Philosophy of Mind

Classical and Contemporary Readings

Author: David John Chalmers

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 9780195145816

Category: Philosophy

Page: 675

View: 303

This is a comprehensive collection of readings in the philosophy of mind, ranging from Descartes to the leading edge of the discipline.
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Willensfreiheit und Wissenschaft

Ein Dialog

Author: Alfred R. Mele

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518754564

Category: Philosophy

Page: 162

View: 8579

Ist unser Denken und Handeln so frei, wie wir für gewöhnlich glauben? Diese alte Frage beschäftigt und verwirrt Philosophen wie Laien und seit einiger Zeit auch die Naturwissenschaft. Nun bringt uns der renommierte Philosoph Alfred R. Mele das Problem auf neue und unterhaltsame Art näher: in Form eines Gesprächs unter Studierenden. Nach und nach zeigt sich darin, was wir unter Willensfreiheit verstehen sollten und wie den Herausforderungen insbesondere von Hirnforschern und Psychologen wie Benjamin Libet oder Stanley Milgram begegnet werden kann. Eine perfekte Einführung in die Willensfreiheitsdebatte und die damit verbundenen Grundfragen der Philosophie.
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Philosophy of Mind

A Contemporary Introduction

Author: John Heil

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 0415283558

Category: Philosophy

Page: 262

View: 6969

Philosophy of Mind: A Contemporary Introduction is a comprehensive and accessible survey of main themes, positions and debates in philosophy of mind. John Heil introduces and discusses the major topics in succinct, user-friendly, self-contained chapters: * Cartesian dualism * Descartes's legacy * non-Cartesian dualism * behaviorism * the identity theory * functionalism * the representational theory of mind * qualia * radical interpretation * the intentional stance * eliminativism * property dualism * mind and metaphysics * the mind's place in nature This revised and updated edition includes expanded chapters on eliminativism, qualia, and the representational theory of mind, and an entirely new chapter on property dualism. There are annotated suggestions for further reading at the end of each chapter, updated to include recent material and internet resources.
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The Philosophy of Mind

Classical Problems/contemporary Issues

Author: Brian Beakley,Peter Ludlow,Peter Jay Ludlow

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262521673

Category: Psychology

Page: 433

View: 553

Bringing together the best classical and contemporary writings in the philosophy of mind and organized by topic, this anthology allows readers to follow the development of thinking in five broad problem areas - the mind/body problem, mental causation, associationism/connectionism, mental imagery, and innate ideas - over 2500 years of philosophy. The writings range from Plato and Descartes to Fodor and the PDP research group, showing how many of the current concerns in the philosophy of mind and cognitive science are firmly rooted in history. The editors have provided helpful introductions to each of the main sections. Brian Beakley is Assistant Professor in the Philosophy Department at Eastern Illinois University. Peter Ludlow is Assistant Professor in the Philosophy Department at SUNY, Stony Brook. Readings from: Plato, Aristotle, St. Thomas Aquinas, Rene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, Nicolas Malebranche, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, John Locke, George Berkeley, David Hume, Immanuel Kant, John Stuart Mill, Thomas Henry Huxley, William James, Oswald Kulpe, John Watson, jean Piaget, Gilbert Ryle, U. T. Place, Hilary Putnam, Daniel Dennett, Donald Davidson, Jerry Fodor, Roger Shepard, Jacqueline Metzler, Saul Kripke, Ned Block, Noam Chomsky, Stephen Kosslyn, Zenon Pylyshyn, Patricia Churchland, James McClelland, David Rumelhart, Geoffrey Hinton, Paul Smolensky, Seymour Papert.
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Philosophy of Mind

A Comprehensive Introduction

Author: William Jaworski

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444397581

Category: Philosophy

Page: 520

View: 8305

Philosophy of Mind introduces readers to one of the liveliest fields in contemporary philosophy by discussing mind-body problems and the various solutions to them. It provides a detailed yet balanced overview of the entire field that enables readers to jump immediately into current debates. Treats a wide range of mind-body theories and arguments in a fair and balanced way Shows how developments in neuroscience, biology, psychology, and cognitive science have impacted mind-body debates Premise-by-premise arguments for and against each position enable readers to grasp the structure of each argument quickly and easily Diagrams and illustrations help readers absorb the more complex ideas Bibliographic essays at the end of each chapter bring readers up to date on the latest literature Written in a clear, easy to read style that is free of technical jargon, and highly accessible to a broad readership The only book to explain systematically how a hylomorphic theory such as Aristotle’s can contribute to current mind-body debates and vie with current mind-body theories Online chapters on free will and the philosophy of persons make the book a flexible teaching tool for general and introductory philosophy courses - available at www.wiley.com/go/jaworski
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Philosophy of Psychology: Contemporary Readings

Author: Jose Luis Bermudez

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134204655

Category: Philosophy

Page: 688

View: 9362

Philosophy of Psychology: Contemporary Readings is a comprehensive anthology that includes classic and contemporary readings from leading philosophers. Addressing in depth the major topics within philosophy of psychology, the editor has carefully selected articles under the following headings: pictures of the mind commonsense psychology representation and cognitive architecture. Articles by the following philosophers are included: Blackburn, Churchland, Clark, Cummins, Dennett, Davidson, Fodor, Kitcher, Lewis, Lycan, McDowell, McLeod, Rey, Segal, Stich. Each section includes a helpful introduction by the editor which aims to guide the student gently into the topic. The book is highly accessible and provides a broad-ranging exploration of the subject, including discussion of the leading philosophers in the field. Ideal for any student of philosophy of psychology or philosophy of mind.
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Introduction to Philosophy

Classical and Contemporary Readings

Author: Louis P. Pojman

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Philosophy

Page: 644

View: 9837

"Introduction of Philosophy: Classical and Contemporary Readings is a topically organized collection that covers five major areas of philosophy - theory of knowledge, philosophy of religion, philosophy of mind, freedom and determinism, and moral philosophy. Editor Louis P. Pojman enhances the text's topical organization by arranging the selections into a pro/con format to help students better understand opposing arguments. He also includes accessible introductions to each part, subsection, and individual reading, a unique feature for an anthology of this depth. While the book focuses on a compelling sampling of classical material - including selections from Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant - it also incorporates some of philosophy's best twentieth-century and contemporary work, featuring articles by Bertrand Russell, Richard Taylor, John Searle, Thomas Nagel, and others."--BOOK JACKET.
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Der logische Aufbau der Welt

Author: Rudolf Carnap

Publisher: Felix Meiner Verlag

ISBN: 3787323589

Category: Philosophy

Page: 290

View: 6096

In seinem 1928 erschienenen Hauptwerk Der logische Aufbau der Welt unternahm Rudolf Carnap den Versuch, die erkenntnistheoretische These des englischen Empirismus, nach der die Basis aller unserer Wirklichkeitserkenntnis in Wahrnehmungserlebnissen bestehe, durch die methodische und zugleich logisch einsichtige Konstruktion der Gegenstandswelt aus solcherart bestimmten Elementarerlebnissen zu untermauern. Neu und richtungweisend an diesem Ansatz war der Gebrauch, den Carnap - er war Schüler Freges - "von den Hilfmitteln der modernen Logik, besonders der von Russell entwickelten Relationenlogik, machte, und die Rücksicht auf die psychologische Erkenntnis, daß die einfachen Sinnesdaten nicht Erlebnisse sind, sondern erst rückwärts aus den Erlebnissen erschlossen werden müssen" (Günter Patzig).
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From Psychology to Phenomenology

Franz Brentano's 'Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint' and Contemporary Philosophy of Mind

Author: B. Tassone

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137029226

Category: Philosophy

Page: 331

View: 9219

Although highly influential, Brentano's doctrines from Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint were taken up and changed by his students and subsequent thinkers. Tassone's study of this important text offers readers a better understanding of PES and outlines its ongoing relevance for contemporary philosophy of mind.
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Mental Causation

The Mind-body Problem

Author: Anthony Dardis

Publisher: Columbia University Press

ISBN: 0231144164

Category: Philosophy

Page: 195

View: 887

Two thousand years ago, Lucretius said that everything is atoms in the void; it's physics all the way down. Contemporary physicalism agrees. But if that's so how can we?how can our thoughts, emotions, our values?make anything happen in the physical world? This conceptual knot, the mental causation problem, is the core of the mind-body problem, closely connected to the problems of free will, consciousness, and intentionality. Anthony Dardis shows how to unravel the knot. He traces its early appearance in the history of philosophical inquiry, specifically in the work of Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, and T. H. Huxley. He then develops a metaphysical framework for a theory of causation, laws of nature, and the causal relevance of properties. Using this framework, Dardis explains how macro, or higher level, properties can be causally relevant in the same way that microphysical properties are causally relevant: by their relationship with the laws of nature. Smelling an orange, choosing the orange rather than the cheesecake, reaching for the one on the left instead of the one on the right-mental properties such as these take their place alongside the physical "motor of the world" in making things happen.
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The Future for Philosophy

Author: Brian Leiter

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199203925

Category: Philosophy

Page: 357

View: 1647

Where does philosophy, the oldest academic subject, stand at the beginning of the new millennium? This remarkable volume brings together leading figures from most major branches of the discipline to offer answers. What remains of the 'linguistic turn' in twentieth-century philosophy? How should moral philosophy respond to and incorporate developments in empirical psychology? Where might Continental and Anglophone feminist theory profitably interact? How has our understanding of ancient philosophy beenaffected by the emergence of analytic philosophy? Where does the mind-body problem stand today? What role must value judgments play in science? Do Marx, Nietzsche, or Freud matter in the 21st century? These and many other questions at the cutting edge of the discipline are addressed by distinguished philosophers from Australia, Britain, Canada, and the United States. They aim not only to stimulate philosophical debate, but to introduce those in cognate disciplines---biology, classics, economics,history, law, linguistics, literary studies, mathematics, philosophy, physics, political science, psychology, among others--- to what is happening in contemporary philosophy. In a substantial introduction, the editor gives an overview of the state of philosophy today and helps orientnon-philosophers.
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Language, Names, and Information

Author: Frank Jackson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444351576

Category: Philosophy

Page: 176

View: 4389

Language, Names, and Information is an important contribution to philosophy of language by one of its foremost scholars, challenging the pervasive view that the description theory of proper names is dead in the water, and defending a version of the description theory from a perspective on language that sees words as a wonderful source of information about the nature of the world we live in. Challenges current pervasive view that the description theory of reference for proper names has been refuted Discusses several topics at the center of current debates, including representation and information, two-dimensionalism, possible worlds, and broad vs. narrow content Maintains the conversational and somewhat informal tone of the original lectures upon which the book is based
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Actual Consciousness

Author: Ted Honderich

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191023868

Category: Philosophy

Page: 400

View: 5199

What is it for you to be conscious? There is no agreement whatever in philosophy or science: it has remained a hard problem, a mystery. Is this partly or mainly owed to the existing theories not even having the same subject, not answering the same question? In Actual Consciousness, Ted Honderich sets out to supersede dualisms, objective physicalisms, abstract functionalism, externalisms, and other positions in the debate. He argues that the theory of Actualism, right or wrong, is unprecedented, in nine ways. (1) It begins from gathered data and proceeds to an adequate initial clarification of consciousness in the primary ordinary sense. This consciousness is summed up as something's being actual. (2) Like basic science, Actualism proceeds from this metaphorical or figurative beginning to what is wholly literal and explicit—constructed answers to the questions of what is actual and what it is for it to be actual. (3) In so doing, the theory respects the differences of consciousness within perception, consciousness that is thinking in a generic sense, and consciousness that is generic wanting. (4) What is actual with your perceptual consciousness is a subjective physical world out there, very likely a room, differently real from the objective physical world, that other division of the physical world. (5) What it is for the myriad subjective physical worlds to be actual is for them to be subjectively physical, which is exhaustively characterized. (6) What is actual with cognitive and affective consciousness is affirmed or valued representations. The representations being actual, which is essential to their nature, is their being differently subjectively physical from the subjective physical worlds. (7) Actualism, naturally enough when you think of it, but unlike any other existing general theory of consciousness, is thus externalist with perceptual consciousness but internalist with respect to cognitive and affective consciousness. (8) It satisfies rigorous criteria got from examination of the failures of the existing theories. In particular, it explains the role of subjectivity in thinking about consciousness, including a special subjectivity that is individuality. (9) Philosophers and scientists have regularly said that thinking about consciousness requires just giving up the old stuff and starting again. Actualism does this. Science is served by this main line philosophy, which is concentration on the logic of ordinary intelligence—clarity, consistency and validity, completeness, generality.
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Introduction to Philosophy

Classical and Contemporary Readings

Author: John Perry,Michael Bratman

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: N.A

Category: Philosophy

Page: 870

View: 1751

Introduction to Philosophy, 3/e is the most comprehensive topically organized collection of classical and contemporary philosophy available. Ideal for introductory philosophy courses, the third edition of this classic text now includes a general introduction and features eighteen selections new to this volume and an expanded glossary of philosophical terms. A serious and challenging work, it includes sections on the meaning of life, God and evil, epistemology, philosophy of science, the mind/body problem, freedom of will, consciousness, ethics, and philosophical puzzles. This exceptionally successful anthology presents a large number of substantial--and in some cases complete--selections from major works, offering a unique balance between classical and contemporary readings.This third edition adds selections by Plato, Nelson Pike, J.L. Mackie, Elizabeth Anderson, David Lewis, Hilary Putnam, Frank Jackson, John Perry, Peter Strawson, Rosalind Hursthouse, G.A. Cohen, Samuel Scheffler, Debra Satz, and Kwame Anthony Appiah as well as Kavka's Toxin Puzzle and Quinn's Puzzle of the Self-Torturer.
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Philosophy of Law

Classic and Contemporary Readings

Author: Larry May,Jeff Brown

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1405183888

Category: Law

Page: 625

View: 6440

Philosophy of Law provides a rich overview of the diverse theoretical justifications for our legal rules, systems, and practices. Utilizes the work of both classical and contemporary philosophers to illuminate the relationship between law and morality Introduces students to the philosophical underpinnings of International Law and its increasing importance as we face globalization Features concrete examples in the form of cases significant to the evolution of law Contrasts Anglo-American law with foreign institutions and practices such as those in China, Japan, India, Ireland and Canada Incorporates diverse perspectives on the philosophy of law ranging from canonical material to feminist theory, critical theory, postmodernism, and critical race theory
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Transformative Experience

Author: L. A. Paul

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 0191027812

Category: Philosophy

Page: 120

View: 6377

As we live our lives, we repeatedly make decisions that shape our future circumstances and affect the sort of person we will be. When choosing whether to start a family, or deciding on a career, we often think we can assess the options by imagining what different experiences would be like for us. L. A. Paul argues that, for choices involving dramatically new experiences, we are confronted by the brute fact that we can know very little about our subjective futures. This has serious implications for our decisions. If we make life choices in the way we naturally and intuitively want to—by considering what we care about, and what our future selves will be like if we choose to have the experience—we only learn what we really need to know after we have already committed ourselves. If we try to escape the dilemma by avoiding an experience, we have still made a choice. Choosing rationally, then, may require us to regard big life decisions as choices to make discoveries, small and large, about the intrinsic nature of experience, and to recognize that part of the value of living authentically is to experience one's life and preferences in whatever way they may evolve in the wake of the choices you make. Using classic philosophical examples about the nature of consciousness, and drawing on recent work in normative decision theory, cognitive science, epistemology, and the philosophy of mind, Paul develops a rigorous account of transformative experience that sheds light on how we should understand real-world experience and our capacity to rationally map our subjective futures.
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Groove

A Phenomenology of Rhythmic Nuance

Author: Tiger C. Roholt

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing USA

ISBN: 1441101381

Category: Music

Page: 192

View: 7301

Written by an experienced drummer and philosopher, Groove is a vivid and exciting study of one of music's most central and relatively unexplored aspects. Tiger C. Roholt explains why grooves, which are forged in music's rhythmic nuances, remain hidden to some listeners. He argues that grooves are not graspable through the intellect nor through mere listening; rather, grooves are disclosed through our bodily engagement with music. We grasp a groove bodily by moving with music's pulsations. By invoking the French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty's notion of "motor intentionality," Roholt shows that the "feel" of a groove, and the understanding of it, are two sides of a coin: to "get" a groove just is to comprehend it bodily and to feel that embodied comprehension.
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Schicksal, Zeit und Sprache

Über Willensfreiheit

Author: David Foster Wallace

Publisher: Suhrkamp Verlag

ISBN: 3518789503

Category: Philosophy

Page: 207

View: 6468

Können wir die Zukunft durch unser Handeln beeinflussen? Oder ist sie von Gott, vom Schicksal oder von Naturgesetzen vorherbestimmt? Diese Frage beschäftigt Philosophen seit der Antike. 1985 nahm sich ein Student vor, sie ein für allemal zu lösen – David Foster Wallace. Er jongliert souverän mit modallogischen Formeln und Diagrammen und führt exzentrische Beispiele ins Feld, die direkt seinen Erzählungen entsprungen sein könnten: Terroristen, Stabhochspringer, Tennisspieler ohne Schläger. Neben dem posthum erschienenen Aufsatz enthält der Band eine biografische Skizze über Foster Wallace’ Studentenzeit und eine kurze Einführung in die Modallogik.
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The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Mindfulness

Author: Amanda Ie,Christelle T. Ngnoumen,Ellen J. Langer

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1118294912

Category: Psychology

Page: 1248

View: 5454

The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Mindfulness brings together the latest multi-disciplinary research on mindfulness from a group of international scholars: Examines the origins and key theories of the two dominant Western approaches to mindfulness Compares, contrasts, and integrates insights from the social psychological and Eastern-derived perspectives Discusses the implications for mindfulness across a range of fields, including consciousness and cognition, education, creativity, leadership and organizational behavior, law, medical practice and therapy, well-being, and sports 2 Volumes
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