Physical Models and Laboratory Techniques in Coastal Engineering

Author: Steven A. Hughes

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810215415

Category: Science

Page: 568

View: 4711

Laboratory physical models are a valuable tool for coastal engineers. Physical models help us to understand the complex hydrodynamic processes occurring in the nearshore zone and they provide reliable and economic engineering design solutions.This book is about the art and science of physical modeling as applied in coastal engineering. The aim of the book is to consolidate and synthesize into a single text much of the knowledge about physical modeling that has been developed worldwide.This book was written to serve as a graduate-level text for a course in physical modeling or as a reference text for engineers and researchers engaged in physical modeling and laboratory experimentation. The first three chapters serve as an introduction to similitude and physical models, covering topics such as advantages and disadvantages of physical models, systems of units, dimensional analysis, types of similitude and various hydraulic similitude criteria applicable to coastal engineering models.Practical application of similitude principles to coastal engineering studies is covered in Chapter 4 (Hydrodynamic Models), Chapter 5 (Coastal Structure Models) and Chapter 6 (Sediment Transport Models). These chapters develop the appropriate similitude criteria, discuss inherent laboratory and scale effects and overview the technical literature pertaining to these types of models. The final two chapters focus on the related subjects of laboratory wave generation (Chapter 7) and measurement and analysis techniques (Chapter 8).
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Ocean Surface Waves: Their Physics And Prediction (Third Edition)

Author: Massel Stanislaw Ryszard

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9813228393

Category: Science

Page: 800

View: 2484

This book is an extended and substantially updated edition of the previous book editions published in 1996 and 2013 under the same title. The 3rd edition is a one-volume, modern and comprehensive overview of the current knowledge of regular and random ocean surface waves in deep waters and in coastal zones. Since the previous editions many new theoretical advances have been made in the physical understanding and analytical and numerical treatment of various ocean wave problems. The revisions and supplements demanded by these advances have been substantial, therefore the scope of the book has been extended by adding a new chapter and substantially supplementing others. All chapters of the book have been rewritten to include and describe in detail many new discoveries made since the completion of the previous editions. In this 3rd edition a comprehensive and updated overview of the fundamentals of the regular wave mechanics, as well as the spectral and statistical properties of random waves are given. Except for the updated chapters dedicated to tsunami and extreme waves, a new chapter dealing with other types of impulsive waves starting from rest, are also included. The air-sea interaction processes as well as the last improvements in ocean wave modelling and presently available wave prediction models (WAM, WAVEWATCH III, UMWM, NEMO) are thoroughly discussed and their applications are demonstrated. The review of the present ocean observation methods encompasses the modern sea-truthing, as well as applications of data from presently operating marine satellites. In this revised edition, chapters on the behavior of surface waves in the vegetated environments such as coral reef, mangrove forest, seaweed and seagrass areas are substantially extended and updated to include the last discoveries. The explanations in the book are self-contained and detailed enough to capture the interest of the potential readers and to prompt them to explore the research literature. The list of rapidly growing number of the recent papers on the ocean waves has been extended substantially, up to about 900 titles. Contents: IntroductionInteraction of Surface Waves and WindSpectral Properties of Ocean WavesStatistical Properties of Ocean WavesProperties of Breaking WavesPrediction of Waves in Deep WaterPrediction of Waves in Shallow WaterRogue WavesWave Motion Starting from Rest: TsunamiWave Motion Starting from Rest: Other ExamplesWaves at Coral Reefs and IslandsWaves in Vegetated CoastsWave-induced Pressure and Flow in a Porous BottomWave Observations and Long-term StatisticsWave Measurement TechniquesData Processing and Simulation Techniques Readership: Graduate students, professionals and researchers, including marine research specialist, in ocean and coastal engineering and oceanography. Keywords: Ocean Wave Physics;Wave Mathematical Principles;Spectral Analysis of Waves;Statistics of Observed Waves;Wave Numerical Modelling;Waves in Vegetated Coasts;Extreme WavesReview: Key Features: The book presents a comprehensive, broad-scope and modern one-volume study of the ocean surface wavesAll subjects are presented with the aim of demonstrating the close link between ocean physics and wave predictions, as well as ocean engineeringThe book includes recent achievements published in languages other than English, such as Russian and Polish, with very extensive list of references encompassing more than 900 titles
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Coastal and Ocean Engineering Practice

Author: Young C. Kim

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9814360570

Category: Science

Page: 366

View: 6573

Successful coastal and ocean engineering projects rely on practical experience with technical tools and knowledge available to the engineer. Often, problems arise from projects that are too complex for theoretical description, which require that engineers exercise sound judgment in addition to reliance on past practical experience. This book focuses on the latest technology applied in design and construction, effective engineering methodology, unique projects and problems, design and construction challenges, and other lessons learned. In addition, unique practices in planning, design, construction, maintenance, and performance of coastal and ocean projects will be explored.
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Ocean Surface Waves

Their Physics and Prediction

Author: Stanislaw R. Massel

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810221096

Category: Science

Page: 491

View: 1169

This book is intended as a handbook for professionals and researchers in the areas of Physical Oceanography, Ocean and Coastal Engineering and as a text for graduate students in these fields. It presents a comprehensive study on surface ocean waves induced by wind, including basic mathematical principles, physical description of the observed phenomena, practical forecasting techniques of various wave parameters and applications in ocean and coastal engineering, all from the probabilistic and spectral points of view. The book commences with a description of mechanisms of surface wave generation by wind and its modern modeling techniques. The stochastic and probabilistic terminology is introduced and the basic statistical and spectral properties of ocean waves are developed and discussed in detail. The bulk of material deals with the prediction techniques for waves in deep and coastal waters for simple and complex ocean basins and complex bathymetry. The various prediction methods, currently used in oceanography and ocean engineering, are described and the examples of practical calculations illustrate the basic text. An appendix provides a description of the modern methods of wave measurement, including the remote sensing techniques. Also the wave simulation methods and random data analysis techniques are discussed. In the book a lot of discoveries of the Russian and East European scientists, largely unknown in the Western literature due to the language barrier, are referred to.
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Waves in Oceanic and Coastal Waters

Author: Leo H. Holthuijsen

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139462520

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 2867

Waves in Oceanic and Coastal Waters describes the observation, analysis and prediction of wind-generated waves in the open ocean, in shelf seas, and in coastal regions with islands, channels, tidal flats and inlets, estuaries, fjords and lagoons. Most of this richly illustrated book is devoted to the physical aspects of waves. After introducing observation techniques for waves, both at sea and from space, the book defines the parameters that characterise waves. Using basic statistical and physical concepts, the author discusses the prediction of waves in oceanic and coastal waters, first in terms of generalised observations, and then in terms of the more theoretical framework of the spectral energy balance. He gives the results of established theories and also the direction in which research is developing. The book ends with a description of SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore), the preferred computer model of the engineering community for predicting waves in coastal waters.
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Handbook of Coastal and Ocean Engineering

Author: Young C. Kim

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9812819304

Category: Science

Page: 1163

View: 2029

This handbook contains a comprehensive compilation of topics that are at the forefront of many of the technical advances in ocean waves, coastal, and ocean engineering. More than 70 internationally recognized authorities in the field of coastal and ocean engineering have contributed articles on their areas of expertise to this handbook. These international luminaries are from highly respected universities and renowned research and consulting organizations from all over the world. This handbook provides a comprehensive overview of shallow-water waves, water level fluctuations, coastal and offshore structures, port and harbors, coastal sediment processes, environmental problems, coastal hazards, physical modeling, and other issues in coastal and ocean engineering. It is an essential reference for professionals and researchers in the areas of coastal engineering, ocean engineering, oceanography, and meteorology, as well as an invaluable text for graduate students in these fields. Sample Chapter(s). Chapter 1: Wave Setup (2,255 KB). Chapter 2: Wavemaker Theories (607 KB). Contents: Shallow-Water Waves: Wave Setup (Robert G Dean and Todd L Walton ); Wavemaker Theories ( Robert T Hudspeth and Ronald B Guenther ); Analyses by the Melnikov Method of Damped Parametrically Excited Cross Waves (Ronald B Guenther and Robert T Hudspeth); Random Wave Breaking and Nonlinearity Evolution Across the Surf Zone (Yoshimi Goda); Aeration and Bubbles in the Surf Zone (Nobuhito Mori, Shohachi Kakuno and Daniel T Cox); Freak Wave (Nobuhito Mori); Short-Term Wave Statistics (Akira Kimura); Water-Level Fluctuations: Generation and Prediction of Seiches in Rotterdam Harbor Basins (Martijn P C de Jong and Jurjen A Battjes); Seiches and Harbor Oscillations (Alexander B Rabinovich); Finite Difference Model for Practical Simulation of Distant Tsunamis (Sung Bum Yoon); Coastal Structures: Tsunami-Induced Forces on Structures ( Ioan Nistor, Dan Palermo, Younes Nouri, Tad S Murty and Murat Saatcioglu); Nonconventional Wave Damping Structures (Hocine Oumeraci); Wave Interaction with Breakwaters Including Perforated Walls (Kyung-Duck Suh); Prediction of Overtopping (Jentsje van der Meer, Tim Pullen, William Allsop, Tom Bruce, Holger Schttrumpf and Andreas Kortenhaus); Wave Run-Up and Wave Overtopping at Armored Rubble Slopes and Mounds (Holger Schttrumpf, Jentsje van der Meer, Andreas Kortenhaus, Tom Bruce and Leopoldo Franco ); Wave Overtopping at Vertical and Steep Structures (Tom Bruce, Jentsje van der Meer, Tim Pullen and W Allsop); Surf Parameters for the Design of Coastal Structures (Dong Hoon Yoo); Development of Caisson Breakwater Design Based on Failure Experiences (Shigeo Takahashi); Design of Alternative Revetments ( Krystian W Pilarczyk ); Remarks on Coastal Stabilization and Alternative Solutions (Krystian Pilarczyk); Geotextile Sand Containers for Shore Protection (Hocine Oumeraci and Juan Recio); Low Crested Breakwaters (Alberto Lamberti and Barbara Zanuttigh ); Hydrodynamic Behavior of Net Cages in the Open Sea ( Yu-Cheng Li ); Offshore Structures: State of Offshore Structure Development and Design Challenges (Subrata Chakrabarti); Ports and Harbors: Computer Modeling for Harbor Planning and Design (Jiin-Jen Lee and Xiuying Xing); Prediction of Squat for Underkeel Clearance ( Michael J Briggs, Marc Vantorre, Klemens Uliczka and Pierre Debaillon); Coastal Sediment Processes: Wave-Induced Resuspension of Fine Sediment (Mamta Jain and Ashish J Mehta); Suspended Sand and Bedload Transport on Beaches (Nobuhisa Kobayashi, Andres Payo and Bradley D Johnson); Headland-Bay Beaches for Recreation and Shore Protection (John Rong-Chung Hsu, Melissa Meng-Jiuan Yu, Fang-Chun Lee and Richard Silvester); Beach Nourishment (Robert G Dean and Julie D Rosati); Engineering of Tidal Inlets and Morphologic Consequences (Nicholas C Kraus); Environmental Problems: Water and Nutrients Flow in the Enclosed Bays (Yukio Koibuchi & Masahiko Isobe ); Sustainable Coastal Development: Socioeconomic and Environmental Risk in Coastal and Ocean Engineering ( Miguel A Losada Rodr guez, Asuncion Baquerizo, Miquel Ortega-Sinchez, Juan M Santiago and Elena Sinchez-Badorrey); Utilization of the Coastal Area ( Hwung-Hweng Hwung ); Coastal Hazards: Ocean Wave Climates: Trends and Variations Due to Earth''s Changing Climate (Paul D Komar, Jonathan C Allan and Peter Ruggiero); Sea Level Rise: Major Implications to Coastal Engineering and Coastal Management (Lesley Ewing); Sea Level Rise and Coastal Erosion (Marcel J F Stive, Roshanka Ranasinghe and Peter J Cowell); Coastal Flooding: Analysis and Assessment of Risk (Panayotis Prinos and Panagiota Galiatsatou); Physical Modeling: Physical Modeling of Tsunami Waves (Michael J Briggs, Harry Yeh and Daniel T Cox); Laboratory Simulation of Waves (Etienne P D Mansard and Michael D Miles); Coastal Engineering Practice and Education: Perspective on Coastal Engineering Practice and Education ( J William Kamphuis ). Readership: Graduate students, researchers and professionals in coastal and ocean engineering, oceanography and meteorology."
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Water Wave Mechanics for Engineers and Scientists

Author: Robert G Dean,Robert A Dalrymple

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9814365696

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 368

View: 8878

This book is intended as an introduction to classical water wave theory for the college senior or first year graduate student. The material is self-contained; almost all mathematical and engineering concepts are presented or derived in the text, thus making the book accessible to practicing engineers as well. The book commences with a review of fluid mechanics and basic vector concepts. The formulation and solution of the governing boundary value problem for small amplitude waves are developed and the kinematic and pressure fields for short and long waves are explored. The transformation of waves due to variations in depth and their interactions with structures are derived. Wavemaker theories and the statistics of ocean waves are reviewed. The application of the water particle motions and pressure fields are applied to the calculation of wave forces on small and large objects. Extension of the linear theory results to several nonlinear wave properties is presented. Each chapter concludes with a set of homework problems exercising and sometimes extending the material presented in the chapter. An appendix provides a description of nine experiments which can be performed, with little additional equipment, in most wave tank facilities.
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Coastal Engineering Practice 2011

Author: Orville T. Magoon,Ronald M. Noble,Donald D. Treadwell,Young C. Kim

Publisher: ASCE Publications

ISBN: 9780784476710

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 880

View: 7009

Proceedings of the 2011 Conference on Coastal Engineering Practice, held in San Diego, California, August 21-24, 2011. Sponsored by the Coasts, Oceans, Ports, and Rivers Institute of ASCE. This collection contains 90 papers that focus on developing solutions to coastal engineering problems and ensuring sustainable coastal development. Papers reflect an emphasis on practical experience and actual projects rather than specific technical and scientific aspects of coastal engineering. Topics include: case histories of coastal projects; sustainable coastal development; erosion and shoreline protection; coastal environment, water quality, and wetlands restoration; coastal hazards and risk management; coastal sediment processes; ports, harbors, and marine transportation; and local, state, and federal involvement in planning, design, and construction of coastal projects. These papers enhance the exchange of real-world experience and thus will be of interest to practicing coastal engineers.
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Ocean Disposal of Wastewater

Author: Ian R. Wood,Robert G. Bell,D. L. Wilkinson

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789812796028

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 2628

This book offers a comprehensive study on the subject of ocean disposal of treated and untreated sewage waste. The early chapters cover the philosophy of outfall design, properties of sewage from developed towns and an overview of water quality regulations in New Zealand, Great Britain and the U.S. Alternative ways of satisfying these regulations are discussed. The book also provides information required to design outfall pipelines and diffusers.
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Numerical Models for Submerged Breakwaters

Coastal Hydrodynamics and Morphodynamics

Author: Amir Sharifahmadian

Publisher: Butterworth-Heinemann

ISBN: 0128026650

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 362

View: 3149

Numerical Models for Submerged Breakwaters: Coastal Hydrodynamics and Morphodynamics discusses the practice of submerged breakwaters, an increasingly popular tool used as a coastal defense system because of their amenity and aesthetics as compared to common emerged beach protection measures. The book is the perfect guide for experienced professionals who wish to keep abreast of the latest best practices or those who are entering the field and need a reference, explaining new and traditional numerical methodologies for designing submerged breakwaters and measuring their performance. In addition, the book provides case studies, examples, and practical methods for data selection and pre-processing, model setup, calibration, and analysis. Case studies and worked-out examples illustrate different concepts and methods Offers practical methods for Data Selection and Pre-Processing Provides simplified prediction tools for practical applications
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Numerical Models of Oceans and Oceanic Processes

Author: Lakshmi H. Kantha,Carol Anne Clayson

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080512907

Category: Science

Page: 750

View: 9225

Oceans play a pivotal role in our weather and climate. Ocean-borne commerce is vital to our increasingly close-knit global community. Yet we do not fully understand the intricate details of how they function, how they interact with the atmosphere, and what the limits are to their biological productivity and their tolerance to wastes. While satellites are helping us to fill in the gaps, numerical ocean models are playing an important role in increasing our ability to comprehend oceanic processes, monitor the current state of the oceans, and to a limited extent, even predict their future state. Numerical Models of Oceans and Oceanic Processes is a survey of the current state of knowledge in this field. It brings together a discussion of salient oceanic dynamics and processes, numerical solution methods, and ocean models to provide a comprehensive treatment of the topic. Starting with elementary concepts in ocean dynamics, it deals with equatorial, mid-latitude, high latitude, and coastal dynamics from the perspective of a modeler. A comprehensive and up-to-date chapter on tides is also included. This is followed by a discussion of different kinds of numerical ocean models and the pre- and post-processing requirements and techniques. Air-sea and ice-ocean coupled models are described, as well as data assimilation and nowcast/forecasts. Comprehensive appendices on wavelet transforms and empirical orthogonal functions are also included. This comprehensive and up-to-date survey of the field should be of interest to oceanographers, atmospheric scientists, and climatologists. While some prior knowledge of oceans and numerical modeling is helpful, the book includes an overview of enough elementary material so that along with its companion volume, Small Scale Processes in Geophysical Flows, it should be useful to both students new to the field and practicing professionals. * Comprehensive and up-to-date review * Useful for a two-semester (or one-semester on selected topics) graduate level course * Valuable reference on the topic * Essential for a better understanding of weather and climate
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Wind Generated Ocean Waves

Author: I.R. Young

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780080543802

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 287

View: 4440

The goals of wind wave research are relatively well defined: to be able to predict the wind wave field and its effect on the environment. That environment could be natural (beaches, the atmosphere etc.) or imposed by human endeavour (ports, harbours, coastal settlements etc.). Although the goals are similar, the specific requirements of these various fields differ considerably. This book attempts to summarise the current state of this knowledge and to place this understanding into a common frame work. It attempts to take a balanced approach between the pragmatic engineering view of requiring a short term result and the scientific quest for detailed understanding. Thus, it attempts to provide a rigorous description of the physical processes involved as well as practical predictive tools.
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Rip Currents

Beach Safety, Physical Oceanography, and Wave Modeling

Author: Stephen Leatherman,John Fletemeyer

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781439838976

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 310

View: 3886

Rip Currents: Beach Safety, Physical Oceanography, and Wave Modeling is the culmination of research from over 100 coastal scientists, engineers, forecast meteorologists, lifeguard chiefs, and other practitioners from around the world who participated in the 1st International Rip Current Symposium. These experts identify advancements in research that will lead to a better understanding of the dynamics, mechanisms, and predictability of these dangerous currents, and lower the number of rip current drownings. Edited by Stephen Leatherman and John Fletemeyer, the book covers: The full spectrum of rip current research and outreach initiatives on all four U.S. coasts (Atlantic, Gulf, Pacific, and Great Lakes) as well as the countries of Brazil, U.K., Japan, and Australia Scientific techniques used to study rip currents including field investigation and numerical modeling Field research involving the use of water-based sensors, video technology, and remote sensing The development of public education programs through various outreach programs and campaigns as well as an evaluation of their overall effectiveness Rip Currents’ sixteen chapters run the gamut from technical aspects of rip currents to beach safety management strategies. Whether dealing with determining rip current occurrence, hydrodynamic processes, prediction, or mitigating rip current hazards to enhance beach safety, each chapter provides a vignette that is distinct in its own right but also linked to or integrated with other chapters in the book. This comprehensive treatment presents an integrated, international perspective on a coastal process that is only now becoming better understood by the scientific community, and which has great importance to public safety on the world's beaches.
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Random Seas and Design of Maritime Structures

Third Edition

Author: Yoshimi Goda

Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company

ISBN: 9813101024

Category:

Page: 732

View: 4075

Random waves are the most important constituent of the sea environment, as they make the design of maritime structures quite different from that of structures on land. In this book, the concept of random waves for the design of breakwaters, seawalls, and harbor structures is fully explored for easy comprehension by practicing engineers. Theoretical aspects are also discussed in detail for further studies by graduate students and researchers.
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The Mechanics of Scour in the Marine Environment

Author: B. Mutlu Sumer,J?rgen Freds?e

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810249304

Category: Science

Page: 536

View: 6295

Treats the subject of local sour around different kinds of marine structures, exposed to waves and/or currents.
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Advances in Coastal and Ocean Engineering

Author: Philip L. F. Liu

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789810241360

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 223

View: 382

This invaluable volume consists of five articles covering a wide range of topics in coastal engineering. The reader can find a paper discussing the modern optical measurement techniques applied to wave studies. An introductory paper on wavelet theory provides readers with a new perspective on coastal and ocean engineering data analysis. For those who are interested in wave modeling, a review article on the stochastic evolution models is included. A detailed review paper on the recent sediment transport research should supply enough motivation for more research in this area. Finally, readers who are interested in history can find an interesting article reviewing the coastal development and coastal engineering activities in Japanese history.
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Advances in Coastal and Ocean Engineering

Author: Philip L. F. Liu

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9810224109

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 276

View: 7633

This volume contains six papers discussing coastal processes, and physical and numerical modeling.In the first paper, Svendsen and Putrevu give an extensive review on the state of understanding of surf-zone hydrodynamics, including subjects such as wave breaking, wave-induced currents, and instability of nearshore currents and infragravity waves. They point out that the most urgent need is to develop an adequate theory for wave breaking and broken waves in the surf zone.One of the methods for studying the complex coastal processes is to perform laboratory experiments. However, physical models are always plagued by scale and laboratory effects, because the coastal process involves many different length and time scales. In the second paper, Kamphuis presents a detailed discussion on the sources and implications of the scale and laboratory effects on physical modeling.The third and the fourth papers are two parts of the discussion on the mathematical modeling of the meso-tidal barrier island coasts. To understand the dynamics of coastal inlet systems, one can either rely on empirical knowledge and construct various forms of empirical and semi-empirical models (Part I), or develop a set of mathematical models based on the physical processes (Part II). Although these models do not provide the details of the dynamics, they give valuable knowledge of the equilibrium-state relationships. de Vriend and Ribberink give a detailed review on two models, Initial Sedimentation/Erosion models and Medium-Term Morphodynamic models. They have also presented many examples of applications.In the fifth paper, Houston gives a brief review on different methods to mitigate beach loss caused by storms or persistent long-term erosion. He then describes, in detail, the method of beach nourishment, which is also called a beach fill. This paper discusses the information that must be collected to design a beach fill and that should be monitored after the completion of the project.The last paper of this volume shifts our attention to the design of offshore structures, such as gravity structures, floating barges and tankers. Chakrabarti discusses the effects of the uniform and shear currents on fixed and floating structures.
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Modeling Atmospheric and Oceanic Flows

Insights from Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations

Author: Thomas von Larcher,Paul D. Williams

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118855922

Category: Science

Page: 368

View: 2117

Modeling Atmospheric and Oceanic Flows: Insights from Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations provides a broad overview of recent progress in using laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to model atmospheric and oceanic fluid motions. This volume not only surveys novel research topics in laboratory experimentation, but also highlights recent developments in the corresponding computational simulations. As computing power grows exponentially and better numerical codes are developed, the interplay between numerical simulations and laboratory experiments is gaining paramount importance within the scientific community. The lessons learnt from the laboratory–model comparisons in this volume will act as a source of inspiration for the next generation of experiments and simulations. Volume highlights include: Topics pertaining to atmospheric science, climate physics, physical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics Overview of the most advanced experimental and computational research in geophysics Recent developments in numerical simulations of atmospheric and oceanic fluid motion Unique comparative analysis of the experimental and numerical approaches to modeling fluid flow Modeling Atmospheric and Oceanic Flows will be a valuable resource for graduate students, researchers, and professionals in the fields of geophysics, atmospheric sciences, oceanography, climate science, hydrology, and experimental geosciences.
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Saving America's Beaches

The Causes of and Solutions to Beach Erosion

Author: Scott L. Douglass

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789812776907

Category: Beach erosion

Page: 91

View: 7946

This book tells you where beach sand comes from, how waves are formed and how they break and move sand down the coast, how OC works of manOCO have blocked this movement and caused beach erosion, and what can be done to save the beaches for future generations of Americans. A three-part prescription for healthy beaches is proposed: OC backing offOCO, OC bypassing sandOCO, and OC beach nourishmentOCO. So if you love waves and beaches, and care about the future of your favorite beach spot, then read this book while you enjoy the beach."
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