Plant-derived Natural Products

Synthesis, Function, and Application

Author: Anne E. Osbourn,Virginia Lanzotti

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780387854984

Category: Science

Page: 597

View: 8823

Plants produce a huge array of natural products (secondary metabolites). These compounds have important ecological functions, providing protection against attack by herbivores and microbes and serving as attractants for pollinators and seed-dispersing agents. They may also contribute to competition and invasiveness by suppressing the growth of neighboring plant species (a phenomenon known as allelopathy). Humans exploit natural products as sources of drugs, flavoring agents, fragrances and for a wide range of other applications. Rapid progress has been made in recent years in understanding natural product synthesis, regulation and function and the evolution of metabolic diversity. It is timely to bring this information together with contemporary advances in chemistry, plant biology, ecology, agronomy and human health to provide a comprehensive guide to plant-derived natural products. Plant-derived natural products: synthesis, function and application provides an informative and accessible overview of the different facets of the field, ranging from an introduction to the different classes of natural products through developments in natural product chemistry and biology to ecological interactions and the significance of plant-derived natural products for humans. In the final section of the book a series of chapters on new trends covers metabolic engineering, genome-wide approaches, the metabolic consequences of genetic modification, developments in traditional medicines and nutraceuticals, natural products as leads for drug discovery and novel non-food crops.
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Studies in Natural Products Chemistry

Chapter 11. Plant-Derived Natural Products for the Treatment of Leishmaniasis

Author: Jens Rohloff,Ariaya Hymete,Yinebeb Tariku

Publisher: Elsevier Inc. Chapters

ISBN: 012808491X

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 2627

Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae and genus Leishmania. The disease prevails in 88 subtropical and tropical countries in five continents where about 350 million people live. Approximately two million incidences of new cases are recorded every year, causing high morbidity and mortality with a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations in humans. Treatment for leishmaniasis depends on pentavalent antimonials developed 50 years ago as first-line drugs, whereas a limited range of other drugs such as paromomycin, miltefosine, and amphotericin B exist to supplement them. However, potential toxicity, costs, and emergence of drug-resistant pathogens are the most serious obstacles for successful treatment of the disease in most endemic areas. This demands the development of new antileishmanial agents. In this regard, the search for new drugs from various synthetic products continues, and involves also compounds isolated from natural sources and drugs used for the treatment of other ailments (cancer, viral infections, TB, immunosuppression, etc.) in order to discover compounds with unknown chemical structures and with potential novel modes of action. Medicinal and aromatic plants are a major source of natural organic compounds which are widely used as medicine. The extensive ethnomedicinal knowledge, diversity of plant species, and the disease burden worldwide necessitates the status of natural products in treatments of leishmaniasis to be assessed. This chapter will review plant crude extracts and fractions/active principles obtained from medicinal plants which are used in or have potential for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Plant species are systematically presented by family, bioactive phytochemicals in various classes, and results obtained on specific organisms tested. Recent empirical and rationale approaches for antileishmanial drug targeting and development of novel drugs derived from natural products will be discussed.
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Selected Topics in the Chemistry of Natural Products

Author: Raphael Ikan

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812790780

Category: Science

Page: 604

View: 5684

Labor is the most important of the three traditional factors of production (land, labor and capital), accounting for some 75 per cent of the GDP. It is therefore important to focus on issues of labor economics. In this book the approach taken will be that of the free market philosophy of libertarianism, the perspective that allows the maximum of freedom, consistent with the responsibility of all to respect the equal rights of all others. The position of this book on unions is unique outside of the libertarian movement, and this is indicative of its analysis of several other issues, such as minimum wages. For scholars on the left, it is almost true that unions can do no wrong (for Marxists, they do not do enough, but that is another story). Their role is to raise wages for the workingman, and this task is almost unstintingly applauded. Conservatives, on the other hand, oppose unions root and branch (except for their support of foreign wars, which is also another story). To this end they support a welter of regulations, designed to reduce their power: limitations of check offs, forced secret ballots, etc. For libertarians, the analysis depends, intimately, on whether or not these are voluntary organizations. If they are, there is no more justification for imposing secret ballots on them than to do so for the chess or garden club. If they are not, they should not be weakened by restrictions, but, rather, banned, and their leaders imprisoned.
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Natural Products Isolation

Separation Methods for Antimicrobials, Antivirals and Enzyme Inhibitors

Author: G.H. Wagman,R. Cooper

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080858487

Category: Science

Page: 618

View: 3243

This new book encompasses, in great detail, the most recent progress made in the isolation and separation of natural products. It covers antibiotics, marine and plant-derived substances, enzyme inhibitors and interferons. The most recent separation methodology is described. Although there is a bias toward antibiotics, it was done because this is still the largest natural products area of research. The fourteen chapters are written by experts in their respective fields. The first two chapters are largely devoted to new methodology applied to purification of a variety of compounds. They include an extensive review and new applications of counter-current chromatography and the newly emerging HPLC-photodiode array technology. Chapter 3 provides a review of affinity chromatography applied to the separation of antibiotics for the first time. Next are chapters on antimicrobials with an update on all the most recent &bgr;-lactam (after 1976) discoveries. A comprehensive review of a very important class of antiparasitic agents - the avermectins - follows. An update of isolation and purification of a variety of marine-derived compounds is next. The succeeding chapter is a comprehensive review of the most recent developments in isolation and purification of interferons. This is followed by a discussion of enzyme inhibitors and their isolation and purification and ties in with a chapter on plant-derived natural products, some of which are also in this same category. The final chapter is a futuristic essay indicating the isolation of minute amounts of natural products and the fascinating biological properties which they possess. The book has extensive isolation schemes, tables, figures and chemical structures. In many instances a short summary of the producing organism, brief chemical description and structure and biological activity of the compounds is presented. Detailed information of extraction, separation and purification techniques follow. Each chapter has an extensive bibliography and, where applicable, an appendix showing sources of materials and equipment. A detailed index to the subject matter is included at the end of the book. The book thus offers the reader: up-to-date reviews (including 1988) of specific topics in the natural products field not to be found elsewhere; information on new chromatographic methods and techniques described in sufficient detail to be utilized by investigators in this area of research; and extensive references to enable the serious researcher to pursue particular information. It will appeal to pharmaceutical and natural products researchers and is a valuable acquisition for university chemistry and biochemistry departments.
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Plant-Based Natural Products

Derivatives and Applications

Author: Shahid Ul-Islam

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1119423872

Category: Science

Page: 240

View: 5338

Intense research has been started all around the world in the past few decades to exploit different agents from natural products as eco-friendly alternative to synthetic and toxic chemicals. Natural products and their derivatives have received increasing attention for their use in many everyday applications ranging from food, medicine, textiles, and healthcare.This new book presents significant research advances about the use of natural products, mainly plant colorants, bioactive compounds and other plant extracts in the textile coloration, food, bioremediation and environmental applications. There are total eight chapters contributed by leading researchers covering the topics such as potential resurgence of natural dyes in applied fields, natural colorants from indigoid plants, phytochemistry of dye yielding plants, irradiation as novel pretreatment methods, dyeing studies with henna plant, phytoremediation of arsenic, and synthesis of curcumin complexes for medicinal and other industrial uses.
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Pharmacological Assays of Plant-Based Natural Products

Author: Thangaraj Parimelazhagan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319268112

Category: Medical

Page: 188

View: 9424

This volume provides information on how to select and screen plants for their medicinal properties. It describes phytopharmacological techniques for extracting and qualitatively and quantitatively analyzing a plant’s phytochemicals. After a detailed in vitro investigation including nutritional and anti-nutritional analyses, medicinal properties were tested with various in vivo models for anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-pyretic, anticancer and anti-diabetic properties, as well as wound healing, neurodegenerative diseases, etc. Compound identification and purification techniques include, among others, TLC and column chromatography, as well as molecular docking with specific proteins.
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Production of Plant Derived Natural Compounds through Hairy Root Culture

Author: Sonia Malik

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319697692

Category: Science

Page: 216

View: 9252

This book provides the latest information about hairy root culture and its several applications, with special emphasis on potential of hairy roots for the production of bioactive compounds. Due to high growth rate as well as biochemical and genetic stability, it is possible to study the metabolic pathways related to production of bioactive compounds using hairy root culture. Chapters discuss the feasibility of hairy roots for plant derived natural compounds. Advantages and difficulties of hairy roots for up-scaling studies in bioreactors are included as well as successful examples of hairy root culture of plant species producing bioactive compounds used in food, flavors and pharmaceutical industry. This book is a valuable resource for researchers and students working on the area of plant natural products, phytochemistry, plant tissue culture, medicines, and drug discovery.
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Wirkstoffdesign

Entwurf und Wirkung von Arzneistoffen

Author: Gerhard Klebe

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3827422132

Category: Medical

Page: 637

View: 5557

Dieses für den deutschen Raum einzigartige Lehrbuch richtet sich an Studenten der Pharmazie, Chemie und Biowissenschaften, aber auch an Quereinsteiger in Forschungs- und Entwicklungsabteilungen der Pharmazeutischen Industrie. Die zweite Auflage ist komplett überarbeitet. Zahlreiche aktuelle Entwicklungen vor allem im methodischen Bereich sind zum Teil in neuen Kapiteln aufgegriffen, viele Fallbeispiele machen die Theorien und Verfahren anschaulich und nachvollziehbar. Der Bogen spannt sich von der Geschichte der Arzneimittelforschung, den Wirkmechanismen der Arzneistoffe und den Methoden zur Leitstruktursuche und -optimierung über Strukturbestimmungsmethoden, Modelling, Moleküldynamik und QSAR-Methoden bis zum struktur- und computergestützten Design. Insgesamt legt das Buch besonderen Wert auf die räumliche Struktur der interagierenden Moleküle und erklärt, warum ein bestimmter Wirkstoff in seiner Gestalt praktisch durch die Geometrie und den Wirkmechanismus des Zielproteins festgelegt wird. Die beiliegende DVD mit interaktiven Molekülmodellen dient dem Ziel, dem Lernenden einen leichten Zugang zum räumlichen Verständnis der molekularen Strukturen und Interaktionen zu geben.
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Natural Products Interactions on Genomes

Author: Siva Somasundaram

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439872325

Category: Medical

Page: 216

View: 8999

Foods from natural products are a major contributor to contemporary dietary needs. The knowledge of interactions of specific natural products on genes is accumulating due to recent scientific advancements. Natural Products Interactions on Genomes focuses on recent developments in understanding human genome interactions with various natural products. The book first examines selected major natural products and their interactions with selected genes for each chromosome in mammals, then moves on to focused discussions on interactions of natural products with genes that are involved in specific diseases. It includes studies on breast cancer and prostate cancer. The focus then shifts to the effects of natural products on microbial growth and a final chapter that discusses future challenges and prospects in the field. This book also presents a unique real-time approach by providing hyperlinks to websites with updated literature on natural products and interactions with genes involved in metabolic pathways. With a broad range of relevance among disciplines including biology, biomedical science, pharmacy, medicinal chemistry, and naturopathic and herbal medicine, Natural Products Interactions on Genomes provides a valuable reference. It gives you an understanding of the methods of study of natural products and their effects on genomes while pointing toward the future of natural products and the areas they impact in health and science.
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Papyros Ebers

Das älteste Buch über Heilkunde

Author: H. Joachim

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3111521761

Category: History

Page: 234

View: 420

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Natural Products from Plants, Second Edition

Author: Leland J. Cseke,Ara Kirakosyan,Peter B. Kaufman,Sara Warber,James A. Duke,Harry L. Brielmann

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420004476

Category: Science

Page: 632

View: 7250

2008 NOMINEE The Council on Botanical and Horticultural Libraries Annual Award for a Significant Work in Botanical or Horticultural Literature From medicinal, industrial, and culinary uses to cutting-edge laboratory techniques in modern research and plant conservation strategies, Natural Products from Plants, Second Edition reveals a vastly expanded understanding of the natural products that plants produce. In a single volume, this bookoffers a thorough inventory of the various types of plant-derived compounds. It covers their chemical composition, structure, and properties alongside the most effective ways to identify, extract, analyze, and characterize new plant-derived compounds. The authors examine new information on the chemical mechanisms plants use to deter predators and pathogens, attract symbiotic organisms, and defend themselves against environmental stress—insights which are key for adapting such mechanisms to human health. Along with updated and revised information from the highly acclaimed first edition, the second edition presents seven new chapters and features more than 50% new material relating to plant constituents, natural product biochemistry, and molecular biology. The book incorporates in-depth treatment of natural product biosynthesis with new collection and extraction protocols, advanced separation and analytical techniques, up-to-date bioassays, as well as modern molecular biology and plant biotechnology for the production of natural products. Unique in its breadth and coverage, Natural Products from Plants, Second Edition belongs on the shelf of interested researchers, policymakers, and consumers— particularly those involved in disease prevention, treatment, and pharmaceutical applications—who need a complete guide to the properties, uses, and study of plant natural products.
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Handbook on Drugs from Natural Sources

Author: H. Panda

Publisher: ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc.

ISBN: 8178331330

Category:

Page: 480

View: 5311

Natural products have played an important role throughout the world in treating and preventing human diseases. Natural product medicines have come from various materials including terrestrial plants, terrestrial microorganisms, organisms etc. Historical experiences with plants as therapeutic tools have helped to introduce single chemical entries in modern medicine. About 40% of the drugs used are derived from natural sources. Most are pure substances which are isolated from various organisms & used directly or after chemical modification. Natural products will continue to be important in three areas of drug discovery: as targets for production by biotechnology as a source of new lead compounds of novel chemical structure and as the active ingredients of useful treatments derived from traditional systems. Biotechnology will contribute more new natural products for medicinal use. Plants provide a fertile source of natural products many of which are clinically important medicinal agents. Natural products have traditionally provided most of the drugs in use. Despite the achievements of synthetic chemistry and the advances towards rational drug design, natural products continue to be essential in providing medicinal compounds and as starting points for the development of synthetic analogues. With the increasing power of screening programs and the increasing interest in the reservoir of untested natural products, many future drug developments will be based, at least in part, on natural products. The major contents of the book are plant products produced in cell culture , application of genetic engineering to the production of pharmaceuticals , anti transpirants and plant growth regulators based , the potential and the problems of marine natural products, marine sterols, plants as a source of anti-inflammatory substances, anti hepatotoxic principles in oriental medicinal plants, immune stimulants of fungi and higher plants, amanita muscaria in medicinal chemistry, ergot alkaloids and their derivatives in medicinal chemistry and therapy, development of drugs from cannabinoids, etc. This book contains development of new drugs from plants, work on some Thai medicinal plants, plant growth based on Jasmonates, marine sterols, bleomycin and its derivatives, drugs from cannabinoids, bioactive compounds from nature, fungi and higher plants, biological active compounds from British Marine, microbial phytotoxins as herbicides and many more. This book will be very helpful to its readers, upcoming entrepreneurs, scientists, existing industries, technical institutions, druggist etc.
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Anticancer Plants: Natural Products and Biotechnological Implements

Author: Mohd Sayeed Akhtar,Mallappa Kumara Swamy

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 981108064X

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 5153

This volume provides summarized scientific evidence of the different classes of plant-derived phytocompounds, their sources, chemical structures, anticancer properties, mechanisms of action, methods of extraction, and their applications in cancer therapy. It also discusses endophyte-derived compounds as chemopreventives to treat various cancer types. In addition, it provides detailed information on the enhanced production of therapeutically valuable anticancer metabolites using biotechnological interventions such as plant cell and tissue culture approaches, including in vitro-, hairy root- and cell-suspension culture; and metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways. Anticancer Plants: Natural Products and Biotechnological Implements – Volume 2” explores the natural bioactive compounds isolated from plants as well as fungal endophytes, their chemistry, and preventive effects to reduce the risk of cancer. Moreover, it highlights the genomics/proteomics approaches and biotechnological implementations. Providing solutions to deal with the challenges involved in cancer therapy, the book benefits a wide range of readers including academics, students, and industrial experts working in the area of natural products, medicinal plant chemistry, pharmacology, and biotechnology.
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Bioactive Natural Products

Opportunities and Challenges in Medicinal Chemistry

Author: Goutam Brahmachari

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 981433538X

Category: Electronic books

Page: 670

View: 6817

Bioactive natural products are a rich source of novel therapeutics. Thus, the search for bioactive molecules from nature continues to play an important role in fashioning new medicinal agents. This volume, which comprises sixteen chapters written by active researchers and leading experts in natural products chemistry, brings together an overview of current discoveries in this remarkable field. It also provides information on the industrial application of natural products for medicinal purposes. This book will serve as a valuable resource for researchers to predict promising leads for developing pharmaceuticals to treat various ailments and disease manifestations.
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Studies in Natural Products Chemistry

Author: N.A

Publisher: Newnes

ISBN: 0444626093

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 448

Natural products present in the plant and animal kingdom offer a huge diversity of chemical structures, which are the result of biosynthetic processes that have been modulated over the millennia through genetic effects. With the rapid developments in spectroscopic techniques and accompanying advances in high-throughput screening techniques, it has become possible to isolate and then determine the structures and biological activity of natural products rapidly, thus opening up to the pharmaceutical industry exciting opportunities in the field of new drug development. The series covers all of the above as well as the synthesis, testing and recording of the medicinal properties of natural products. Describes the chemistry of bioactive natural products Contains contributions by leading authorities in the field A valuable source for researchers in natural product and medicinal chemistry
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Medicinal Resources of the Tropical Forest

Biodiversity and Its Importance to Human Health

Author: Michael J. Balick,Elaine Elisabetsky,Sarah A. Laird

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231101716

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 440

View: 2460

Offering the most comprehensive and up-to-date review of fossil footprints, for both dinosaurs and other vertebrates, in the western United States, Dinosaur Tracks covers the fossil record from the Paleozoic through the Cenozoic era. A series of illustrations depict dinosaurs in the their natural habitat, and an appendix lists museums and other major repositories of tracks and replicas, and gives details on tracksites open to the public. Includes annotated references and detailed descriptions of important specimens, describing how these trackways can help interpret behavior.
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Herbal Medicines

Development and Validation of Plant-derived Medicines for Human Health

Author: Giacinto Bagetta,Marco Cosentino,Marie Tiziana Corasaniti,Shinobu Sakurada

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1439837694

Category: Health & Fitness

Page: 519

View: 8474

The deregulation of dietary supplements and natural products marketing by the FDA has widened the natural products market in Europe and worldwide. Whilst the discussion about the validity of the plant approach to nutrition and diseases treatment continues, the explosion of the use of whatever is considered "natural" has generated concern about effectiveness and danger. Incorporating information ranging from regulatory aspects to clinical trial and vigilance, Herbal Medicines for Human Health: Development and Evaluation of Plant-Derived Medicines: Provides a reference model for those who would like to start the R&D process for a natural product Discusses fundamental issues in the development of traditional medicines for the benefit of human health Takes a sequential rational approach to the subject matter Brings awareness to the many problems facing the development of medicinal herbal products, such as quality control, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic issues This book takes readers on a rational path for development of efficacious medicinal herbal products. It points out the many problems facing the development of these products, such as quality control, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic issues. It suggests areas where future developments should occur given healthcare needs and public health considerations.
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