 9781578083152

Category: Nature

Page: 413

View: 1014

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